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BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 1 




ODJIB'WE 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

BULLETIN 53 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC-II 



BY 



FRANCES DENSMORE 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1913 



35S7 







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 
BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY, 

Washington, D. C., April 29, 1912. 

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith a memoir bearing the 
title "Chippewa Music II," by Miss Frances Densmore, and to 
recommend its publication as Bulletin 53 of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. This paper embodies the results of the author's final 
studies of the music of the Chippewa, or Ojibwa, Indians, and supple- 
ments the material published as Bulletin 45. This latter publication 
has met with high favor among students of primitive music through- 
out the world, and some of the material contained therein has been 
adapted and presented by orchestras. 
Yours, very respectfully, 

F. W. HODGE, 
Ethnologist in Charge. 
Hon. CHARLES D. WALCOTT, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

in 



FOREWORD 



Chippewa music in its relation to tribal life constitutes one of the 
subjects dealt with in the present volume, as well as in the writer's 
first contribution to this study. 1 Not less important is the melodic 
and rhythmic analysis of the songs, which was begun in the first work 
and is developed more extensively in the following pages. The 
native religion of the Chippewa also was considered in Bulletin 
45. War forms the keynote of the present memoir, together with the 
Drum-presentation Ceremony, which is said to have united the Chip- 
pewa and the Sioux in permanent peace. In both volumes there are 
songs of tribal games and dances, and songs "composed in dreams," 
many of which are the individual songs of forgotten warriors. 

The analysis of the Chippewa words and part of the translation 
are the work of Rev. C. H. Beaulieu, a member of the tribe, and of 
Rev. J. A. Gilfillan, who for twenty-five years lived on the White 
Earth Reservation, in Minnesota. Grateful acknowledgment is 
made also to Mrs. Mary Warren English, of White Earth, and to other 
native interpreters, whose interest and cooperation have contributed 
materially to the success of the work. 

1 Chippewa Music, Bulletin 45, Bur. Amer. Ethn. 



CONTENTS 

Page 
List of songs 

1. Arranged in order of serial numbers xi 

2. Arranged in order of catalogue numbers xvi 

Special signs employed in transcriptions of songs xix 

Names of singers xxi 

Analysis of Chippewa music 1 

What do the Chippewa sing? 2 

How do the Chippewa sing? 13 

Why do the Chippewa aing? 15 

Tabulated analysis of 340 songs 18 

Melodic analysis 18 

Table 1. Tonality 18 

Table 2. First note of song its relation to keynote 18 

Table 3. Last note of song its relation to keynote 19 

Table 4. Last note of song its relation to compass of song 20 

Table 5. Number of tones comprising compass of song 21 

Table 6. Tone material 21 

Table 7. Accidentals 23 

Table 8. Structure 24 

Table 9. First progression downward and upward 24 

Table 10. Total number of progressions downward and upward . 24 

Table 11. Intervals in downward progression 25 

Table 12. Intervals in upward progression 25 

Table 13. Average number of semitones in each interval 26 

Table 14. Key. 26 

Rhythmic analysis 28 

Table 15. Part of measure on which song begins 28 

Table 16. Rhythm of first measure 28 

Table 17. Change of time * 29 

Table 18. Rhythm of drum 29 

Table 19. Rhythmic unit of song 30 

Table 20. Metric unit of voice 30 

Table 21. Metric unit of drum 32 

Table 22. Comparison of metric unit of voice and drum 33 

Group analysis of 340 songs 34 

rrand Medicine songs (MIde 7 na'gumowl'nun) 34 

Dream songs (Ina'bundjlgan' na'gumowl'nufi) 37 

War songs (Miga'diwin 7 na'gumowi'nufi) 40 

Love songs (Sa'gii'diwln' na'gumowl'nun) 41 

Moccasin game songs (Makizln / ata / diwln / na'gumowl'nun) 44 

Woman's dance songs (Ikwe'nimiwln' na'gumowi'nun) 45 

Begging dance songs (Bagosan / ninge / nimiwin 7 na / gumowl / nun) . . 47 

Pipe dance songs (Opwa'gunini'miwln na'gumowl'nun) 48 

Songs connected with gifts (Mi'gine, ma'moya'ne, na'gumowl'nun) . . . 49 

Songs for the entertainment of children ( A / dizo / ke na'gumowl'nun) . . 49 

Unclassified songs. 50 

Melodic and rhythmic resemblances between song groups 50 

Tabulated analyses of resemblances 51 

VII 



l 



VIII CONTENTS 

,War songs of the Mississippi Band cf Chippewa 59 

Songs connected with Odjib'we's personal experience 67 

Personal reminiscences of three warriors 83 

The child's dream of war (by Meja'kigi'jig) 83 

The training of young warriors (by Ma'd jigi'jig) 84 

The war badge (by A'kiwen'zi) 86 

Description of Chippewa war expedition, with typical songs 87 

Songs connected with organization of war party 87 

Songs of the warpath. 94 

Songs on the return of a victorious war party 118 

Songs of the peace pact 126 

War songs concerning women 130 

Tabulated analysis of war songs 134 

Children's games of war 137 

N/ Drum-presentation Ceremony 142 

{ Ceremony of restoring the mourners 153 

) Ceremony of divorce 162 

Presentation of the drum 168 

Dog Feast 173 

Tabulated analysis of Sioux songs of Drum-presentation Ceremony 181 

Songs of Lac du Flambeau Reservation 184 

War songs 185 

Tabulated analysis , 195 

rpream songs 198 

Songs concerning a boy's fast 204 

Game songs 206 

^ Tabulated analysis 213 

Love songs 216 

Tabulated analysis 226 

Begging dance songs 228 

Southern dance songs 234 

Songs concerning gift of a pony 237 

Moccasin game songs 239 

Song for the entertainment of children 241 

Unclassified songs tabulated analysis 242 

Combined analyses of war, dream, love, and unclassified songs 244 

The symbols of songs which never were sung 247 

Songs of the Chippewa at Waba'cing village, Red Lake Reservation, Minnesota. 251 

Dream songs 252 

Tabulated analysis 275 

Mide' songs '. 278 

Love songs 280 

Moccasin game songs 282 

Dance songs 284 

bined analyses of dream, Mide', love, moccasin game, and dance 

songs 288 

Songs of White Earth Reservation 291 

Pipe dance songs 293 

MIde 7 songs 297 

Moccasin game songs 299 

Love songs 299 

Songs for the entertainment of children 302 

Tabulated analysis 306 

Rhythmic units of Chippewa songs 1 309 

Authorities cited , 333 

Index 335 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 
PLATE 1. Odjft/we Frontispiece 

2. Flageolet (lover's flute) 42 

3. Moccasin game drum 44 

4. Hole-in-the-day 61 

5. Odjft/we's war-honor feathers 62 

6. Odjft/we's war-honor badge 62 

7. Odjft/we's war club and war drum 62 

8. Odjft/we'a war shirt 62 

9. Main'gans 63 

10. Pouch and measure for bi'jlkiwuck' 65 

11. Odjft/we in posture of scout 74 

12. War charms 78 

13 . Meja'kigi'jig 83 

14 . Ma'd jigi'jlg 84 

15. A'kiwen'zi 86 

16. Chippewa war banner 91 

17. Scalps attached to hoop 118 

18. Drum and stakes used in Drum-presentation Ceremony 145 

19. Drum and its custodians 145 

20. Mec'kawiga'bau 148 

21. Participants in Drum-presentation Ceremony 166 

22. Participants in Drum-presentation Ceremony 166 

23. Prominent Chippewa actors in Drum-presentation Ceremony 168 

24. Pine forest, Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wis 184 

25. Lac du Flambeau and Chippewa village 184 

26. F/niwub'e 206 

27. Moccasin game at White Earth, Minn 211 

28. Moccasin game at White Earth, Minn 211 

29. Moccasin game at White Earth, Minn 212 

30. Mrs. Benjamin Gauthier. 222 

31. Chippewa dress 223 

32. Sleeve and legging Chippewa 223 

33. Chippewa sash 223 

34. Chippewa headband 223 

35. Chippewa moccasin (present style) 223 

36. Chippewa moccasin (old pattern) 223 

37. Ma'kuk for maple sugar 231 

38. Chippewa summer camp, Leech Lake, Minnesota 232 

39. Chippewa cradle-boards 241 

40. Chippewa medicine poles 248 

41. Chippewa medicine poles 248 

42. Red Lake, at Waba'cffig, Minn 251 

43. Chippewa camp at Waba'cmg, Minn 251 

44. War dance of Waba'clng Chippewa 252 

45. Dances of Waba'clng Chippewa 252 

FIGURE 1. M!de' rattle 34 

2. Dried root of bi'jikiwuck' with feathers attached 64 

3. Stem of the drum pipe 146 

4. Pattern of moccasins 224 

5. Birch-bark cone filled with maple sugar 232 

6. Design on cloth attached to medicine pole (native drawing) 250 

IX 



LIST OF SONGS 
1. ARRANGED IN ORDER OF SERIAL NUMBERS 



SONGS CONNECTED WITH ODJIs'WE's PERSONAL EXPERIENCE 

SONGS OF WAR 

SeHa, Catalogue page 

1. Odjlb'we's dream song 392 67 

2. Odjlb'we's first war song 371 69 

3. " An eagle feather I see " 346 72 

4. Song of a mislaid scalp 387 73 

5. Song of an unsatisfied warrior 391 76 

6. War medicine song 384 78 

7. Niski'gwun's dream song 386 79 

8. Death song of Ga'witayac' 338 80 

9. "On the bank of a stream " 339 81 

10. " At Ca'gobens' village" .'. 337 82 

11. Song of the war messenger 358 87 

12. Return of the war messenger 359 88 

13. "Ifeelnofear" 328 89 

14. "The man who stayed at home " 388 90 

15. Pledge song 360 92 

16. Dance of the dog feast 361 93 

17. Song of departure 362 94 

18. Song of the leader 343 95 

19. "I will go to the south " 333 96 

20. "A war bird" 332 97 

21. Arrow song 370 98 

22. Origin of the bi'jlkiwuck' 372 99 

23. Dancing song of the bi / jlkiwuck / 382 102 

24. First song of the mi'nlsmo'wuck 373 103 

25. Second song of the ml'nlsmo'wuck 374 104 

26. Third song of the ml'nlsino'wuck 375 105 

27. Fourth song of the mi'nismo'wuck 376 106 

28. Song of a war charm 369 107 

29. Drumsong 341 108 

30. Song of a man who rushed toward the enemy 329 109 

31. "If I had been a man" 349 111 

32. Song of help in the fight 385 112 

33. Death song of Name'bineV 335 114 

34. "The Sioux women gather up their wounded " 336 115 

35. "They are playing a game " 342 116 

36. Song of the exhausted warrior 367 117 

37. Giftsong. 389 119 

38! Scalp song 366 120 

39. The song of De'kum 348 121 

40. Song of rejoicing 365 122 

XI 



XII LIST OF SONGS 

Serial Catalogue page 

41. Victorysong 345 123 

42. "Acloud" 330 124 

43. "lamcalled" 331 125 

44. Song of the peace pact 352 127 

45. Song when offering the peace pipe 390 ] 28 

46. Ca'wuno'ga song 354 129 

47. Ca'wuno'ga song 355 130 

48. Song concerning a brave woman 351 131 

49. "The Sioux woman defends her children " 364 132 

50. Song of the captive Sioux woman 334 133 

51. War song of Odjib'we's childhood 278 138 

52. Song before the boys' fight 279 139 

53. Little girls' war song 280 139 

SONGS OP THE DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY 

54. Song of departure l S. 1 149 

55. Song of the chief S. 2 150 

56. Song of the speaker S. 3 151 

57. Song of the owner of the drum S. 4 151 

58. Song of the warriors S. 5 152 

59. Song of giving away the drum S. 6 152 

60. Song of restoring the mourners S. 7 154 

61. Song of painting the faces S. 8 155 

62. Mourners' song ! S. 9 156 

63. "The sound comes pleasingly " 423 158 

64. "The ravens are singing " 424 159 

65. War song 425 160 

66. "I am small " '. . . . 432 161 

67. Divorce song 428 162 

68. Divorce song 429 163 

69. Song of the pipe S. 10 169 

70. Song of the drum S. 11 170 

71. Song of the closed door S. 12 172 

72. First song of the dog feast S. 13 173 

73. Second song of the dog feast S. 14 174 

74. Third song of the dog feast S. 15 175 

75. Fourth song of the dog feast S. 16 176 

76. Fifth song of the dog feast S. 17 176 

77. Sixth song of the dog feast S. 18 177 

78. Seventh song of the dog feast S. 19 178 

79. Warriors' song S. 20 178 

80. Song of Butterfly 437 179 

SONGS OP THE LAC DU FLAMBEAU RESERVATION 

War Songs 

81. A song of indecision 393 185 

82. Song of the sentry 409 186 

83. Song concerning Gwi'wizans 406 187 

84. "The Sioux follow me" 407 188 

85. "Around the sky" 415 189 

iS.= Sioux song. 



LIST OF SONGS XIII 

Serial Catalogue 

No. No. Page 

86. " If he is a warrior " 419 190 

87. "In the south" 426 191 

88. War song (no words) 411 192 

89. War song (no words) 412 192 

90. War song (no words) 416 193 

91. War song (no words) 417 193 

92. War song (no words) 418 194 

93. War song (no words) 420 195 

Dream Songs 

94. Song of the thunderbirds '. 394 198 

95. Song of the deer (a) 398 200 

96. Song of the deer (6) 402 200 

97. Song of the deer dancing 433 201 

98. "My shining horns" 434 202 

99. Song of the buffalo 399 203 

Songs concerning a Boy's Fast 

100. Song before a boy goes out to fast 421 204 

101. Song after a boy returns from fasting 422 205 

Game Songs 

102. Song of the hand game 395 208 

103. Moccasin game song (a) 396 209 

104. Moccasin game song (6) 397 210 

Love Songs 

105. "Go with me" 400 216 

106. "Donotweep" 401 217 

107. "You desire vainly" 430 218 

108. "He is gone" 431 219 

109. "I am thinking of her " 442 220 

110. "Weeping for my love " 443 220 

111. "Come, let us sing" 444 221 

112. Song of an ambitious mother 445 222 

113. Love song 446 225 

Begging Dance Songs 

114. Song of the dogs 403 229 

115. "Here I come again" 438 230 

116. "Maple sugar " 439 231 

117. "My travels" 440 232 

118. Song of thanks for food 441 233 

Southern Dance Songs 

119. (No words) 404 234 

120. "Invite our sweetheart " 405 235 

121. (No words) 413 236 

122. (Nowords).. 414 236 

Songs concerning the Gift of a Pony 

123. Song accompanying the gift of a pony 435 238 

124. Song of thanks for the gift of a pony 436 239 



XIV LIST OF SONGS 

Moccasin Game Songs 

Serial Catalogue 

No. No. Page 

125. (No words) 410 240 

126. (No words) 427 241 

Song for the Entertainment of Children 

127. Lullaby 447 241 

SONGS OF THE CHIPPEWA AT WABA'CING VILLAGE, RED LAKE RESERVATION 

Dream Songs 

128. A song of spring ! 289 253 

129. (No words) 315 255 

130. (No words) 321 256 

131. (No words) 324 257 

132. (No words) 327 257 

133. (Nowords) . 317 258 

134. (No words) - 320 258 

135. (No words) 323 259 

136. (Nowords) 325 260 

137. (No words) 326 260 

138. "My body lies in the east " 308 261 

139. "Sitting with the turtle " 309 262 

140. "Carried around the sky" 310 263 

141. "The approach of the thunderbirds " 311 264 

142. "White-haired raven " 312 265 

143. (Nowords) 313 266 

144. (No words) 319 266 

145. "Into the several heavens " , . . . 288 267 

146. "Two foxes face each other " 290 268 

147. "One bird" 291 269 

148. "The sky will resound " 296 270 

149. "Onewind" 298 271 

150. "An overhanging cloud " 299 272 

151. "Heaps of clouds" 314 272 

152. "Around the sky" 318 273 

153. "The thunderbirds" 322 274 

Mde' Songs 

154. "The noise of the village" 306 278 

155. (Nowords) 304 279 

156. "Bekindly" 307 280 

Love Songs 

157. "I have lost my sweetheart " 300 280 

158. "I will not drink" 301 281 

159. (No words) 302 281 

160. (No words) 303 282 

Moccasin Game Songs 

161. (Nowords) 292 282 

362. "The sound of his footsteps" 293 283 

163. (Nowords) 305 284 



LIST OF SONGS XV 

Dance Songs 

Serial Catalogue 

No. N O- Page 

164. Woman's dance song - 295 285 

165. "He killed a man " 294 285 

166. "I cany it away" - 316 286 

167. "The entire world " 297 287 

SONGS ^OF WHITE EARTH RESERVATION 

168. "Wehavesalt" 268 291 

169. "If I were a son-in-law" 269 292 

170. "Work steadily" 270 293 

Pipe Dance Songs 

171. "O'gima" 408 294 

172. "Little plover" 281 295 

173. "Why?" 282 296 

Mde / Songs 

174. MJde' burial song (a) 283 297 

175. Mlde' burial song (6) 284 298 

Moccasin Game Song 

176. (No words) 285 299 

Love Songs 

177. "I have found my lover" 286 300 

178. "He is going away" 287 301 

Songs for the Entertainment of Children 1 

179. Song of the Game of Silence 448 302 

180. Song of the crawfish 449 305 



See also Nos. (serial) 51, 52, 53, 127. 



XVI LIST OF SONGS 

2. ARRANGED IN ORDER OF CATALOGUE NUMBERS 



Cata- 

'?r 


Name of singer 


Description of song 


Title of song 


Serial 
No. 


Page 


268 


Henry Selkirk 


Unclassified 


"We have salt" 


168 


291 


269 


....do 


do 


" If I were a son-in-law ' ' . 


169 


292 


270 


Maifi'gans 


Love song 


"Work steadily" 


170 


293 


278 
279 


Odjlb'we 
....do 


For the entertainment 
of children. 
... .do 


War song of Odjlb'we's childhood. 
Song before the boys' fight 


51 
52 


138 
139 


280 


do 


do 


Little girls' war song 


53 


139 


281 


....do 


Pipe dance song 


"Little plover" 


172 


295 


282 


do 


do 


"Why?" 


173 


296 


283 


Na'waji'bigo'kwe 


MIde' song . . ; . . . 


MIde' burial song (a) 


174 


297 


284 


do 


do 


MIde' burial song (6) 


175 


298 


285 
286 


William Potter 
Mrs. Spears 


Moccasin game song. . . 
Love song 


(No words) 
"I have found mv lover" 


176 
177 


299 
300 


287 


do 


do 


" He is going away "... 


178 


301 


288 


A'iide'giilg 


Dream song 


"Into the several heavens" 


145 


267 


289 


do... 


do 


A song of spring . 


128 


253 


290 


do 


do 


" Two foxes face each other" 


146 


268 


291 


.do 


do 


"One bird" 


147 


269 


292 


do 


Moccasin game song 


(No words) 


161 


282 


293 


do 


. do 


"The sound of his footsteps" 


162 


283 


294 


....do 


Dance song 


" He killed a man "... 


165 


285 


295 


do 


Woman's dance song 


(No words) 


164 


935 


296 


Ki'miwun 


Dream song 


" The sky will resound" 


148 


270 


297 


do 


Dance song 


"The entire world" 


167 


287 


298 


do 


Dream song 


"One wind" 


149 


271 


299 


....do 


do 


"An overhanging cloud" 


150 


272 


300 


do 


Love song 


"I have lost my sweetheart" 


157 


280 


301 


.do. 


.. do. ... 


"I will not drink" 


158 


281 


302 


....do 


do 


(No words) 


159 


281 


303 


do 


do 


do 


160 


282 


304 


....do 


MIde' song.. .. 


. do ... 


155 


279 


305 


do 


Moccasin game song 


do 


163 


284 


306 


.do.... 


MIde' song 


" The noise of the village" 


154 


278 


307 


....do 


do 


"Be kindly" 


156 


280 


308 


do 


Dream (doctor's) song 


"My body lies in the east" 


138 


261 


309 


....do 


do 


" Sitting with the turtle" 


139 


262 


310 


do 


do 


"Carried around the sky" 


140 


263 


311 


....do... . 


* 

do 


"The approach of the thunder- 


141 


264 


312 


....do.. 


do 


birds." 
" White-haired raven " 


142 


265 


313 


do 


do 


(No words) 


143 


266 


314 


Ki'miwuna'nakwad 


Dream song 


' ' Heaps of clouds ' ' 


151 


272 


315 


do 


do 


(No words) 


129 


255 


316 


Gegwe'djibi'tun 


Southern dance (ca'- 


" I carry it away " 


166 


286 


317 


Awun'akum'Iglckun' 


wuno'ga) song 
Dream song 


(No words) 


133 


258 


318 


do 


do 




152 


273 


319 


do 


do 


(No words) 


144 


266 


320 


do 


do.. 


do 


134 


258 


321 


do 


do 


do 


130 


256 


322 


do....... 


do 


"The thunderbirds " 


153 


274 


323 


do. 


.. do 


(No words) 


135 


259 


324 


do 


do 


do 


131 


257 


325 


...do... 


...do... 


...do... 


136 


260 



LIST OF SONGS 



XVII 



Cata- 
logue 
No. 


Name of singer 


Dascription of song 


Title of song 


Serial 
No. 


Page 






Dream son" 


(No words) 


137 


260 


327 


do 


do 


do 


132 


257 




Odilb'we 


War 'song 


"I feel no fear" 


13 


89 


329 


do 


do 


Song of the man who rushed to- 


30 


109 


OOA 


do 


do 


ward the enemy. 
"A cloud" 


42 


124 


331 


do 


do 


" I am called " 


43 


125 


332 


do 


.do 


"A war bird" 


20 


97 


333 


do 


do 


"I will go to the south" 


19 


96 


334 


do 


.do 


Song of the captive Sioux woman. 


50 


133 


335 


do 


do 


Death song of Name'bine's' 


33 


114 


336 


do 


do . 


"The Sioux women gather up 


34 


115 


337 


do 


do 


their wounded." 
"At Ca'gobfins' village" . . 


10 


82 


338 


do 


.do 


Death song of Ga'witayac' 


8 


80 


339 


do 


do 


"On the bank of a stream" 


9 


81 


341 


do 


.do. . . 


Drum song 


29 


108 


342 


do 


do 


" They are playing a game " 


35 


116 


343 


do 


do 


Song of the leader . 


18 


95 


345 


do.. . 


...do 


Victory song 


41 


123 


346 


do 


do 


"An eagle feather I see " 


3 


72 


348 


do 


.do 


The song of De'kum 


39 


121 


349 


do 


do 


"If I had been a man" 


31 


111 


351 


do 


do.. 


Song concerning a brave woman 


48 


131 


352 


do.. . . 


...do 


Song of the peace pact 


44 


127 


354 


do 


do 


Ca'wuno'ga song (a) 


46 


129 


355 


do 


.do 


Ca'wuno'ga song (6) . . 


47 


130 


358 


do 


do 


Song of the war messenger 


11 


87 


359 


do 


do. 


Return of the war messenger 


12 


88 


360 


do 


do 


Pledge song 


15 


92 


361 


. .do.. 


do 


Dance of the dog feast 


16 


93 


362 


do 


do 


Song of departure 


17 


94 


364 


do. . . 


.do 


" The Sioux woman defends her 


49 


132 


365 


do ... 


do 


children." 
Song of rejoicing 


40 


122 


366 


do 


do 


Scalp song 


38 


120 


367 


do 


do 


Song of the exhausted warrior 


36 


117 


369 


do 


do . 


Song of a war charm 


28 


107 


370 


do 


do 


Arrow song 


21 


98 


371 


.do. . 


do 


Odjlb'we's first war song 


2 


C9 


372 


do 


do 


Origin of the bi'jlkiwuck' 


22 


99 


373 


Na'waji'bigo'kwe 


do 


First song of the ml'nlslno'wuck 


24 


103 


374 


do 


do 


Second song of the ml'nfslno'wuck 


25 


104 


375 


do 


do 




26 


105 


376 


.do 


do 


Fourth song of the ml'nlslno'wuck 


27 


106 


382 


Main'gans 


do... 


Dancing song of the bi'jlkiwuck' 


23 


102 


384 


Niski'gwun. . 


do 


War medicine song 


g 


78 


385 


do 


do 


Song of help in the fight 


32 


112 


386 


do 


do 






79 


387 


Odjfb'we.... 


do .... 


Song of a mislaid scalp 


4 


73 


388 


. do 


do 




14 


90 


389 


...do... 


...do 


Giftsone... 


37 


119 



67996 Bull. 5313 il 



XV III 



LIST OF SONGS 



Cata- 
logue 
No. 


Name of singer 


Description of song 


Title of song 


Serial 
No. 


Page 


390 


Odjfb'we 


War song 


Song when offering the peace pipe 


45 


128 


391 


do 


do 


Song of an unsatisfied warrior 


5 


76 


392 


do 


do 


Odjlb'we's dream song 


I 


67 


393 


Mfde'wigi'jlg 


do 


A song of indecision 


81 


185 


394 


E'niwub'e 


Dream song 


Song of the thunderbirds 


94 


198 


395 


do 


do 


Song of the hand game 


102 


208 


396 


do 


do 


Moccasin game song (a) 


103 


209 


397 


do . .. 


do 


Moccasin game song (&) 


104 


210 


398 


do 


do 


Song of the deer () 


95 


200 


399 


do 


do 


Song of the buffalo 


99 


203 


400 


do 


Love song 


"Go with me" 


105 


216 


401 


do 


. . .do 


" Do not weep " 


106 


217 


402 


do 


Dream song 


Song of the deer (6) 


% 


200 


403 


do 


Begging dance song 


Song of the dogs 


114 


229 


404 


do 


Southern dance song 


(No words) 


119 


234 


405 




do 


" Invite our sweetheart " 


120 


235 


406 


do 


War song 


Song concerning Gwi'wizans 


83 


187 


407 


do . 


do 


" The Sioux follow me " . . 


84 


188 


408 


do 


Pipe dance song 


"O'gima" 


171 


294 


409 


do 


War song 


Song of the sentry 


82 


186 


410 


do 


Moccasin game song 


(No words) 


125 


240 


411 


do 


War song 


. . do 


88 


192 


412 


do 


do 


do 


89 


192 


413 


do 


Southern dance song fa.) 


do 


121 


236 


414 


do 


Sou them dance song (b) 


do 


122 


236 


415 


.do 


War song 


" Around the sky " 


85 


189 


416 


do 


do 


(No words) 


90 


193 


417 


do 


.. .do 


do -. 


91 


193 


418 


do 


do 


do 


92 


194 


419 


do 


do 


" If he is a warrior " 


86 


190 


420 


do 


do 


(No words) 


93 


195 


421 


do 


Dream song 


Song before a boy goes out to fast 


100 


204 


422 


.do . 


do 


Song after a boy returns from 


101 


205 


423 


do 


War song 


fasting. 
" The sound comes pleasingly ".. . 


63 


158 


424 


do 


do 


"The ravens are singing" 


64 


159 


425 


do 


do 


(No words) 


65 


160 


426 


do 


do 


"In the south" 


87 


191 


427 


Mec'kawiga'bau 


Moccasin game song 


(No words) 


126 


241 


428 


do 




do 


67 


162 


429 


do 


do 


do 


68 


163 


430 


.. .do.. 


Love song 


" You desire vainly " 


107 


218 


431 


do 


do 


"He is gone" 


108 


219 


432 


... .do 


War song 


" I am small " 


66 


161 


433 


do 




Song of the deer dancing 


97 


201 


434 


do. 


do 


"My shining horns" 


98 


202 


435 


do 




(No words) 


123 


238 


436 


. do 


the gift of a pony. 


do 


124 


239 


437 


do 


gift of a pony. 


Song of Butterfly 


80 


179 


438 


... do 






115 


230 


439 


...do... 


...do... 


" Made sugar "... 


116 


231 



LIST OF SONGS 



XIX 



Cata- 
logue 
No. 


Name of singer 


Description of song 


Title of song 


Serial 
No. 


Page 


440 




Begging dance song 


"My travels" 


117 


232 


441 


do 


.do 


Song of thanks for food 


118 


233 


442 


do 


Love song 


"lam thinking of her" 


109 


220 


443 


Dji'sia'smo'kwe 


do 


" Weeping for my love " 


110 


220 


AAA 


do 


do 


"Come let us sing" 


111 


221 


445 


Mrs Gauthier 


do 


Song of an ambitious mother . . . 


112 


222 


446 




do 


Love song 


113 


225 


447 


do 


For the entertainment 


Lullaby. . 


127 


241 


448 


John W Carl 


of children, 
do 


Song of the Game of Silence 


179 


302 


449 


Odjlb'we 


.do 


Song of the crawfish 


180 


305 















Sioux SONGS OF THE DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY 



Cata- 
logue 
No. 


Name of singer 


Title of song 


Serial 
No. 


Page 


S.I 


Mec'kawiga'bau 


Song of departure 


54 


149 


S 2 


do 


Song of the chief 


55 


150 


S.3 


do 


Song of the speaker 


56 


151 


S.4 


.do 


Song of the owner of the drum 


57 


151 


S 5 


do 


Song of the warriors. 


58 


152 


S.6 


do 


Song of giving away the drum. . . 


59 


152 


S 7 


do 


Song of restoring the mourners 


60 


154 


S.8 


do . 


Song of painting the faces 


61 


155 


S 9 


do 


Mourners' song 


62 


156 


S. 10 


do 


Song of the pipe. 


69 


169 


S.ll 


do 


Song of the drum 


70 


170 


S.12 


do 


Song of the closed door 


71 


172 


S 13 


do 


First song of the dog feast 


72 


173 


S.14 


do 


Second song of the dog feast 


73 


174 


S 15 


do 


Third song of the dog feast 


74 


17*1 


S. 16 


do 


Fourth song of the dog feast 


75 


176 


S.17 


do 


Fifth song of the dog feast 


76 


176 


S. 18 


do .. 


Sixth song of the dog feast 


77 


177 


S.19 


do 


Seventh song of the dog feast 


78 


178 


S.20 


do 


Warriors' song 


79 


178 













SPECIAL SIGNS USED IN TRANSCRIPTIONS OF SONGS 



I I placed above the music indicates that the tones 

included within the bracket constitute a rhythmic unit. 

4- placed above a note indicates that the tone is sung slightly less 
than a semitone higher than the proper pitch. 

- placed above a note indicates that the tone is sung slightly less 
than a semitone lower than the proper pitch. 

placed above a note indicates that the note is prolonged slightly 
beyond its proper time. 



XX SPECIAL SIGNS 

placed above a note indicates that the note is given less than its 
proper time. 

is used in songs transcribed in outline to indicate the pitch of a 
tone without reference to its duration. 

Meaningless syllables are italicized. 

Where no words are beneath the notes it is understood that mean- 
ingless syllables were used, except in songs whose words were sung 
too indistinctly for transcription, such instances being described in 
the analyses. 



NAMES OF SINGERS 

WHITE EARTH RESERVATION, MINNESOTA 

Numbers 
of songs 

MaiiVgans (" little wolf") , 2 

Odjib'we 48 

Na'waji'bigo'kwe (" woman dwelling in the midst of the rocks ") i 6 

Niski'gwun ("ruffled feathers") 3 

Mrs. Julia Warren Spears 2 

Henry Selkirk 2 

William Potter 1 

John W. Carl 1 

WABA'CING VILLAGE, RED LAKE RESERVATION, MINNESOTA 

A'jide'gijlg ("crossing sky ") 8 

Ki'miwiln ("rainy ") 18 

Ki'miwuna'nakwad ("rain cloud ") 2 

Gegwe / djibi / tM ("sitting near it") 1 

Awun'akum'Igickun' ("fog covering the earth ") 11 

LAC DU FLAMBEAU RESERVATION, WISCONSIN 

Mide'wigi'jig ("Grand Medicine sky ") 1 

fi'niwub'e ("sits farther along ") 33 

Mec'kawiga'bau ("stands firmly ") 1C 

Dji'sia'sino'kwe ("deceiving woman ") 2 

O'gabea'sino'kwe ("woman of the breeze that blows to the end ") 2 

Mrs. Benjamin Gauthier 1 



Total 160 

XXI 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC-II 

By FRANCES DENSMORE 



ANALYSIS OF CHIPPEWA MUSIC 

Three questions will be considered in the present section, namely: 
First, What do the Chippewa sing; Second, How do they sing; and, 
Third, Why do they sing? The material under analysis in Tables 
1 to 22 (pp. 18-33) comprises 340 songs, recorded by the phonograph 
and transcribed in ordinary musical notation with the addition of a 
few special signs. The songs were collected on the principal Chip- 
pewa reservations in Minnesota and on the Lac du Flambeau Reser- 
vation in Wisconsin. All the leading classes of songs in use among 
the Chippewa are represented: The songs of the Mlde'wiwm (Grand 
Medicine), dream songs, war songs, and love songs, songs of the 
moccasin game, songs of the woman's dance, of the begging dance, 
and of the pipe dance, songs connected with gifts, songs for the enter- 
tainment of children, and a limited number not classified. This col- 
lection does not include all the available material, the purpose of the 
work being to preserve the oldest songs and those connected with 
tribal history, custom, and ceremony. The songs included in BuUetin 
45 of the Bureau of American Ethnology are classified according to 
geographic distribution, those from each reservation being considered 
as a group and subdivided according to use. In the present work 
the principal tabulated analysis is made on the basis of the class or 
use of the song, the material in Bulletin 45 having been rearranged 
and combined with material collected at later dates. 

Before entering on the analysis of the songs, it is desirable to show 
that a Chippewa song has identity. This identity was established 
by the following tests : First, a song was recorded by the same singer 
at different times; second, a song was recorded by different singers 
on the same reservation; and, third, a song was recorded by different 
singers on widely separated reservations, only the titles of the songs 
being given when the duplications were obtained. These tests were 
repeated at various times and with a number of songs. In every test 
a comparison of the phonograms showed the identity of the song, 
though the renditions were not always uniform in every respect. 
The rhythm was repeated more exactly than the melody, the latter 
67996 Bull. 5313 1 



2 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

showing occasionally changes in unimportant progressions or in the 
number of phrases at the close. In the course of these comparisons 
it was shown that an old man repeated with accuracy at intervals of 
several months a song of very irregular rhythm; it was shown also 
in one instance that a young man modified the rhythm of an old song, 
making it conform somewhat to the common rhythms of the white 
race. 

A number of Chippewa songs, as transcribed, have no words. Some 
of these songs originally may have had words and in a limited number 
of the love songs the words partake so much of the nature of a 
soliloquy that they can not conveniently be translated and given 
with the music. The words of most of the Chippewa songs are few 
/ in number and suggest rather than express the idea of the song. 

Only in the love songs and in a few of the MIde' songs are the words 
continuous. In the latter the words may be altered slightly, provided 
the idea remains the same (see Bulletin 45, p. 14). A similar change 
of words in a war song is noted in the analysis of song No. 37 in the 
present work. A change of words in love songs is described in 
Bulletin 45 (p. 2). Although the Chippewa say that the words of a 
song may be changed, it is the experience of the writer that, with the 
exception of love songs, the words of a song seldom vary in renditions 
by different singers. The words of Chippewa songs are frequently 
changed to conform to the music, syllables being omitted or added, 
and meaningless syllables introduced between the syllables of a 
word. The accent of a word is frequently changed in accordance 
with the accent of the music, and a word is sometimes accented 
differently in the several parts of a song. These and other changes 
are permissible in fitting the words to the note-values of a song. A 
subordination of words to melody, and use of meaningless words and 
syllables has been noted by Doctor Myers in his study of primitive 
music. 1 

WHAT DO THE CHIPPEWA SING? 

Some peculiarities of Chippewa music are indicated in 22 tables of 
analysis (pp. 18-33), 14 of which concern the melody and 8 the 
rhythm of voice and drum. This section is descriptive of the results 
of this tabulated analysis. 

The first broad division of the material is into songs of major and 
of minor tonality. (Table 1.) The term "key" can not properly be 
used in this work, as the complete tone-system implied by that term 

i Charles S. Myers, M. A., M. D., The Ethnological Study of Music (in Anthropological Essays Presented 
to Edward Burnett Tylor, etc., p. 236): "The words are commonly sacrificed to the tune. . . . We fre- 
quently find that liberties are taken with words, or that meaningless words or syllables are introduced into 
primitive music. Yet another cause of the presence of meaningless words lies in the antiquity of the music. 
The words become so archaic, or their sense was originally so involved or so symbolical that all meaning 
gradually disappears as the song is handed down from generation to generation." 



DHNSMUKK] OHIPPEWA MUSIC II 3 

is not always present. Key is defined by Webster as "a system or 
family of tones based on their relation to a keynote," also as "the 
total harmonic and melodic relation of such a family of tones/' 
implying an harmonic as well as a melodic test. In recorded Chip- 
pewa songs the relation of the tones to a keynote is usually evident, 
the tone-material of the key being present, and what might be 
termed the "melodic relation" being satisfactory, but the sequence 
of tones in many of the songs is such that the "harmonic relation" is 
extremely complicated, if, indeed (in some instances), it can be said 
to exist. Thus most of the songs close with a simple tonic chord, not 
with tones which can be harmonized by a cadence, and the opening 
phrases of many major songs are characterized by minor intervals 
and those of minor songs by major intervals. There are, however, 
in all the songs, the rudimentary elements of key. The persistence of 
the third and fifth above the keynote, the correct intonation of the 
octave, and the frequent occurrence of the tonic triad, may be noted. 
The term "tonality" is employed therefore in this work, its use 
seemingly being warranted by the definition in the Standard Diction- 
ary (1910) : "Tonality, the quality and peculiarity of a tonal system." 

In determining the keynote of a song a test by the ear seems 
permissible and the tonality of the song is determined by the distance 
of the third and sixth above this keynote. The third occurs in about 
97 per cent of the songs under analysis. A song is classified as major 
in tonality if the third is a major third (two whole tones) above the 
keynote, and as minor in tonality if the third is a minor third (a whole 
and a half tone) above the keynote. According to this basis of classi- 
fication 57 per cent of the songs are major in tonality and 42 per 
cent minor, while three songs show a change from major to minor 
or from minor to major by altering the pitch of the third, the keynote 
remaining the same. These songs are Nos. 189 and 192 in Bulletin 45, 
and No. 6 of the present work. The sixth occurs in 81 per cent 
of the songs, and is found to be a minor interval in songs that contain 
a minor third between the tonic and mediant, and a major interval 
in songs having a major third between these tones. In contrast 
with the frequent occurrence of the third and sixth it is found that 
the seventh occurs in only about 9 per cent of the minor songs. 
In one- third of these the seventh is a semitone below the tonic, 
as in modern musical usage (No. 79 of Bulletin 45, and Nos. 36, 100, 
and 119 of the present work), while in the remainder the seventh is a 
whole tone below the tonic the interval which occurs in most of the 
ecclesiastical modes and in scales formed by the addition of two 
tetrachords (Nos. 19, 126, and 150, Bulletin 45; Nos. 9, 50, 85, 
100, 119, and 124 of the present work). 

Having determined the probable keynote of the song, this keynote is 
used as a basis for further examination, noting in Table 2 the relation of 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

the initial tone to the keynote. Fifty-four per cent of the songs 
begin on the dominant, indicated as the twelfth in songs having a 
compass of 12 tones, and as the fifth in songs of smaller range. Next 
in number are the songs beginning on the octave, which comprise 
15 per cent of the entire number. 

Table 3 shows the tones on which the songs end. Sixty-seven 
per cent end on the tonic, and in 90 per cent (indicated in Table 4) 
the final tone is the lowest tone occurring in the melody. From 
these characteristics it is not surprising to find, in Table 5, that the 
largest proportion of songs has a compass of 12 tones and that the 
next smaller group has a range of an octave. Thus it will be seen 
that the melodic boundary of a majority of Chippewa songs corres- 
ponds to a fundamental tone and its principal harmonic upper partial 
tones, commonly called overtones. 1 It has been stated already (Bul- 
letin 45, p. 5) that " the phonograph record shows the octave, fifth, 
and twelfth sung accurately by men who give the other intervals with 
uncertain pitch," and further observation has confirmed this state- 
ment. 

Having observed the outlines of the melodies, the tone-material 
comprised in them may be noted. Table 6 shows that 131 songs, 
or about 39 per cent of the entire number, contain the tones of the 
pentatonic, or five-toned, scales, according to the five varieties of 
the pentatonic scales described by Helmholtz. 2 The tones are the 
same in all these scales, the difference being in the keynote. The 
intervals between the tones which comprise the five-toned scales 
are the same as the intervals between the black keys on the piano. 
Supposing these tones to constitute the material under consideration, 
we should have the first five- toned scale according to Helmholtz 
by using C sharp as the tonic, or keynote; the second five-toned 
scale by using D sharp; the third by using G sharp; the fourth by 
using F sharp ; and the fifth by using A sharp. This series contains 88 
songs on the fourth five-toned scale, more commonly known as the 
"major pentatonic," or "Scotch scale," and 40 songs on the second 
five-toned scale, more commonly known as the "minor pentatonic," 
while two songs (Nos. 51, 2) are on the fifth five-toned scale, and 
one (No. 116) is on the first five-toned scale. As the fourth five- 
toned scale occurs in the largest number of songs, we seek to know 
what groups of tones may have led up to it or in what incomplete 
form it may be found. It is interesting to note that the next smaller 
group (the major triad and sixth) comprises 12 per cent of the entire 
number and contains the tones of the fourth five-toned scale lacking 
the second. These tones are used in two different ways: (1) The 

1 ' ' The ear when its attention has been properly directed to the effect of the vibrations which strike it ... 
becomes aware of a whole series of higher musical tones, which we will call the harmonic upper partial 
tones." BELMHOLTZ, The Sensations of Tone, translated by Ellis, London, 1885, p. 2?, 

2 Ibid., pp. 260, 2&1, 



DHNSMOBE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 5 

sixth is used as a passing tone between the tonic and dominant in 
descending progression (see No. 176), the tonic chord being emphasized ; 
(2) the sixth is combined with the tonic triad above it, forming a 
minor triad and seventh, which changes to the tonic major triad by 
the descent of the sixth to the dominant, the song closing with the 
tonic chord (see No. 147). 

We next observe the tone-material of Chippewa songs in its relation 
to the tones of the diatonic octave and find the seven tones of the 
diatonic octave in only 6 per cent of the songs. The fifth is present 
in 338 songs, the only songs in which it does not occur being the two 
songs (Nos. 51, 52) on the fifth five- toned scale. A similar persist- 
ence of the fifth is noted by Doctor Baker in his analysis of 31 Indian 
songs, the fifth being present in 30 of the songs under his observa- 
tion. 1 The relative persistence of the fifth and fourth in the songs 
of the Murray Islanders . has been exhaustively studied by Dr. C. S. 
Myers, who states: 2 "There is good reason to believe that in Murray 
Island the use of the fourth preceded that of the fifth, but that 
with the development of the tonic, the note which is a fifth above it 
is more often used than that which is a fourth above it." The next 
interval in point of persistence is the third, which occurs in 329 songs, 
or about 97 per cent of the entire number. The character of the songs 
from which the third is absent is considered in the analysis of song 
No. 53. A similar frequency of the third was noted by Doctor Baker, 
who found the third in 25 per cent of the 31 songs analyzed by him. 
The presence of the sixth is noted in 276, or about 81 per cent of the 
Chippewa songs; that of the second in 210, or about 62 per cent; 
of the fourth in 135, or about 40 per cent; and of the seventh in only 
110, or about 32 per cent of the songs. Doctor Baker noted also the 
seventh as being found in only 8, or 26 per cent, of the songs under 
his analysis, this being the interval which occurred with least fre- 
quency. Thus is noted some similarity between the result of Doctor 
Baker's analysis of the songs of several Indian tribes and the result 
of the analysis of Chippewa songs, in which the persistence (or 
frequency of occurrence) of the tones of the diatonic octave are 
in the following order: Fifth, third, sixth, second, fourth, seventh. 

An interesting group of songs is that classified as ' ' octave complete 
except seventh and fourth." The omitted tones are the same as 
those lacking from the fourth five-toned scale, but in this group of 
songs the third and sixth are minor intervals, making the songs 
minor in tonality, while in the fourth five-toned scale these intervals are 
major intervals and the songs therefore major in tonality (see No. 83). 

1 Theodor Baker, Uber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden, Leipzig, 1882; "Tabellen der Intervalle 
und des Tacts," p. 82. 

8 In Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, vol. iv, Cambridge, 1912, p. 
260. 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

The tone-material of most of these songs is diatonic, Table 7 
showing that 85 per cent contain no accidentals. In songs contain- 
ing accidentals the tone most frequently affected is the sixth, this 
interval being either raised or lowered a semitone in 27, or 8 per cent, 
of such songs. Accidentals occur more frequently in the love songs 
than in any other group. 

There are next observed the accented tones in their relation to 
one another, in order to determine whether the songs are harmonic 
or melodic in structure (Table 8). In making this analysis songs 
were classified as harmonic in structure if contiguous accented tones 
bore a simple chord-relation to each other, and as purely melodic 
if no such relation appeared to exist. According to this basis 83 
songs, or 24 per cent, are harmonic in structure (see No. 144), and 
222 songs, or 66 per cent of the number, are melodic in structure 
(see No. 165). Having identified these groups of songs, it was 
found that certain songs remained which did not properly belong in 
either group. Thus there are many Chippewa songs which would be 
classified as harmonic except for one tone, or hi some instances two 
tones; a third group was made therefore to include these songs, 
which may be termed " intermediate" in structure. Such songs 
are classified as " melodic with harmonic framework." This group 
comprises 35 songs, or 10 per cent of the entire number, an example 
being No. 30, in which the only accented tone not having a chord- 
relation to a contiguous accented tone is B flat in the fourth measure 
from the close of the song. 

It has been noted that the boundaries of the melodies suggest a 
chord-relation to the keynote and that the persistence of the third 
and fifth suggests a chord; it is therefore surprising to note the small 
percentage of songs which are harmonic in structure. 

The next inquiry concerns the progressions in the melody their 
direction and the nature of the intervals. Table 9 shows that in 70 
per cent of the songs the first progression is downward, and Table 10 
that 65 per cent of the entire number of progressions in the songs 
are downward. 1 It has been noted that in 90 per cent of the songs 
the last tone is the lowest tone in the song (see Table 4) ; thus these 
three tables combine to demonstrate the downward trend of Chip- 
pewa melodies. 

The nature of the intervals now claims attention in Tables 1 1 and 
12. The interval which occurs most frequently is the second; but 
this is not of great significance, as the second is often a passing tone 
or a tone of approach. Next in frequency is the interval of the 
minor third, comprising 34 per cent of the downward, and 29 per 
cent of the upward, progressions. This interval has been mentioned 

i The proportion of downward and upward intervals is more uniform in the various classes of songs than 
any other peculiarity considered in the analysis. 



DBNSMORB] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 7 

as characterizing the music of other uncultured peoples. Concerning 
the songs of the Asaba (Niger) people, Charles R. Day states: 1 
"A preference for the minor third is rather noticeable, especially 
at the conclusions." Rev. G. W. Torrance, writing of the Australian 
aborigines, says: 2 "The songs in compass rarely exceed the distance 
of a third, and minor intervals predominate." Concerning the 
Sumatrans William Marsden states: 3 "The Sumatran tunes very 
much resemble to my ear those of the native Irish and have usually, 
like them, a flat third; the same has been observed of the music of 
Bengal." In this connection, it is interesting to note that William 
Gardiner 4 gives in musical notation the note of the plover and the 
call, with its answer, of a small beetle, the former being represented 
by the descending minor third F-D, and the latter by the descending 
minor third B flat-G. In these observations it can not be assumed 
that the intervals heard by the travelers were accurate minor thirds, 
but that, to the ear .accustomed to the musical standards of civiliza- 
tion, the interval of the third was clearly a non-major interval. 

In the Chippewa songs it is noted that the percentage of minor 
thirds, in both ascending and descending progression, is more than 
twice that of major thirds, a reversal of the statement of tonality, 
Table 1 showing the songs of major tonality to be about a third more 
in number than those of minor tonality. This suggests that the 
relation of the tones in these songs is an interval-relation, not what 
might be termed a "key-relation," also that the interval is the 
melodic nucleus of Chippewa song. The minor third is frequently 
prominent in songs which are major in tonality (see Nos. 140, 141, 
151, 163). The major third constitutes a large proportion of the 
intervals in some songs which are minor in tonality (see Nos. 29, 83, 
99). A strong feeling for the interval in melody structure is shown 
in No. 86, the framework of which consists of two intervals of the 
fifth, and in No. 82, the framework of which consists of two descending 
fourths. 

In order to determine the feeling for the interval in melody-for- 
mation, a test was made which included the 40 songs recorded at 
Waba'cftig, 5 the 50 war songs of Odjib'we (pi. 1) recorded at White 
Earth, and 14 songs recorded by E'niwftb'e at Lac du Flambeau. The 
songs of Odjib'we did not show a single instance of "interval-forma- 
tion," but it was found to characterize 4(10 per cent) of the Waba'cing 
songs (Nos. 136, 144, 148, 161), and 3 (21 per cent) of the Lac du 
Flambeau songs, under observation. From the character of the 

1 Up the Niger, by Mockler-Ferryman, with chapter on musical instruments of the natives by Charles 
R. Day, London, 1892, p. 272. 

2 Music of the Australian Aborigines, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, London, 1887, p. 336. 

3 History of Sumatra, London, 1811, p. 196. 

< The Music of Nature, Boston, 1838, pp. 232, 246. 

5 The combination ng is pronounced as in the word "finger, "not as in "singer." 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

songs and the singers at Waba'cliig and Lac du Flambeau the material 
collected there would seem to represent an older culture than the war 
songs of Odjib'we, a factor which adds interest to the result of the 
test. 

Having shown, by analysis, the prominence of the minor third in 
Chippewa music, and having indicated by reference to authorities its 
prominence in the music of other uncultured races, it is shown also to 
be approximately the average interval in Chippewa songs (Table 14). 
In making this analysis all the intervals were expressed in terms of a 
semitone and the average interval of progression was found to be 3.1 
semitones, or one-tenth of a semitone more than a minor third 
(Table 13). 

In melodic analysis there remains the test to determine the pitch, 
or musical key, of the songs, which depends for its accuracy on the 
method of phonographic recording. As the phonograph best adapted 
to field work at the present time is a machine operated by a spring 
motor, it is impossible to obtain absolute uniformity of speed, but the 
following method is used by the writer and gives results of reasonable 
accuracy. The speed of the phonograph is adjusted to 160 revolu- 
tions a minute, and the tone C, sounded by a pitch-pipe of known 
vibration, is recorded on the blank cylinder, immediately preceding 
the record of the song. When the transcription of the song is made, 
the speed of the phonograph is adjusted so that the tone C on the 
record corresponds with the tone as given by the pitch-pipe. As 
the last tone is usually the lowest tone and also the 'tonic, and as 95 
per cent of the songs were recorded by men, this table may be regarded 
as indicating the range of voice among the Chippewa men. Most of 
the songs are in the major keys of F, G flat, and G. An examination 
of the songs as transcribed will show that many, perhaps a majority, 
of the songs end on these tones, in the bass clef. 

In considering the rhythm, of Chippewa music the instrumental as 
well as the vocal expression should be observed, most of the songs 
having been recorded with accompaniment of the drum. Attention 
is first directed, however, to the rhythm, of the song, and the portion 
of the measure on which the song begins. This indicates whether 
the " attack" is direct and with emphasis or by a preparatory tone 
(Table 15). Forty-two of the songs are transcribed in outline, 
indicating the trend of the melody but not the length of the tones. 
Sixty-three per cent of the remaining songs begin on the accented 
part of the measure. This directness in beginning a song is shown 
also by the fact that in most of the songs the rhythmic unit occurs 
in the first measure and that the first tone is usually a high tone. 
The interest of a Chippewa song frequently diminishes as the song 
proceeds, and in some instances the closing measures contain char- 
acterless phrases, repeated indefinitely. 



DEN'SMORB] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 9 

The next feature to be observed is the number of counts in the first 
measure (Table 16). Deducting the number of songs transcribed in 
outline, it is to be noted that 50 per cent of the remainder begin in 
double tune -and 40 per cent in triple time. In songs indicated as 
having more than two or three counts in the first measure, there is no 
secondary accent; thus a measure transcribed with 5 or 7 counts is 
clearly a unit and could not properly be indicated by a triple measure 
followed by a double or a quadruple measure. Similar instances of 
measures containing 5 counts have been recorded by other students 
of primitive music/ and in the music of the Omaha there occur also 
songs with 7 counts in a measure. 

Table 17 shows, however, that the rhythm of the first measure is 
rarely continued throughout the song. Forty-two songs were tran- 
scribed in outline, without time-indication, but in 77 per cent of the 
remainder the rhythm, (or number of counts) in the first measure 
does not continue throughout the song. The transcriptions show in 
many instances a change of time with almost every measure. In No. 
121 the measures in double and triple tune alternate throughout the 
song. No. 39 contains double, triple, and quadruple time. In No. 81 
the double rhythm is interrupted by only one triple measure, which 
gives character and a certain " swing" to the rhythm of the song as a 
whole. This wide variation in measure-lengths might suggest 
improvisation, but these measure-lengths were determined by accents 
that were unmistakable and that showed no change in the several 
renditions of the song, even when slight changes were made in the 
melody. A single exception occurs in a song recorded at White 
Earth (No. 144), which so closely resembles one recorded at Waba'clfig 
(No. 176) that it may be inferred they are different versions of the 
same song, though one is in double and the other in triple time. 

Turning to the rhythm of the drum (Table 18), the accented double 
rhythm is found not so prominent as in the vocal expression. One 
hundred and sixteen of the songs were recorded without the drum. 
Deducting this number, 43 per cent of the remainder are found to 
have a triple rhythm. This characterizes a large majority of the 
dream songs and the songs of various dances and is closely allied to 
the drum-rhythm of the moccasin game song. The songs showing a 
triple drum-rhythm, are songs which aroused little mental or physical 

i Among the Omaha: A Study of Omaha Indian Music, by Alice C. Fletcher, aided by Francis La 
Flesche. With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore, A. M.; 
Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 
1893, vol. 1, No. 5; songs Nos. 6, 111, 137, 140. 

Among the Kwakiutl: Franz Boaz in Journal of American Folk-lore, vol. 1, 1888, pp. 51, 59. 

Among the Hopi: Benjamin Ives Oilman, Hopi Songs, Boston, 1908, p. 117. 

Among the Creek and Yuchi: Frank G. Speck, Ceremonial Songs of the Creek and Yuchi Indians, in 
Anthropological Publications of the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1911, vol. 1 
No. 2, pp. 1C9, 170, 178, 226. 

Also among the Sudanese: Heinrich Zollner, Einiges ttber sudanesische Musik, Musikalisches Wochen- 
blatt, Leipzig, 1885, p. 446. 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 5:1 

excitement. The dream songs were undoubtedly composed under 
abnormal conditions, but no drum was used in their composition and 
the present study concerns only the manner of their rendition. In this 
connection it is interesting to note that, according to. Beau (1835) and 
to Barth and Koger (1841), 1 the rhythm "of the adult heart, beating 
60 to 80 and acting normally" is a triple rhythm. The exact rhythm 
described by these authors is found in two of the Chippewa songs 
the song of the war messenger and that of his return (Nos. 11, 12). 
The writer has frequently heard this rhythm when the drummers 
began their performance (see Bulletin 45, p. 6); gradually they 
changed to that most often recorded on the phonograph, in which 
the unaccented stroke precedes, instead of follows, the accented stroke. 

In all theMide' songs and in 53 per cent of the war songs there is a 
drum-rhythm of rapid unaccented strokes, two of which are approxi- 
mately equal to one metric unit of the melody. It is stated that under 
certain conditions, "especially a moral emotion or violent physical 
exertion," the triple rhythm of the heart becomes "allied to a double 
measure." 2 The collection of additional data may throw more light 
on a possible connection between the action of the physical organism 
and the form assumed by primitive musical expression. 

The next observation concerns the rhythmic unit, or motif (Table 
19), which appears to constitute the rhythmic nucleus of the song, 
as the interval forms its melodic nucleus. As a basis for this classifi- 
cation, a rhythmic unit was defined as "a group of tones of various 
lengths, comprising more than one count of a measure, occurring 
at least twice in a song and having an evident influence on the 
rhythm of the entire song." According to this basis of classification 
it was found that 62 per cent of the songs contain a rhythmic unit, 
while in many other instances the song itself possesses a rhythmic 
completeness which constitutes it a unit. One hundred and ninety- 
one songs contain a rhythmic unit, and in 132 songs (69 per cent) 
the unit occurs in the first measure, showing, as in Table 15, a direct- 
ness of " attack." 

There are four ways in which a rhythmic unit is used to form 
a Chippewa song: First, it is continuously and exactly repeated 
throughout the song (see No. 26); second, it is repeated continuously 
except for a measure or two having a different rhythm, thus breaking 
the monotony and giving character to the rhythm of the song as a 

1 Dictionnaire de Physiologic, Richet, Ch., editor, Paris, Tome iv, 1900, p. 74. " Beau compara un bettement 
de co3ur a une mesure a trois temps, dans laquelle le premier temps serait occupe par le premier bruit, le 
deuxieme par ledeuxieme bruit, letroisieme par le grand silence. . . . D'apres Earth et Roger lerhythme 
represente une sorte de mesure a trois temps, dans laquelle le premier bruit occupe le tiers environ; le petit 
silence, a peu pres un sixieme; le deuxieme bruit, un sixieme; et le grand silence, le dernier tiers." 

2 Ibid., p. 75 (signed by Lahousse). " Si, au contraire, les battements du coeur sont acceleres, le silence 
diminue et Ton n'a plus qu'une mesure qui se rapproche de la mesure a deux temps. . . . C'est surtout 
quand une emotion morale, ou violent exercice physique agissent sur le cceur de Phomme, ou quand il est 
le siege de certains e"tats pathologiques." 



DBNSMOKK] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 11 

whole (see No. 132); third, it is repeated continuously except for a 
middle section, which contains the words and is in a different rhythm 
(see No. 1); and, fourth, the repetitions of the rhythmic unit are 
freely interspersed with measures having no rhythmic interest 
(see No. 118). There are also five songs in which the rhythmic unit 
is continuously repeated except at the close of the song (see No. 4). 

In addition to the use of the rhythmic unit in repetition, there is 
an equally important use of it as a basis for the rhythm, the unit 
appearing either in separated phrases or with a change of accent 
(see No. 90). This change of accent or other modification sometimes 
produces a second or (in one instance, No. 157) a third rhythmic 
unit which is repeated several times. Songs numbered 17, 47, 121, 
and 123 contain two rhythmic units, the second being formed from 
the first and constituting an answering phrase. A similar structural 
peculiarity was noted by Fillmore, who states: " Having invented 
his original motive, which is commonly striking in its rhythmic 
form and highly characteristic, the Indian composer proceeds to 
build his song out of modified repetitions of this motive." 1 

Among the 191 Chippewa songs containing a rhythmic unit there 
is only one duplication, Nos. 192 and 195 in Bulletin 45 containing 
the same unit. In the 20 Sioux songs of the Drum-presentation 
Ceremony the percentage is much larger, as the second rhythmic 
unit in song No. 73 of the present series is similar to the unit occur- 
ring in No. 77. There is, however, a division of a count J" j 3 which 
occurs in Chippewa songs recorded on a reservation showing Sioux 
influence, and which is found also in Sioux songs. This division of 
the count occurs in 15 per cent of the songs recorded at Waba'clng 
(Nos. 131, 153, 157, 159, 161, 163), and is found in only five other 
songs of the entire collection. The same phrase is found in 10 per 
cent of the Sioux songs of the Drum-presentation Ceremony (Nos. 
54, 62), and also in about 10 per cent of the Sun-dance songs of the 
Teton Sioux recorded by the writer at Standing Rock, North 
Dakota, in 1911. The Chippewa at Waba'chlg are in frequent 
communication with the Sioux of North Dakota, parties from these 
tribes visiting each other at their various festivals. The Chippewa 
at Waba'cnig are also composing music at the present time to a 
greater extent than those on other reservations. It is interesting to 
note that the correspondence between the music of the Chippewa 
and the Sioux, which may be attributed to contact of the two tribes, 
is rhythmic, not melodic. 

Further evidence of the rhythmic unit as a nucleus of Chippewa 
song is found in the fact that some songs were repeated in sections, 

i John Comfort Fillmore, Primitive Scales and Rhythms, in Memoirs of the International Congress o/ 
Anthropology, Chicago, 1894, p. 175. 



12 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

the singer using the phrases in varying order, apparently as his fancy 
prompted him. This is noted in the analysis of No. 105, and was 
observed especially in the love songs. No. 100 affords an example 
of a song the entire rhythm of which constitutes a unit that is com- 
plete in itself and can not be divided. Such a song would become, 
in its repetitions, the rhythmic unit of an extended musical perform- 
ance. 

Finally, there is observed the speed of voice and drum, as 
indicated by a Maelzel metronome, the number representing the 
number of beats per minute. The method of adjusting the phono- 
graph to secure uniform speed in recording and in playing a 
song has been already described. Table 20 shows the metric unit 
of the voice, the indication being usually for the time of a quarter- 
note, though in some instances a half-note, or even an entire measure- 
length, was the only unit by which the tone-values could be deter- 
mined. It will be noted that the largest percentages of speed occur 
on the numbers 96 to 104 M. M., this group being a somewhat clearer 
indication of the natural tempo of Chippewa song than the average 
speed of the entire collection (107 M. M.), as the latter is slightly 
affected by songs whose peculiar structure necessitates a very large 
or a very small unit of measurement. The metric unit is particularly 
slow in songs of controlled excitement (see No. 30). 

Table 21 shows the metric unit of the drum, the highest percentages 
being between 104 and 112 and the average speed 109. Both these 
tests show the speed of the drum to be greater than the speed of the 
voice, though a proportion between the two is not evident. 

The comparative speed of voice and drum is further shown in 
Table 22, the songs in which the drum is slower than the voice being 
about half the number of those in which the metric unit is the same, 
and less than half the number of those in which the drum is faster 
than the voice. The independence of the vocal and instrumental 
expressions is further shown by the fact that the tempo of the voice 
may change but the tempo of the drum remains the same, a peculiarity 
which is noted in the analysis of No. 168. 

There may be instances in which the metric units of voice and 
drum are in the ratio of two to three, but the writer does not recall 
an instance in Chippewa music in which drum and voice coincided 
on the first count of the measure, one showing two and the other 
three pulses, or metric units, during the measure, although this 
11 two-against-three rhythm" has been found in the music of other 
Indian tribes and among many other primitive peoples. Fillmore 
gives an instance of a Bala Bala (Bellabella) Indian song containing 
a 2-4 rhythm in the voice and a 5-8 rhythm in the drum, the two 
coinciding on the first of each measure. 1 In Chippewa music, 

i John Comfort Fillmore, Primitive Scales and Rhythms, p. 173. 



DENSMORK] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 13 

however, the two expressions seem to be entirely distinct. Even 
when voice and drum have to the ear the same metric unit, the 
drum slightly precedes, or in some instances follows, the voice. 
Bulletin 45 (p. 6) contains a description of a phonograph record 
in which the metric units of voice and drum are so nearly alike that 
the same metronome indication was used for each. At the beginning 
of the record the drumbeat was slightly behind the voice, but it 
gained gradually until for one or two measures drum and voice 
were together; the drum continued to gain until at the close of the 
record it was slightly in advance of the voice. An independence of 
rhythm of voice and drum was noted by Doctor von Hornbostel, 1 
and also by Doctor Myers. 2 

Further consideration is given the rhythm of Chippewa songs in 
Bulletin 45 (p. 18). 

How DO THE CHIPPEWA SING? 

The manner of Chippewa singing varies with the nature of the song 
and the skill of the singer. A nasal drawling is always used in the 
love songs, but in no other songs. This is not a loud tone, and it 
remotely suggests the call of an animal. The songs of the Mlde'wlwbi 
(Grand Medicine) contain meaningless syllables, which are distinctly 
pronounced and in most instances are given similarly in the various 
renditions of a song. These syllables are frequently interpolated 
between parts of a word and sometimes bear resemblance to syllables 
of the words. In these songs the words are mispronounced more 
often than in others, being changed to fit the music, which is the 
essential element of the song (see Bulletin 45, p. 14). In other classes 
of songs the vocables are throaty sounds, which differentiate the tones 
but can not be expressed in letters. It is said that "one must have 
an Indian throat to sing the songs properly." A Chippewa does 
not move the lips in giving these vocables, but seems to produce 
them by a contraction of the glottis; the tone lengths are, however, 
entirely distinct and rarely vary in the repetitions of the song. 
In addition to these styles of singing, which are universal, there is a 
vibrato, or wavering tone, which is cultivated among the younger 
singers and is considered an evidence of musical skill (see Bulletin 
45, p. 4). A similar phase of musical culture was noted by the writer 
among the Sioux of North Dakota. 

1 Erich M. von Hornbostel, Uber die Musik der Kubu (aus dem Phonogramm-archiv des psychologischen 
Tnstituts der Universitat Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, 1908, phonogramme 15a). 

2 Charles S. Myers, M. A., M. D., The Ethnological Study of Music (in Anthropological Essays Presented 
to Edward Burnett Tylor, etc.), p. 237: "Not infrequently the accents or measures in the melody are opposed 
to those in the accompaniment." P. 238: [In polyphonic music of primitive peoples] "different simul- 
taneous rhythms are allowed full scope for independent development. . . . Such 'hetero phonic' music 
surely demands of the native audience the same oscillations of attention as occur in us when we listen 
to two persons talking simultaneously." 



14 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Concerning accuracy of intonation according to the piano scale, 
there is wide variance among singers, as well as in some instances, 
among the several intervals sung by the same person. The tran- 
scriptions of these songs should be understood as indicating the tones 
produced by the singers as nearly as it is possible to indicate them 
in a notation which is familiar by usage and therefore convenient 
for observation. 1 A few additional signs are used and the peculiar- 
ities which can not be expressed graphically are noted in the descrip- 
tive analyses of the songs. Where a variation from the piano scale 
was marked and was repeated in the several renditions of a song, 
it is indicated by the sign + or above the note, showing the tone 
to have been persistently sung less than a semitone above or below 
the note transcribed. In five records a faulty intonation at the 
beginning of a song was corrected in the latter part (see Nos. 54, 
129, 133, 146, 164). 

In the rendition of Indian music the writer finds tones which 
correspond to intervals of the piano scale and occasionally, in the 
same song, other tones whose pitch varies so constantly and by such 
minute gradations that they have no equivalent in that scale. Tones 
of the former class are capable of transcription in ordinary musical 
notation; those of the latter can adequately be shown only by a 
sound-wave chart, but, in the present work, are transcribed by the 
notes they most nearly approximate in pitch. Minute gradation of 
tone in Indian song has given rise to the statement that Indians 
habitually use intervals of eighths or quarter tones. Intervals 
smaller than a semitone are familiar to every student of Indian 
music, but before it can safely be assumed that they form a fixed 
part of a musical system it should be proved by mechanical tests 
that they can be accurately repeated. Such proof is believed to be 
lacking at the present time. It is the opinion of the writer that 
these minutely graded tones are survivals of a less differentiated 
vocal expression. In the present analysis of Indian music we observe 
the tones on which a purely natural vocal expression crystallizes and 
first coincides with that system of tones which has gradually devel- 
oped in the musical history of the white race. 

In the early part of the investigations a few phonograph records were 
made which were found to be " musically incoherent/' the tones having 
no clear relation to one another or to a keynote. On inquiry it was 
always found that the men who sang these songs were not considered 
good singers by the members of the tribe. In a repetition of the 
song by a "good singer" the trend of the melody was the same, and 
the intervals were such that the melody "made musical sense," con- 

i Helmholtz, The Sensations of Tone, translated by A. J. Ellis, London, 1885, pt. 3, p. 260. Translator's 
footnote: "All these [scales] are merely the best representatives in European notation of the sensations 
produced by the scales on European listeners." 



DBN8MORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 15 

tained a keynote, and could be expressed with reasonable accuracy 
in musical notation. In recording several hundred songs there have 
been a few instances in which singers have tried to improvise parts 
of songs which they could not remember and have even "made up 
songs as they went along." These attempts were readily discovered 
and the records discarded, together with the efforts of those who, 
like some members of the white race, " could not carry a tune." Indi- 
ans distinguish clearly between competent and incompetent singers, 
and when the purpose of the writer's work was fully understood they 
recommended only such of their number as were good singers. 

The management of the breath by a Chippewa singer is radically 
different from that of a member of the white race. This is indicated 
by the fact that rests occur in only 13 (4 per cent) of the songs, about 
half of these being songs of the Mlde' ceremonies, which are charac- 
terized by forcible ejaculations. The Chippewa sing almost con- 
tinuously for several hours at a time, each song being repeated an 
indefinite number of times. In some instances the measure which 
connects the song and its repetition is a complete measure and is so 
indicated in the transcription, but in many others the song is com- 
pleted as transcribed and the singer at once begins the repetition, 
disregarding uniformity of measure-lengths. 

The accents are clearly given and never vary in the repetitions of 
the song. By these accents the measure-lengths of the transcription 
are determined. In many instances it was necessary to reduce the 
speed of the phonograph greatly in order to discern a metric unit or 
any note-value on which a transcription could be based, but when 
this metric unit was discovered it could easily be traced throughout 
the song and its repetitions, and could be heard clearly when the 
original speed of the phonograph was restored. In the writer's 
experience the metric unit and the measure-length are practically 
without variation in the repetitions of Chippewa songs, and the note- 
values are changed only when words are introduced, or occasionally 
in the closing phrases of a song, which are often without special 
interest or importance. 

The songs are usually accompanied by the drum, though the rattle 
is frequently used with Mfde' songs and the songs connected with the 
use of medicine. The musical instruments of the Chippewa are 
described in Bulletin 45 (p. 11), and will be considered also in the 
group analyses of the songs in the present volume. 

WHY DO THE CHIPPEWA SING? 

Investigation of the origin and use of Chippewa songs leads to the 
conclusion that most of them are connected, either directly or 
indirectly, with the idea of reliance on supernatural help. This 
idea rarely assumes the form of direct address, though one song 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

(No. 156) contains the words "Be kindly, my manido'," and in some 
of the MIde' songs a manido' (spirit) animal or bird is represented 
as speaking "I am a spirit to be able to become visible, I that am 
a male beaver" (Bulletin 45, No. 34), and "I am about to alight 
that you may see me" (ibid., No. 41). 

It is said that in the old days all the important songs were " com- 
posed in dreams," and it is readily understood that the man who 
sought a dream desired power superior to that he possessed. A 
song usually came to a man in his "dream"; he sang this song in the 
time of danger or necessity in the belief that by so doing he made 
more potent the supernatural aid vouchsafed to him in the dream. 
Songs composed, or received, in this manner were used on the warpath, 
in the practice of medicine, 1 and in any serious undertaking of life. 
Thus there are many dream songs among the songs of war, of the 
MIde', and of the moccasin game, in addition to the group of dream 
songs in the classified analysis. An instance of a warrior's success 
connected with the singing of a dream song is shown in No. 42, and of 
a warrior's defeat attributed to the failure of supernatural help, in 
No. 8. 

In addition to songs connected with dreams and with triumphs 
gained by supernatural aid, there are love songs, and songs of physical 
activity (as the social dances) and of the home life (as the songs for 
the entertainment of children). Almost without exception the love 
songs are songs of disappointment and longing, though a few love- 
charm songs are included among those of the Mide' (Bulletin 45, 
Nos. 71-76). 

The words of 248 songs are transcribed; one-third of this number 
contain mention of some manifestation of nature, the number and 
percentages of this group being as follows: 

Number Percentage 

Songs concerning animals 30 36 

Songs concerning birds 17 21 

Songs concerning the sky 17 21 

Songs concerning water 11 13 

Songs concerning clouds 4 4.5 

Songs concerning the wind 4 4.5 

Noting the large number of songs containing mention of animals, 
it is interesting to consider whether animals may have seemed to 
the Indian better fitted than himself to cope with natural conditions. 
The animals mentioned in the songs are the otter, beaver, weasel, 
marten, crawfish, rattlesnake, large bear, fox, deer, and dog; there is 
also (on a reservation showing Sioux influence) one reference to the 
horse and the buffalo. The birds mentioned are the crow, loon, owl, 

1 Compare Ales Hrdlicka, Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern 
United States and Northern Mexico, Bulletin 3J. of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1908, 
pp. 222-227, 243, 241, 



DEX.SMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 17 

raven, plover, eagle, " thunderbird," and " water-birds." Reference 
to water occurs principally in songs of the Mlde'wXwhi, the emblem 
of that organization being a shell, and all its traditions being asso- 
ciated with water and with aquatic animals. 

A spontaneous outburst of melody, giving expression to either 
joy or sorrow, does not characterize Chippewa songs; indeed, the 
nature of the songs is more frequently objective than subjective, 
more often connected with accomplishment than with self-expression. 

A comparison between the content and the tonality of the songs 
may now be undertaken. As we are accustomed to connect a minor 
key with the idea of sadness, it is interesting to inquire whether 
the same mode of expressing sadness obtains in Chippewa songs. 
First, it is observed that, apart from the love songs, there are few 
songs of sorrow. The series of 340 songs contains 142 in minor 
tonality, of which only 20 (14 per cent) are songs of sadness, comprising 
practically all the songs of this character. Among the 85 MXde' 
songs there are only two songs of sadness (Nos. 174, 175); these are 
burial songs. Many Mkle' songs mention sickness, but always with 
an affirmation that it will be cured b}^ supernatural means. Six of 
the 88 war songs contain the idea of distress (Bulletin 45, Nos. 120, 
150; present collection, Nos. 10, 17, 34, 36). It will be noted that two 
of these refer to the grief of the enemy (Nos. 10, 34), and in one a 
condition of distress is relieved by the use of medicine; the three 
which may be considered songs of utilightened sadness are the songs of 
the departure of warriors (No. 150, Bulletin 45; No. 17 of the present 
work) and the song of the warrior left to die on the battlefield 
(Bulletin 45, No. 120). In a similar instance (No. 33) the song of 
the wounded man left to die is distinctly major in tonality. 

Among the 30 love songs 1 1 , or more than 33 per cent, are songs of 
sadness and minor in tonality. Of the unclassified songs only one 
contains the idea of distress, with a minor tonality this is the song 
of the little boy who was afraid of the owl (Bulletin 45, No. 121). 
Two- thirds of the moccasin game songs are minor in tonality; in this 
connection it may be noted that the result of the moccasin game was 
always a matter of uncertainty. 

Most of the Chippewa songs are major in tonality, and most of the 
old songs were "dream songs" used in the Mlde', the practice of 
medicine, and the pursuit of war, the essential nature of a "dream" 
being associated with the idea of reliance on supernatural help. In 
contrast with the large proportion of major songs, and of dream songs 
of various classes, it is found that a minor tonality is used, practically 
without exception, in songs directly expressing sadness, distress, or 
uncertainty. These observations may have a bearing on the further 
study of the psychology of Indian song. 
07990 Bull. 53-13 2 



18 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



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Songs begin 



20 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL.-53 





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Lowest tone in sone 


Highest tone in song. . . 


Immediately preceded 1 
Fifth below... 


k 

1 


Mai or third below.. 


I 
I 


Whole tone below.. 


Whole tone below \s 
Whole tone below v 


Songs containing a fourth b( 
Songs containing a minor th 

Total 


In Bulletin 45 all songs 
In the present work all 
1 A similar peculiarity 
p. 200), who states, " The to 



bEXSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



R8S, 



5| 
31 



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22 



BUREAU OF AMEKICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 




DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



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Seventh raised a semitone. . . 


Sixth raised a semitone 
Fourth raised a semitone 
Third raised a semitone . . . 


Second raised a semitone 
Fourth and seventh raised a semi 


Fourth raised a semitone and 
lowered a semitone. . . 


Second raised a semitone and 
lowered a semitone. . . 


Seventh lowered a semitone 
Sixth lowered a semitone 
Fifth lowered a semitone. . . 


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Thh*d lowered a semitone 


Second lowered a semitone 
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tone . . . 




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1 These songs are minor in tonalit 1 
seventh and fourth are also omitted, 1 



24 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



l 



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Melodic wit 
framework 
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CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



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Fourteenth... 


1 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



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Woman's dance songs 
Begging dance songs 
Pipe dance songs 
Songs connected with gift 
Songs for entertainment o 
Unclassified 

Total... 



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DKXSMOUK] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



27 






1 : : : o .H S S 
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[BULL. 



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CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



29 



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Eighth notes accented in groups of two 2 
Eighth notes unaccented s 
Quarter notes unaccented * 
Half notes unaccented s 


Each beat preceded by an unaccented beat 
corresponding to third count of a triplet . . . 
Each beat followed by an unaccented beat 
corresponding to second count of a triplet 7 . . 
Each beat preceded by an unaccented beat 
corresponding to the fourth count of group 
of four sixteenth notes 8 ... 


Kecorded without drum . . . 


1 


1 



.I" 



30 



BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



03 O 

3 fc 

3 O 

rH CO 






agl's: 

111 ; 



bC 

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dHg 

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IKXSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



31 



,_ CS, ^| ,-H <M *H CM r-H CM CM 



CO CO (N 



CO 1-H f-4 f< CO 



8 -82 8 SB 88 g g 8 S g S S * g g ^' S 

^-*^-if-HrH (i T-t-HrHr-ii-H 



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It 5 
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21 a s 

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32 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL, li 



jir 

Ifgj 

lif <s 

9 fl ^s 



<N rH rH O 






,_, r-H rH r-t O* <N ft 



CO *T> W CO 



rH OJ <N CO CO O O <N .-1 1-- **< * O CO 



S S 8 



DENSMOUE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



33 



TABLE 22. COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 


1 


*1 






1 Excluded in computing percentage. 


o" 




sss 


c 


j} 


JBj 


s "* 







O TH 00 


a 


sJl g 

III 1 


| 


8 8 




1 


- - 


oo 


all 


fl 


SS 




1 1 "**" 


oo 


at- 


IH -g 







6 


CO 


CO 


M 

III 

w w 


g-J 


**; 




6 
^; 


CO CO i-l 


* 


.00 

|? 


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3 




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"5 * i-H 


2 


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s| 


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II 


s| 







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: S 


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J 


838 




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8 S3 S 2 


88 


ft OT 


*i 


88S 




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s s - 


3 


II 


2| 


S38 




1 


** 2 S S 


8 


67996-Bull, K 


J^ Metric unit of voice and drum the same 
9 Drum faster than voice 
Drum slower than voice 
co Recorded without drum 

Total 



34 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

GROUP ANALYSIS OF 340 SONGS 

One purpose of the following analysis is to determine whether there 
is any evidence of connection between the motive which prompts the 
singing of a song and the form assumed by the song. For this test 
the origin and use of the song will be considered. The songs most 
nearly related in origin are theMlde', the dream, and the war songs, as 
many songs said to have been " composed in dreams" were used in the 
ceremonies and practices of the Mlde' and also on the warpath. The 
songs classified as " dream songs" were given as such by the singers. 
No special use was assigned them, and they were probably used by 
individuals in dances until they gradually became general throughout 
the tribe, usually after the death of the composers. 




FIG. 1. MIde' rattle. 
GRAND MEDICINE SONGS (MIDE' NA'GUMOWl'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 1-90 in Bulletin 45, and Nos. 154, 155, 
156, 174, 175, of the present work. The Mide'wiwm (Grand Medicine) 
was the embodiment of the native religion of the Chippewa and has 
many adherents at the present time (1912), new members being 
admitted and others advanced to higher degrees in the order. Many 
characteristics of the Mide' songs are given in Bulletin 45 (pp. 14-20). 
The musical instruments accompanying the songs are described on 
pages 11-12, and illustrated in plates 1 and 2, of that work. The 
Mlde' rattles shown in Bulletin 45 are of wood, with sewed covers of 
untanneoMiide. In figure 1 above is shown a similar rattle, but made 
entirely of wood, which formerly belonged to a prominent member 
of the Mide'wiwin at Waba'cing (see p. 251). The principal classes of 
the MIde' songs are those of the initiation ceremony and those con- 



1-.KXSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 35 

nected with special " medicines." The latter are sung by members 
of the Mide'wiwm in connection with the use of medicines for the 
curing of the sick or the working of charms, and also in the dances 
which follow the meetings of members, either for a feast or an initia- 
tion. Throughout these songs the element of affirmation is very 
strong; indeed, many have a triumphant tone. The idea underlying 
them all is the securing of a definite result through supernatural power, 
the music being an indispensable factor. In the initiation the desired 
end was the transference of " spirit power" to the candidate by the 
men and women who were initiating him, also the renewal of the same 
power in the members of the order who witnessed the ceremony, and 
the prolonging of their lives to old age. In the songs connected with 
special " medicines" the purpose to be accomplished was the healing 
of the sick and the producing of a certain effect on one or more per- 
sons, as in the use of various " charms." Thus it is seen that this 
purpose was usually objective, the effect on the singer being only 
secondary, that the means of securing benefit was supernatural, and 
that the singer had full confidence in its bestowal as well as in its 
efficacy. 

In the first table of analysis it is noted that 72 per cent of the 
Mlde' songs are major in tonality, this proportion being the same as 
in the songs of the begging dance, and exceeded only by the group of 
dream songs, which contains 76 per cent of major songs. The propor- 
tion of songs beginning on the dominant (either the twelfth or the 
fifth) is 70 per cent, the largest of any except the begging dance songs, 
which contain 71 per cent, the dream, the love, and the moccasin 
game songs ranging from 52 to 56 per cent. .Of songs beginning on 
the octave, however, the MMe' songs contain only 12 per cent, which 
is less than the proportion of most groups, and about half that of the 
dream and the war songs. Sixty- three per cent end on the tonic, 
six groups showing a larger proportion. The feeling for the dominant 
is again made evident in the compass of the songs, 50 per cent having 
a range of either 12 or 5 tones, which is much larger than in any other 
group. In songs having a range of an octave, however, the Mide' 
songs show only 22 per cent, while the love songs contain 37 per cent 
and the pipe dance songs 67 per cent 

In tone material the Mide' songs are below most other groups in the 
number of songs on the five-toned scales, showing only 33 per cent, 
while other groups range from 39 to 51 per cent. The MMe' songs 
show the largest percentage, with one exception, in the songs having 
the octave complete except the seventh, namely, 14 per cent of the 
number, the allied groups being the war songs with 13 per cent, and 
the begging dance songs, which show 28 per cent. In purely melodic 
structure this group contains 77 per cent, a larger percentage than any 



36 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

other except the love songs, woman's dance songs, and songs for the 
entertainment of children. The proportion of songs having the first 
progression a downward interval is 88 per cent, which is much larger 
than in any other group. The percentage of downward progression 
in the entire group of songs is the same as in the begging dance songs 
and larger than in any other group. In the number of descending 
minor thirds this group is exceeded only by the dream songs, and in 
the ascending minor thirds by the dream and the war songs. The 
average interval is the same as in the begging dance songs, being 2.9 
semitones, the average of the entire series being 3.1 semitones, or a 
tenth of a semitone more than a minor third. This group is lowest 
of all in songs beginning on the accented part of the measure, and 
lower than most groups in songs beginning in 24 or 3-4 time. 

The drum-rhythm of all these songs is a rapid, unaccented beat 
which occurs in no other group except the war songs. The proportion 
of songs containing a rhythmic unit is larger in this than in any other 
group. Table 22 shows the percentage of songs in which the drum is 
faster than the voice to be larger in this than in any other group 
except the dream and the moccasin game songs, the former being 1 
per cent and the latter 31 per cent greater. 

Here, then, is a group of songs known to be used as a means for 
accomplishing a purpose, namely, the securing of a definite effect, 
usually on a person other than the singer, by supernatural power; 
and the characteristics of this group are found to resemble the beg- 
ging dance songs more frequently than they do any other group. A 
prevailing major tonality is noted, and the feeling for the dominant 
is more marked than for the tonic ; the songs open with less directness 
of " attack" than others, but contain a rhythmic unit more frequently 
than other groups. The expression is freely melodic, downward in 
trend, and is characterized by the interval of the minor third. A 
drumbeat faster than the metric unit of the voice is noted in songs 
of controlled excitement, and 51 per cent of these songs show this 
peculiarity. This is evident also' in the moccasin game songs, and is 
found in war song No. 30. 

In the Mide' songs are found peculiarities which may be connected 
with the motive and the mental state of the singer: (1) The rhythmic 
unit suggesting a definite, crystalized idea; (2) the major tonality, 
a confidence in securing the desired end; (3) a preference for the 
dominant, the unaccented initial tone, and the freely melodic form, 
all suggesting an indirect approach; and (4) the rapid drumbeat 
which is, in many instances, associated with controlled excitement. 

For the rhythmic units of the Mlde' songs see pages 309-313. 



DBNSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC Ix 37 

DREAM SONGS (iNA'BUNDJIGAN' NA'GUMOWl'NUN) 1 

This group comprises Nos. 108-121 of Bulletin 45 and Nos. 94-104 
and 128-153 of the present work. The songs in this group are not 
composed (in the usual sense of the term) but are said to have "come 
to the mind of the Indian when he was in a dream." We can not 
fully understand this dream or trance of the Indian; we can only 
accept his statement that by isolation and fasting he was able to 
induce a certain condition in which he "saw a vision " and " composed 
a song." In the belief of the Indian fasting is a condition essential to 
certain classes of musical composition. It is a well-known fact that 
in a condition of inanition the brain enters on a phase of abnormal 
activity akin to that produced by narcotic stimulants. The com- 
position of songs during or immediately following an abnormal 
mental state has been noted among other Indian tribes. Thus, for 
instance, Mr. James Mooney states that "persons taking part in the 
ghost dance voluntarily sought the trance condition, and on emerging 
from that condition frequently embodied the story of their vision in 
a song." 

In some instances the Chippewa stated that they sang songs 
heard in their dreams; thus in the description of No. 112, Bulletin 45, 
the man said that he "sang a song which he heard the trees singing," 
and in No. 119, in the same bulletin, he "repeated the song which 
the crows sang." Nos. 94-99 of the present work are supposed to be 
the "songs" of the thunderbird, the deer, and the buffalo, which the 
man saw in his dream. Nos. 1, 102, 103, and 104 of the present 
work are said to have been learned from manido', which appeared in 
human form to the dreamer. Mention of the manifestations of 
nature occur in many dream songs; these are considered on page 16. 

It is noted that 16 per cent of the dream songs relate to flight 
through the air. The sensation of aviation in dreams, due to some 
disturbance of the nervous equilibrium, is not an uncommon phe- 
nomenon. 

In the circumstances attending both the composition and the 
use of the dream songs the underlying idea was that of expectancy 
and acquirement. To the Indian a "vision" was more to be desired 
than any material thing. Through the vision he was assured of 
supernatural aid which would enable him to succeed in life, and the 
song was one of the means by which he summoned that aid in his 
hour of need. Considering this idea of acquirement, so closely 
associated with the dream songs, it is not surprising to find them, 
in analysis, allied to the woman's dance songs and the songs con- 

1 The writer gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Dr. Ales' HrdliSka, curator of physical anthro- 
pology, United States National Museum, and of Mr. James Mooney of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, in studying the relation between physiological conditions and musical expression. 



38 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

nected with gifts. One of the principal features of the woman's 
dance is the presenting of gifts, an invitation to dance being accom- 
panied by a gift. Frequently these gifts are valuable articles, as 
ponies, rifles, and beaded garments, and the dancers wait with pleas- 
urable expectancy to know what presents will be bestowed on them. 

At this dance the writer has often observed the interest with which 
the Indians watch a man who rises and walks across the dancing 
circle with an attractive gift in his hand. The feeling is expressed in 
song No. 177, Bulletin 45, which contains the words, "I have been 
waiting a long time for you to come over." There is some similarity 
between this and the mental state of the man who patiently awaits the 
coming of a supernatural visitant. The songs connected with gifts 
are sung at the social dances and are frequently interspersed . with 
woman's dance songs. If the gift is so large as to require special 
celebration these gift songs are used. Some of them accompany 
the giving and some the receiving of the gift, but all concern an actual 
event and have not the element of expectancy associated with many 
of the woman's dance songs. 

Among the dream songs the proportion in major tonality is 4 per 
cent larger than in any other group, comprising 76 per cent, the 
songs of the Mlde' and of the begging dance each showing 72 per cent. 
This group is largest also in songs beginning on the twelfth, the group 
of love songs ranking next in this respect. The MXde', however, 
contains the highest percentage of songs beginning on the dominant, 
comprising a large number of songs beginning on that interval but 
having a compass of less than 12 tones. The number of dream songs 
beginning on the octave is 1 per cent greater than in the Mide' but 
less than half the proportion shown by the war songs. Further 
resemblance to the Mlde' is shown in the ending of the songs, 63 per 
cent ending on the tonic, as in the Mide', though seven other groups 
show a larger percentage. Thirty-seven per cent of the songs have 
a compass of 12 tones, as in the Mide', the highest proportion except 
in the woman's dance songs, 40 per cent of which have this compass. 
In tone material this group shows a difference from the Mide' and a 
similarity to certain other groups, 51 per cent of the songs being 
based on the five-toned scales while the Mide' shows only 33 per 
cent based on these scales; the allied groups are the woman's dance 
songs, the songs connected with gifts, and the songs for the enter- 
tainment of children, 50 per cent of each being on the five-toned 
scales. The proportion of songs containing only the tones of the 
major triad and sixth is the largest except in the pipe dance, consti- 
tuting 26 per cent of the number. The proportion of songs con- 
taining the octave complete except the seventh is only 2 per cent, in 
contrast with 14 per cent in the Mide'. The dream songs differ 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 39 

widely in structure from the Mde' songs, 49 per cent being harmonic 
and 16 per cent melodic with harmonic framework (a class in which 
many songs are harmonic except for one measure) ; thus, 65 per cent 
of the dream songs are harmonic in feeling, compared with 23 per 
cent in the Mide' and 44 per cent in the war songs. In the proportion 
of songs beginning with a downward progression this group is next to 
the M*de', 77 per cent beginning thus. In total number of down- 
ward progressions this group shows 66 per cent, the same as the 
woman's dance songs and the songs connected with gifts. The pro- 
portion of minor thirds in both ascending and descending progression 
is much larger in this than in any other group . The average interval is 
the same as in the woman's dance 3.1 semitones, this being also the 
average interval of the entire series. The beginnings of these songs 
are more direct than in the Mfrle', 74 per cent beginning on the 
accented part of the measure, contrasted with 47 per cent in the 
Mlde', while the proportion of songs beginning in double time is 
larger than in either the Mide' or the war songs, comprising 55 per 
cent of the number. The time is more variable in this than in any 
other group except the unclassified songs, 94 per cent of the songs 
containing a change of time. A triple drum-rhythm is found in 62 
per cent, the same percentage as in the songs connected with gifts. 
A rhythmic unit occurs in a majority of the songs. Both voice and 
drum have in general a rapid metric unit; in 52 per cent the drum is 
faster than the voice, a larger proportion than in any except the 
moccasin game songs. 

The structure of the dream songs is more centralized than that of 
the Mlde' songs, the harmonic form and the large percentage of songs 
on the five-toned scales referring the tones distinctly to a keynote. 
In a general sense it may be said that the Mlde' songs were used for 
the purpose of affecting persons other than the singers, while in the 
dream songs constituting this group (with the exception of the 
" doctor's songs") the purpose was to secure an advantage more or 
less personal. The analysis shows that in some respects this group 
resembles the Mide' songs and in other respects shows similarity to 
the songs of the woman's dance and the songs connected with gifts. 
The dream songs are even more strongly marked by major tonality 
than are those of the Mlde', which they resemble in the prominence 
of the dominant, but they are different from the Mide' and allied to 
the songs of the woman's dance and the songs connected with gifts, 
in the harmonic form, the proportion of songs on the five-toned scales, 
the proportion of upward and downward progressions, the average 
interval, the accented beginning, and the triple drum-rhythm. 

The rhythmic units occurring in the dream songs are given on 
pages 314-317. 



40 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

WAR SONGS (MIGA'DIWIN' NA'GUMOWI'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 122-132 and 154-172 in Bulletin 45, 
and Nos. 1-50, 63-66, and 80-93 of the present work. On the war- 
path these songs were accompanied by a small drum (see pi. 7) . At 
the dances in the village, preceding the departure and .after the return 
of a war party, a large drum was used and the drummers were seated 
around it. In recent years the war songs are sung at the social 
dances of the tribe, accompanied by a drum similar to that used in 
the Drum-presentation Ceremony (see pi. 18), but, according to the 
writer's observation, less elaborately decorated. 

The war songs are of four kinds the dream songs of individual 
warriors, the songs concerning war charms and medicines (these two 
having a connection with the supernatural element), the songs of the 
conduct of the war expedition, and those which commemorated its 
success (the last having no supernatural element) . It is said that "in 
the old days no warrior would have dared sing a war song that was not 
composed in a dream," referring of course to the first two classes of 
war songs. The third class includes the songs of the war messenger, 
the dog feast, and the departure of the war party, and the fourth 
class includes the songs which were composed by a returning war 
party or in the victory dances which followed a successful expedition. 
The boundaries between these classes of songs are not strongly 
marked, and this division should be understood therefore as general 
in character. 

Fifty per cent of the war songs are major in tonality, the same 
proportion as in the songs for the entertainment of children. The 
proportion of war songs beginning on the octave is 27 per cent, the 
largest of any except the love songs. Seventy per cent of the songs 
end on the tonic, the same proportion as in the woman's dance, but 
larger than in the Mlde' or in the dream songs. Seventy-six per cent 
of the songs have a compass of ten or more tones, being exceeded only 
by the dream and the moccasin game songs, which contain 77 per cent 
having that range. The percentage of songs on the five-toned 
scales is less than that of five other groups, but the proportion of 
songs containing the octave complete except the seventh is larger 
than in any other group except the Mlde' and the begging dance. 
The sixth lowered a semitone occurs more frequently in this than in 
any other group. The purely melodic songs comprise 56 per cent, and 
the allied class of melodic songs with harmonic framework comprise 
25 per cent, showing the war songs to be largely melodic in structure, 
the proportion being exceeded only in the love songs, woman's dance 
songs, and songs for the entertainment of children. In 66 per cent of 
the songs the first progression is downward. The number of intervals 
of a second is much above the average, showing freedom of melodic 



DENSMORE] CHlPPEWA MUSIC II 41 

movement. The average interval is one- tenth of a semitone below 
the average interval of the entire series of songs. Fifty-one per cent 
of the songs begin in double time, but this is not steadily maintained, 
66 per cent of the songs containing a change of time. The triple 
rhythm is said to be the drum-rhythm of the victory dance, com- 
monly known as the scalp dance; but this is found in only 35 per 
cent of the war songs, 42 per cent showing the even beats which 
characterize the MIde' (see footnote, p. 10). Seventy-one per cent 
contain a rhythmic unit, the largest proportion except in the Mlde'. 
The metric unit of the voice is rapid, and that of the drum is of 
medium rapidity; the drum is faster than the voice in only 44 per 
cent of the songs, the same proportion as in the begging dance and 
the woman's dance, and much less than in the Mlde' and the dream 
songs. 

The group of war songs is probably less homogeneous than any 
other, and its correspondences to other groups are diverse. The 
relation to the Mlde' songs seems stronger than any other, being both 
melodic and rhythmic; there is also a melodic correspondence with 
the dream songs, the relation to these two groups being attributable 
to the common element of communication with the supernatural. 
Both the Mlde' and war songs are principally melodic in structure, 
but the feeling is for the dominant in the former and for the tonic and 
its octave in the latter. Definiteness of idea and assurance of success 
are suggested by the prominence of the rhythmic unit and the major 
tonality. The correspondence with the woman's dance may come 
from the fact that this dance was a favorite one during the periods of 
peace between the Chippewa and the Sioux. It was said to have 
been given to the Chippewa by the Sioux. The begging dance also 
was received from the Sioux, and with that group the war songs 
show both melodic and rhythmic correspondence. The relation to 
the moccasin game songs is only in the compass, which may be 
attributed to the element of excitement in both groups; this element 
does not affect, however, the tempo of the war songs or the relative 
speed of voice and drum, as it appears to do in the moccasin game 
songs. Regarded as a whole, the characteristics of the war songs 
are control, definiteness, and a strong centralization, the melody 
tones being referable to a keynote in a greater degree than in many 
other groups of songs. 

The rhythmic units occurring in the war songs will be found on 
pages 318-325. 

LOVE SONGS (SA'GII'DIWIN' NA'GUMOWI'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 133-141 and 163-167 of Bulletin 45 and 
Nos. 105-113, 157-160, 170, 177, and 178 of the present work, the 
" love-charm songs " of the MXde' not being included. The love songs 
were unaccompanied by any instrument, but lovers frequently played 



42 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

on a musical instrument commonly called a flute, but similar in 
construction to a flageolet, being blown at the end instead of at the 
side. 1 The instrument is called W)l'gwfLn. (See pi. 2.) This instru- 
ment was procured at Lac du Flambeau , from a middle-aged woman, 
who said it had belonged to her grandfather. It is 2 1 J inches long and 
1 \ inches in diameter. A test of the instrument shows its lowest tone 
to be about a quarter tone above G, second line, treble clef; in the 
octave above this the tones are clear, but in the second octave the 
instrument does not respond. It is worthy of note that the fourth 
produced by this instrument was less accurate than other intervals 
and that the seventh was very faulty and not a clear tone. Uncer- 
tain intonation on the fourth and seventh is noted in Bulletin 45, 
pages 4-5. The following melody, played on this instrument, 
was furnished by Rev. C. H. Beaulieu; it is said to be very old. 

I 

Attention is directed to the prominence of the subdominant, which has 
been found to characterize 11 per cent of the love songs (see No. 106). 

The love songs of the Chippewa are plaintive in character, usually 
expressing sadness and disappointment. Thirty of these songs have 
been recorded and only one of this number is inspired by happiness 
(No. 177). The words of seven are not transcribed. In most in- 
stances the words, which are continuous throughout the melody, were 
not accurately repeated in the repetitions of tho songs, but it has 
usually been possible to give a free translation indicating the char- 
acter of the words. Only one love song expresses a promise and one 
a request, six concern the departure of a lover, and five concern loss 
and longing. Two express jealousy and offense, two fickleness, and 
two relate to an attempt to drown disappointment in drink. It 
has been already stated that the words of the love songs are some- 
times impromptu, and that new words are sometimes fitted to old 
tunes, the general idea remaining the same. Expression by means 
of a combination of words and music is much more free in the love 
songs than in any other group, and they may be said to constitute 
a distinct phase of musical culture and practice. 

Although these songs are indicative of an unhappy state of mind, 
40 per cent of them are major in tonality. In this group the per- 
centage of songs beginning on the octave is larger than in any other 
except the war songs. Eighty-six per cent begin on either the tonic, 
octave, or dominant, nearest to this being the songs of the begging 
dance, which show 85 per cent, and of the moccasin game, 84 per cent. 

i Contributions to the History of Musical Scales, by Charles Kasson Wead, in Report U. S. National 
Museum, 1900, p. 426, Washington, 1902. 



DHNSMORK] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 43 

The proportion of songs ending on either the tonic or dominant is 93 
per cent, larger than in any other group except the pipe dance songs 
and the songs for the entertainment of children. Ninety-seven per 
cent of the love songs have a compass of an octave or more, and 
four songs have a range of 14 tones. 

The love songs have the highest percentage among songs contain- 
ing all the tones of the octave, the begging dance songs ranking next; 
the omitted seventh, which characterizes the war songs, does not 
appear in this group, and the octave complete except the second occurs 
in 17 per cent of the number. The five-toned scales appear less fre- 
quently in this than in any other group. In accidentals the sixth is 
sharped more often than in any other group; the flat third, which 
we are accustomed to connect with the idea of sadness, does not 
appear, and the flatted sixth occurs only twice. Two songs have the 
third omitted, a peculiarity found to exist in several songs concerning 
women (see analysis of No. 53). Ninety-three per cent of the songs 
are purely melodic in structure, a proportion much higher than in 
any group except the woman's dance (100 per cent), the group nearest 
it being the songs for the entertainment of children, which contains 
87 per cent of melodic songs. Half the love songs begin with an 
upward and half with a downward progression, the proportion being 
the same in the woman's dance, the gift songs, and the songs for the 
entertainment of children. The love songs, so eminently songs of 
sadness, contain a smaller percentage of minor thirds (in both ascend- 
ing and descending progression) than any other group. The pro- 
portion of ascending fifths is much larger than in any other group, 
and seven ascending intervals of a twelfth are found, showing, as in 
the preceding Tables, a strong feeling for the dominant. The aver- 
age interval is 3.4 semitones, the highest except in the moccasin 
game and the pipe dance songs, two classes comprising songs of a 
high degree of excitement, in which the average interval is 3.5. In 
contrast to this the metric unit of the voice is slow. The proportion 
of songs containing a change of time is much above the average, and 
most of the songs do not contain a rhythmic unit. 

The interval of the twelfth is prominent, showing a feeling for the 
second overtone as in the Hide'; it will be recalled that the war songs 
show the first overtone, which is the octave. Completeness and free- 
dom of expression are suggested by the melodic form, the large com- 
pass, and the use of all the tones of the octave; an element of excite- 
ment by the largeness of the average interval, and an element of 
control by the slow metric unit, while a lack of definitely formed 
thought is suggested by the small percentage containing a rhythmic 
unit. 

For the rhythmic units occurring in the love songs see pages 
325-327. 



44 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

MOCCASIN GAME SONGS (MAKIZIN'ATA'DIWIN' NA'GUMOWl'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 142-145 and 168-176 of Bulletin 45, 
and Nos. 125, 126, 161-163, and 176 of the present work. It is said 
that in the old days most of the moccasin game songs were " com- 
posed in dreams" but only a few such are included in this series. 

The instrument used to accompany these songs is a drum, speci- 
mens of which vary but little in size, provided usually with deerskin 
heads (see pi. 3) - 1 With this drum is used an ordinary short drum- 
stick the end of which is wound with cloth. Small pieces of tin are 
sometimes set in the frame of the moccasin game drum, to add a 
jingling effect. 

In the analysis of these songs may be noted a large proportion in 
minor tonality, exceeded only by the songs of the woman's dance and 
the songs connected with gifts. Eighty-four per cent begin on, and 
all end on, either the tonic or dominant. None of the songs have a 
compass of less than an octave, resembling in this respect the woman's 
dance and the pipe dance songs. One-third of the songs are on the 
second five-toned scale, this being the largest proportion in the entire 
collection, the closest approximation being the woman's dance songs. 
The several five-toned scales comprise 43 per cent of the entire num- 
ber, and apart from these the group presents a wide range of tone 
material. Only one song contains an accidental the flat sixth. 
Forty-two per cent of the songs are harmonic in structure, the group 
being exceeded in this respect only by the dream songs. The per- 
centage of descending minor thirds is below the average, notwith- 
standing so large a proportion of the songs is minor in tonality, this 
group resembling the love songs in this respect. The average interval, 
which is the same as in the pipe dance (3.5 semitones), is the largest in 
the entire series. Eighty-nine per cent of the moccasin game songs 
begin on the accented part of the measure, being exceeded in this 
respect only by the woman's dance songs with 90 per cent, and by the 
pipe dance songs with 100 per cent. With the exception of the 
woman's dance and the gift songs this group maintains the time 
throughout the song more steadily than any other group, a feature 
which is surprising in view of the excitement of the game. Thirty- 
three per cent of the songs contain a rhythmic unit, the percentage 
of songs in the entire series containing such unit being 62. In this 
the moccasin game songs are seen to be below the average, songs for 

i The instrument here illustrated was obtained at White Earth; it is said to be very old. The cover has 
been renewed from time to time, the design being duplicated on the new cover, as in the instance of 
Odjlb'we's war drum (p. 62). The diameter of the drum shown in plate 3 is 18J inches, the thickness 
2J inches. A single piece of deerskin forms both heads; this is sewed with strips of hide on which some 
of the hair remains. Inside the drum are three tightly stretched cords, each provided with small pegs tied 
at equal distances. At the writer's request the former owner of the drum fastened a cord across an ordi- 
nary hoop (pi. 3) in the same manner as the cords are fastened inside the drum. The pegs are tied to the 
cord and before the cover of the drum is put in place the cord is twisted to increase the tension, permitting 
the pegs to vibrate against the deerskin. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 3 





MOCCASIN GAME DRUM 

The upper figure shows the arrangement of one of the three cords inside the drum together 
with the pegs fastened thereto. 



DBNSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 45 

the entertainment of children (38 per cent having a rhythmic unit) 
ranking next. The rhythmic unit appears to represent a definitely 
formed thought and conveys that impression to the hearer. In this 
connection it will be noted that the chief concern of the moccasin 
game player is to give no clue to his thought, thus mentally eluding his 
opponents. A wide range is shown in the speed of both voice and 
drum, and in comparing the metric units of the two it is found that 
the drum is faster than the voice in 82 per cent of the songs, the per- 
centage for the entire series being only 46. 

Thus the moccasin game songs constitute a group which in some 
phases of analysis shows itself allied to the groups of dance songs (the 
woman's dance, the pipe dance, and the begging dance), though its 
songs were never used in dances. This resemblance is in the form 
of the song, not in the rhythm of the drum, which is peculiar to the 
moccasin game. It will be recalled that many dream songs and war 
songs were used in dances and that the phonograph records of those 
songs show a drum-rhythm similar to that of these three groups of 
dance songs, but many of the war songs and all the dream songs were 
essentially personal in character. The social element was strong in 
the moccasin game and in these three kinds of dances. The woman's 
dance and the begging dance were open to all the men and women, 
and the pipe dance is said to have been "the principal good-time 
dance" of the old Chippewa. In similar if not greater degree a 
moccasin game was a center of interest in the camp ; it is said that 
"the whole tribe" always gathered around the players, watching the 
game and betting on the result. Thus the social element may be said 
to be the point of contact between the moccasin game and the dance 
groups. A resemblance to the love songs may be noted in the 
seeming discrepancy between the tonality and the character of the 
intervals. Perhaps it may be said that these two groups have in 
common a certain elusiveness and whimsical changeableness. Direct- 
ness is shown in the accented beginnings of the songs and their endings 
on the tonic, but this is contradicted by the small percentage of songs 
containing a rhythmic unit. The rhythm of the drum is the usual 
moccasin game rhythm (see No. 125). 

The rhythmic units occurring in the moccasin game songs are given 
on pages 327-328. 

WOMAN'S DANCE SONGS (IKWE'NIMIWIN' NA'GUMOWI'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 177-185 of Bulletin 45 and No. 164 of 
the present work. 

The woman's dance is a social dance in which an invitation is 
usually accompanied by a gift. This dance is described in Bulletin 
45 (p. 192) and is illustrated in plate 45 of the present work. The 
dance is said to have been acquired long ago from the Sioux, but the 



46 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

songs in this collection are supposed to have been composed by 
Chippewa. The drum used to accompany the woman's dance is the 
large drum similar to that used in the Drum-presentation Ceremony 
but less elaborately decorated. 

Seventy per cent of the woman's songs are minor in tonality, this 
being the largest proportion of any group except the gift songs, 
which show 75 per cent. Half the songs begin on the dominant and 
one-fifth begin on the octave above the tonic. The proportion end- 
ing on the tonic exceeds the average of the series. Forty per cent 
have a range of an octave, and 40 per cent a range of a twelfth, this 
being the highest percentage in the group. Half the songs are on 
the five-toned scales, this proportion being the same as in the gift 
songs and in the songs for the entertainment of children. Only one 
song contains an accidental, and all the songs are purely melodic in 
structure, the love songs (93 per cent) being the nearest rivals in this 
respect. The upward and downward progressions are evenly divided, 
as in the love songs and in those for the entertainment of children. 
One-fourth of the intervals, in both ascending and descending pro- 
gression, are minor thirds. It will be recalled that the moccasin 
game songs, with almost the same proportion of minor tonality, do 
not show so great prominence of minor thirds. The average interval 
is the same as the average for the entire series 3.1 semitones, the 
same interval being shown by the dream songs. In definiteness of 
beginning these songs exceed all except the songs of the pipe dance, 
90 per cent beginning on the accented part of the measure. Conti- 
nuity of measure-lengths is greater in this group than in any other, 
40 per cent of the songs showing no change of time. The triple 
drum-rhythm occurs with all the songs. Considering the definiteness 
of beginning, the large proportion of songs ending on the tonic, and 
the steadily maintained length of the measures, it is surprising to 
find that the proportion of songs containing a rhythmic unit is the 
smallest except in songs of the moccasin game and for entertainment 
of children. The proportion of songs having the same metric unit of 
voice and drum is largest except in the pipe dance. 

The rhythm of the woman's dance songs is particularly " catchy" 
and pleasing, but the element of what might be termed intellectu- 
ality does not enter into this merrymaking, and perhaps this lack is 
one of the factors essential to the development of a song from a small 
group of tones. In tonality we note a correspondence with the gift 
songs and recall that gifts were an important feature of the woman's 
dance. Simple pleasure allied this group to that of the pipe dance 
songs and the songs for the entertainment of children, and some cor- 
responding characteristics are shown by the analysis. 

The rhythmic units occurring in the woman's dance songs will be 
found on page 328, 






DENSMOBE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 47 

BEGGING DANCE SONGS (SAGOSAN'NINGE'NIMIWIN' NA'GUMOWl'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 187 and 188 of Bulletin 45. and Nos. 
114-118 of the present work. 

The begging dance, like the woman's dance, is said to have been 
derived from the Sioux. In the writer's observation of this dance 
among both Chippewa and Sioux the large drum is used; this is 
carried by two or three men as the begging party goes from tent to 
tent. This dance is described in Bulletin 45 (p. 171) and its tradi- 
tional origin is given on page 228 of the present work. 

The percentage of these songs in major tonality is 72, the same 
as in the Mlde' and 4 per cent less than in the dream songs. Seventy- 
one per cent begin on the dominant, resembling the MKde' songs, in 
which 70 per cent begin on the dominant. Fourteen per cent only 
begin on the tonic. The proportion of songs ending on the tonic 
is 24 per cent below the average (see Tables 2 and 3) , indicating a 
slight feeling for the keynote. The percentage of songs beginning 
on the ninth is almost double that in any other group. The ninth is 
usually a tone of approach to the octave. The number of songs on 
the five-toned scales and the number with the octave complete except 
the seventh are equal. Only one song contains an accidental, and 
72 per cent are purely melodic in structure, this being 6 per cent 
above the average. The percentage of downward progression is 67, 
the same as in the Mfde', and the largest in the entire series. The 
percentage of ascending fourths is the largest in the series except in 
the pipe dance. This interval has been found to characterize songs 
concerning motion; it is considered in the analysis of song No. 22. 
The average interval of this group is the same as in the Mlde', and is 
the smallest in the entire series except in the songs connected with 
gifts. The percentage of songs beginning in double time is the largest 
except in the pipe dance and the songs for the entertainment of chil- 
dren, and the time is more steadily maintained than in any except 
these groups and the unclassified songs. A small proportion of these 
songs contains a rhythmic unit, the related groups being the woman's 
dance and the songs for the entertainment of children. The num- 
ber of songs having the same metric unit of voice and drum is the 
same as the number in which the drum is faster than the voice. 

In the analysis of the Mlde' songs a similarity between that group 
and the songs of the begging dance was noted and some corre- 
spondence of motive was traced. In the analysis of the begging 
dance songs are found similarities to the songs of the pipe dance 
and the woman's dance, the songs for the entertainment of children, 
and the songs connected with gifts; and some similarity of motive 
also can be traced between these groups. The purpose of the begging 
dance was, of course, the securing of gifts. Underlying the -other 



48 BUREAU OF AMEKICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

three classes of songs is a strong element of pleasure and simple 
amusement. The woman's dance, with its exchange of gifts, is 
greatly enjoyed by the Chippewa, much interest surrounding the 
"return present/' as everyone who is given a present is expected to 
return one of equal value. The pipe dance is a ludicrous pantomime, 
and the songs for the entertainment of children usually end in 
laughter. The element of pleasure is equally strong in the begging 
dance. The writer has seen a merry party going from tent to tent, 
singing the begging dance songs. This dance forms the great recrea- 
tion in a camp. There is the discomfiture of the people who are 
not prepared with proper gifts of food (the recollection comes to the 
writer of a woman running after a begging dance party with a pail 
of maple sugar which she could not find when they were at her tent), 
and there is the pleasure of forcing people to give who are not disposed 
to be generous. Added to these factors is the delightful uncertainty 
as to the nature of the food to be bestowed and the pleasant anticipa- 
tion of the varied feast to follow. No one acquainted with a ChippeWa 
or a Sioux camp would be surprised at the resemblances shown in this 
analysis. 
The rhythmic units of the begging dance songs are given on page 329. 

PIPE DANCE SONGS (OPWA'GUNINl'MININ NA'GUMOWi'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 171, 172, and 173 of the present work. 

The pipe dance was performed solely for the merriment of the tribe. 
In its original form it passed out of existence long ago and only a few 
of its songs remain. The number of songs in this group is so small 
that the percentages are less significant than in other groups, but some 
general characteristics of the songs are shown by their analysis. 

Most of the songs are major in tonality and begin on the third, 
but all end on the tonic. One song has a range of but four tones, 
the only one having a similar range being a dream song. The major 
triad forms the framework of two-thirds of the songs, none contain 
an accidental, two-thirds are purely melodic, and the downward 
progressions are much greater in number than the upward. The 
average interval is the same as in the moccasin game songs and the 
element of excitement was probably almost as great in one as in the 
other. All the songs begin on the accented part of the measure, 
all begin in double time, and all show a change of time. Two-thirds 
of the songs contain a rhythmic unit. Considering the element of 
excitement in the dance, it is surprising to find the metric unit of 
voice and drum the same in all the songs, none of the other groups 
showing a percentage of more than 56. This can scarcely be regarded 
as an original feature of the pipe dance music, but may suggest the 
mental attitude of the Indian at the present time. 

For the rhythmic units occurring in these songs see page 329. 



DBNSMOKJS] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 49 

SONGS CONNECTED WITH GIFTS 
(MI'GINE, MA'MOYA'NE, NA'GUMOWI'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 151-153 and 189-191 in Bulletin 45, 
and Nos. 123, 124 of the present work. These are the songs which 
accompany gifts, usually the gift of a pony, and are sung by the 
recipient or giver, together with the singers at the drum. The songs 
ar-3 used in the social dances. Three-fourths of the songs are minor 
in tonality, and one begins in major tonality but changes to minor 
by lowering the third and sixth a semitone, the keynote remaining 
the same. Half of these songs begin on the keynote, and half end on 
the tonic. Eighty-eight per cent of them have a compass of an octave 
or more, the allied groups being the moccasin game, woman's dance, 
and begging dance. Half the songs are on the five-toned scales, as 
in the woman's dance and the songs for the entertainment of children, 
and all contain the tonic triad. Only one song contains an accidental 
and in this the second is lowered a semitone. Sixty-two per cent of 
the songs are purely melodic in structure. Half begin with a down- 
ward progression, the same proportion occurring in the songs of the 
woman's dance and the songs for the entertainment of children. The 
minor third constitutes more than one-fourth of the intervals in both 
ascending and descending progression. The average interval is the 
smallest in the entire series, being only 2.2 semitones. Eighty-seven 
per cent of the songs begin on the accented part of the measure, 
a proportion exceeded only by the songs of the moccasin game, the 
woman's dance, and the pipe dance. Sixty-three per cent begin in 
2-4 time and contain a change of time. The drum-rhythm is that 
of the social dance. The percentage of songs containing a rhythmic 
unit is the same as that of the entire series. In half the songs the 
metric unit of voice and drum is the same, and in half the voice is 
faster than the drum. 

The rhythmic units occurring in these songs are given on pages 
329-330. 

SONGS FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT OF CHILDREN 
(A'DIZO'KE NA'GUMOWI'NUN) 

This group comprises Nos. 149 and 197 in ^Bulletin 45 and Nos. 
51-53, 127, 179, and 180 of the present work. Nos. 149 of Bulletin 
45 and No. 127 in this volume represent different versions of the 
same song, recorded on widely separated reservations, which present 
some differences on analysis. It will be noted that, with the excep- 
tion of the lullaby, all these songs are characterized by a marked 
sense of humor and usually mimic the interests and occupations of 
the tribe. 

Half these songs are major and half are minor in tonality; half 
begin on the tonic and three-fourths end on the tonic. Two songs 
67996 Bull. 5313 4 



50 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 5:5 

are on the fifth five- toned scale and two on the fourth five- toned 
scale, these comprising half the group. From two of the songs the 
third is omitted (see analysis of No. 53). None of these songs con- 
tain an accidental and 87 per cent are purely melodic in structure. 
Half "begin with a downward and half with an upward progression. 
The minor third is especially prominent in the descending intervals. 
The average interval is the same as in the war songs, and we note 
that three of these songs are concerned with a child's game of war 
and one with war between animals. Half the songs begin on the 
accented and half on the unaccented part of the measure. Three- 
fourths begin in 2-4 time and the percentage of songs marked by a 
change of time is the largest except in the dream songs, the pipe 
dance songs, and the unclassified songs. Sixty- two per cent contain 
no rhythmic unit, this proportion being exceeded only in the moc- 
casin game songs. In the rendering of these songs, as well as in 
those of the moccasin game, a high degree of excitement prevails. 
Most of the songs were recorded without the drum; in one song drum 
and voice show the same metric unit, while in another the drum is 
slower than the voice. 

The rhythmic units occurring in these songs will be found on 
page 330. 

UNCLASSIFIED SONGS 

This group comprises the following songs: Nos. 146, 147, 148, 150, 
186, and 192-196 in Bulletin 45, and Nos. 67, 68, 119-122, 165-169 
of the present work. These songs present a wide variety of inter- 
est, including songs of the ca'wtino'ga (southern) dance, the divorce 
ceremony, the friendly visit of one band to another, and a song 
concerning an historical incident. As the topics of the songs are so 
diverse it does not seem expedient to consider the group as a unit. 
The rhythmic units found in the songs are, however, of interest (see 
pp. 330-332). 

MELODIC AND RHYTHMIC RESEMBLANCES BETWEEN SONG GROUPS 
(BASED ON TABLES 1-22) 

The preceding analysis suggests connection between the idea of the 
song and its musical form, and also indicates resemblance between 
groups of songs containing a somewhat similar idea. Tables (pp.51-58) 
have been prepared in order that these resemblances may be more con- 
veniently observed. For instance, it will be noted that the Mlde' songs 
resemble the begging dance songs, the idea common to both being 
desire for acquirement, in the former for the acquirement of super- 
natural power and in the latter for gifts of food. Turning to the 
analysis of the begging dance songs, they are found to be allied to the 
three groups of songs in which the element of pleasure is strongest 
the songs of the woman's dance, the pipe dance, and those for the 



\ 



DKXSMORK] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 51 

entertainment of children, the begging dance combining the idea of 
acquirement with that of pleasure. It may be noted also that the 
begging dance and the pipe dance songs have in common a large 
proportion of intervals of the ascending fourth, which have been 
found to characterize songs concerning motion (see No. 22), and it is 
recalled that the persons engaged in the begging dance made the 
circuit of the entire camp and that the pipe dance was a contortion 
dance. Turning to the analysis of the songs for the entertainment of 
children, we find that group allied to the pleasure songs and also to 
the war songs, and recall that one-half the songs of this group relate 
to mimic warfare or warfare between animals. 

From further study of structural resemblances between groups of 
Indian songs it may be possible to ascertain whether a rhythmic unit 
is usually found in songs of definitely formed thought, whether a 
feeling for the tonic and its octave is strongest in subjective songs, 
and to throw light on other peculiarities suggested as subjects of more 
extended investigation by this comparative analysis of the content 
and form of Chippewa songs. 

TABULATED ANALYSIS OF RESEMBLANCES 

1. MiDE 7 SONGS 

General motive of songs: The securing of a definite result through 
supernatural power, the person affected being usually some one 
other than the singer. 

Melodic resemblances of Mide' songs to 
Dream Songs 

a, In major tonality 

6, In proportion of songs beginning on octave 

c, In proportion of songs ending on tonic 

d, In compass of twelfth 

e, In first progression downward 
Love Songs 

In purely melodic structure 
Woman's Dance Songs 

In purely melodic structure 
Begging Dance Songs 

a, In major tonality 

>, In proportion of songs beginning on dominant 

c, In proportion of songs containing octave complete except 

seventh 

d, In proportion of downward progressions 

e, In average interval 

Songs for the Entertainment of Children 
In purely melodic structure 



52 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Rhythmic resemblances of MUe' songs to 
Dream Songs 

In proportion of songs in which drum is faster than voice 
Certain kinds of War Songs 
In double drum-rhythm 
Moccasin Game Songs 
In proportion of songs in which drum is faster than voice 

2. DREAM SONGS 

General motive of songs: The securing of supernatural aid in per- 
sonal undertakings. 

Melodic resemblances of dream songs to 
Hide 7 Songs 

a, In major tonality 

b, In proportion of songs beginning on octave 
Cj In proportion of songs ending on tonic 

d, In compass of twelfth 

e, In first progression downward 
Love Songs 

In proportion beginning on twelfth 
Moccasin Game Songs 

In harmonic structure 
Woman's Dance Songs 

a, In five-toned scales 

b, In compass of twelfth 

c, In proportion of downward progressions 

d, In average interval 
Begging Dance Songs 

In major tonality 
Pipe Dance Songs 

a, In proportion containing major triad and sixth 

6, In songs having compass of four tones 
Songs Connected with Gifts 

In five-toned scales 
Songs for the Entertainment of Children 

a, In five-toned scales 

b, In proportion of downward progressions 

Rhythmic resemblances of dream songs to 
MXde' Songs 

In proportion of songs in which drum is faster than voice 
Songs Connected with Gifts 
In triple drum-rhythm 






DEXSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 53 

3. WAR SONGS 

General character of songs: (1) Dream songs of individual warriors; 
(2) Songs concerning war medicines; (3) Songs incidental to a war 
expedition; (4) Songs concerning success on the warpath. 

Melodic resemblances of war songs to 
Mlde' Songs 

In proportion of songs containing octave complete except 

seventh 
Dream Songs 

In compass 
Love Songs 

a, In proportion of songs beginning on octave 

6, In melodic structure 
Moccasin Game Songs 

In compass 
Woman's Dance Songs 

a, In proportion of songs ending on tonic 

&, In melodic structure 
Songs for the Entertainment of Children 

a, In equal major and minor tonality 

&, In melodic structure 

Rhythmic resemblances of war songs to 
Mlde' Songs 

In double drum-rhythm (of certain classes of war songs) 
Begging Dance Songs 

In proportion having drum faster than voice 

4. LOVE SONGS 

General character oj 'songs: The expression of disappointment, loneli- 
ness, and sadness. 

Melodic resemblances of love songs to 
Mlde' Songs 

In melodic structure 
Dream Songs 

In proportion of songs beginning on twelfth 
War Songs 

a, In proportion of songs beginning on octave 

&, In melodic structure 
Moccasin Game Songs 

a, In proportion of songs beginning on tonic, octave, or 
dominant 

&, In average interval 



54 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Melodic resemblances of love songs to 
Woman's Dance Songs 

a, In relative proportion of downward and upward pro- 
gressions 

&, In melodic structure 
Begging Dance Songs 

a, In proportion of songs beginning on tonic, octave, or 

dominant 

Z>, In compass of an octave 
Pipe Dance Songs 

a, In proportion of songs ending on tonic or dominant 
Z>, In average interval 
Songs Connected with Gifts 

In relative number of downward and upward progressions 
Songs for the Entertainment of Children 

a, In proportion of songs ending on tonic or dominant 
&, In relative proportion of downward and upward progres- 
sions 

Rhythmic resemblances of love songs to 
Begging Dance Songs 
In change of time 

Songs for the Entertainment of Children 
In change of time 

5. MOCCASIN GAME SONGS 

Elements in moccasin game: Controlled excitement, desire for suc- 
cess and gain, pleasure, and confidence in supernatural aid. 

Melodic resemblances of moccasin game songs to 
Dream Songs 

In harmonic structure 
Love Songs 

In number of songs beginning on tonic, octave, or dominant 
Woman's Dance Songs 

a, In minor tonality 

6, In second five-toned scale 

c, In compass 
Pipe Dance Songs 

In average interval 
Songs Connected with Gifts 

In minor tonality 



DBNSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC n 55 

Rhythmic resemblances of moccasin game songs to 
MIde' Songs 

In proportion of songs in which drum is faster than voice 
Woman's Dance Songs 

a, In proportion of songs beginning on accented part of 

measure 

b, In time steadily maintained 
Pipe Dance Songs 

In number of songs beginning on accented part of measure 
Songs Connected with Gifts 

In time steadily maintained 
Songs for the Entertainment of Children 

In rhythmic unit 

6. WOMAN'S DANCE SONGS 

Elements in the dance: Pleasure and securing the gifts offered with 
the invitation to dance. 

Melodic resemblances of woman's dance songs to 
Hide' Songs 

In melodic structure 
Dream Songs 

a, In five-toned scales 

b, In compass of twelfth 

c, In proportion of downward progressions 

d, In average interval 
Love Songs 

a, In melodic structure 

b, In proportion of downward and upward progressions 
Songs Connected with Gifts 

a, In minor tonality 

b, In five-toned scales 

c, In relative number of downward and upward progressions 
Songs for the Entertainment of Children 

a, In. five-toned scales 

&, In proportion of downward and upward progressions 

Rhythmic resemblances of woman's dance songs to 
Moccasin Game Songs 

In time steadily maintained 
Pipe Dance Songs 

In number of songs beginning on accented part of measure 
Songs Connected with Gifts 

In time steadily maintained 
Songs for the Entertainment of Children 

In rhythmic unit 



5( BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

7. BEGGING DANCE SONGS 

Elements in the dance: Pleasure and acquirement. 
Melodic resemblances of begging dance songs to 
MIde' Songs 

a, In major tonality 

b) In proportion of songs beginning on dominant 

c, In proportion of songs containing octave complete except 

seventh 

d, In proportion of downward progressions 
Cj In average interval 

Dream Songs 

In major tonality 
Love Songs 

In proportion of songs beginning on tonic, octave, or 

dominant 
Pipe Dance Songs 

In number of ascending fourths 

Rhythmic resemblances of legging dance songs to 
Woman's Dance Songs 

In rhythmic unit 
Songs for the Entertainment of Children 

a, In proportion of songs beginning in double time 

b, In rhythmic unit 

8. PIPE DANCE SONGS 

Elements in the dance: Ludicrous pantomime and contortion. 

Melodic resemblances of pipe dance songs to 
Dream Songs 

a, In proportion of songs containing major triad and sixth 

b. In songs having compass of four tones 
Love Songs 

a, In proportion of songs ending on tonic or dominant 

b, In average interval 
Moccasin Game Songs 

In average interval 

Rhythmic resemblances of pipe dance songs to 
Moccasin Game Songs 

In proportion of songs beginning on accented part of 

measure 
Woman's Dance Songs 

In proportion of songs beginning on accented part of 
measure 






CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 57 

9. SONGS CONNECTED WITH GIFTS 

Comprising songs which .are sung when a gift of considerable value 
is given or received at a social dance. 
Melodic resemblances of songs connected with, gifts to 
Dream Songs 

In five-toned scales 
Love Songs 

In proportion of downward and upward progressions 
Moccasin Game Songs 
In minor tonality 
Woman's Dance Songs 

a, In minor tonality 

b, In five-toned scales 

c, In proportion of downward and upward progressions 

Rhythmic resemblances of songs connected with gifts to 
Dream Songs 

In triple drum-rhythm 
Moccasin Game Songs 

In time steadily maintained 
Woman's Dance Songs 

In time steadily maintained 

10. SONGS FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT OF CHILDREN 

Comprising songs of mimic warfare and of warfare between ani- 
mals two songs intended only for amusement, and one lullaby. 

Melodic resemblances of songs for the entertainment of children to 
Mfde' Songs 

In melodic structure 
Dream Songs 

a, In five-toned scales 

b, In proportion of downward progressions 
War Songs 

a, In equal major and minor tonality 

b, In melodic structure 
Love Songs 

a, In proportion of songs ending on tonic or dominant 
6, In melodic structure 

c, In proportion of downward and upward progressions 
Woman's Dance Songs 

a, In five-toned scales 

b } In proportion of downward and upward progressions 



58 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Rhythmic resemblances of songs for the entertainment of children to 
Love Songs 

In change of time 
Moccasin Game Songs 

In rhythmic unit 
Woman's Dance Songs 

In rhythmic unit 
Begging Dance Songs 

a, In proportion of songs beginning in double time 

b, In rhythmic unit 






WAR SONGS OF THE MISSISSIPPI BAND OF 

CHIPPEWA 

Odjfb'we (pi. I), 1 the last great warrior of the Mississippi Band of 
Chippewa in Minnesota, sang the songs which were associated with his 
own expeditions, related the story of his war parties, and described 
the war customs of his people, so that the white man might know 
about them when the last warrior of the Chippewa should have been 
forgotten. These songs and narratives constitute the greater part 
of the following chapter. 

At the age of 89 Odjfb'we still possessed a voice of unusual strength 
and sweetness. The first phonographic records of his songs were made 
in August, 1909. A second set of records was made two weeks later 
for purposes of comparison, the songs being accurately repeated. At 
the expiration of several months the entire material was translated 
into Chippewa for revision by Odjlb'we, some new songs were added, 
and many were sung or recorded a third time. In these repetitions 
it was noted that certain tones which were shortened or prolonged 
in the original rendition were similarly shortened or prolonged ; also, 
that a slight sharping or flatting of certain tones was repeated. The 
records occasionally vary in unimportant melody progressions or in 
note-values which do not affect the length of the measure, and a few 
songs show changes in words, Odjib'we stating that it is permissible 
to alter the words, but that the "tune" and the meaning of the words 
must not be changed. 2 The original record of a song was not played 
when securing a repetition, hence the identity of the renditions shows 
how clearly the melody was retained in the mind of the singer. 

1 The name of this warrior is identical with the name of the tribe, the word being applied also to a member 
of the tribe (singular Odjlb'we, plural OdjfiVweg). The corrupted form "Chippewa," the only form 
which seems to have been used in Government publications, has never been adopted by the Indians. 
Many variants of this name were used by early writers, among those cited being, Achipo& (Perrot, 1671), 
Ochipoy (York, 1700), Chepeways (Croghan, 1760), Tschipeway (Wrangell, 1839), and Otchipwe (Baraga, 
1878). (See Handbook of American Indians, Bull. 30,B.A.E., pt. 1, pp. 280-281.) In the first volume of 
treaties published by the Government the form "Chippewa" appears. (See Indian Treaties and Laws and 
Regulations relating to Indian affairs, compiled and published under orders of the Department of War, 
Washington City, 1826.) 

The meaning of the word Qdjlb'we (pronounced Ojib'way) has been a subject of much discussion. (See 
William H. Keating, in Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River, vol. 2, p. 151, Phila- 
delphia, 1824; Gov. Alexander Ramsey, in Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, 1850, 
p. 83; and William W. Warren, in History of the Ojibways, St. Paul, Minn., 1885, p. 36.) The derivation 
of the word from a root meaning "to pucker" is established, but the connection of the idea is a matter of 
dispute. The form of moccasin to which some have attributed the name is shown in plate 36. It is possible 
that the word Ojibway may have been derived from a place name in the country from which the tribe 
came many generations ago! 

2 See description of song No. 37, p. 119. 

59 



6Q BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Truly Odjflb'we was a musician as well as a warrior. More than 
70 of his songs were recorded, and these were only part of the melodies 
at his command. In the long years of his blindness, passed in the 
Old People's Home at White Earth Agency, Minnesota, he loved to 
sing. Several of his comrades were there also, and they loved to 
recall the days when the sweep of the prairie, from horizon to horizon, 
belonged to the Indian. Niski'gwun (" ruffled feathers"), 1 who 
fought beside him in the great struggle at. Ca'gobSns' village, was 
also there, and how good it was to talk over the old times! And 
MauVgans ("little wolf "), plate 9, was there, too. Although Main'- 
gans came from Mille Lac, he had lived at White Earth for almost 
a generation. He, too, loved the old ways and the old songs. 
Main'gans is a cripple, his feet having been frozen when he was 
a boy, yet he is remarkably active. He attributes his rugged strength 
to the constant use of a native remedy called the ~bi f jlkiwuck' (" cattle 
herb medicine"). This is a kind of medicine used by warriors 
in the old days, and Main'gans, as his contribution to the war 
chapter of Chippewa music, described this medicine for the writer, 
secured specimens of the herb, and sang the songs connected with 
its origin and use. On one occasion Niski'gwun was present when 
Odjlb'we was recording songs and added to the collection his own 
dream song and one or two others. The songs of the mt'msmo'wiidc 
("island herb medicine") were sung by Na'waji'bigo'kwe ("woman 
dwelling in the midst of the rocks"), who well remembers when the 
herbs were dug to make this medicine for the departing warriors. 
Few persons on the White Earth Keservation are more skilled than 
she in the lore of native medicines. Personal reminiscences were 
given also by Meja'kigi'jlg (see footnote, p. 83), Ma'djigi'jlg ("moving 
sky"), and A'kiwen'zi ("old man"), all of whom took part in the 
wars against the Sioux, the two last named fighting under Odjib'we's 
leadership. These persons furnished the material in this section. 

Odjlb'we died in April, 1911. Many of the songs herein preserved 
were known only to him. He stood alone, his preeminence unques- 
tioned by his tribe throughout northern Minnesota. His hand was 
never lifted against the white man, but when war was glory he led 
his people to victory over the Sioux. May he rest in peace. 

The final battles in the hereditary warfare between the Chippewa 
and the Sioux were fought in central Minnesota. This warfare, 
which began before the tribes became known to the whites, had its 
origin at the time of the westward migration of the Chippewa (Ojibwa), 
who found their progress barred by the Dakota, a Siouan tribe. 
The conflict continued with intervals of peace until brought to an 
end by the removal of the Minnesota Sioux by the United States 
Government. 



See pp. 77-79. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 4 




HOLE-IN-T HE-DAY 



DENSMORB] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II '61 

On August 19, 1825, a treaty was negotiated at Prairie du Cliien, 
Michigan Territory, 1 in -which the Chippewa and the Sioux agreed 
on a line of demarkation between their territories. This line (sur- 
veyed in 1835) extended diagonally across what is now the State of 
Minnesota from near the site of the present town of Moorhead to a 
point on the Saint Croix River a few miles above Stillwater. 2 In spite 
of the agreement, however, the war parties of both tribes continued 
to range freely across the boundary line. The last great fight took 
place in the Minnesota Valley, May 27, 1858, near the site of the 
present town of Shakopee (see p. 76), but minor encounters between 
warriors of the two tribes are said to have occurred for some years 
afterward. Brower makes the following statement: 3 

The last formidable Sioux war party, precipitated against the Ojibway nation of 
Indians, of which there is definite knowledge, proceeded from the Valley of Minnesota 
River to the Valley of Crow Wing River via Long Prairie, Minn., in June, 1860. 
There were about 150 painted, bedecked, and ornamented Indians in the 
party. 

War between Indian tribes was an occupation rather than a calamity. 
It can not be said to have been strictly tribal in character, according 
to our understanding of the term, since any prominent warrior might 
persuade his comrades to join him and organize an expedition. 
There were periods of peace, but as the maintenance of peace depended 
largely on the self-control of the individual warrior, outbreaks were 
of frequent occurrence. Often one fight ended an expedition, the 
warriors returning satisfied if they had taken even one or two scalps. 
The motive for organizing a war party was usually revenge for a 
kinsman's death. This motive is inadequately expressed by the 
word "revenge," for it involved the idea that the death of a Sioux 
"restored" the man who had been killed by a Sioux. Underneath 
all other motives lay tribal pride. War was a game whose terrible 
tally must be kept in favor of the Chippewa. To this end war 
parties were planned and for this purpose they went forth to strike 
the quick blow, departing as stealthily as they had come. 

Odjib'we was leader of the Chippewa warriors during the time of 
Bft'gonegi'jlg (Hole-in- the-day), plate 4, 4 the last great chief of the 
tribe, who was assassinated in 1868. The two men were cousins and 
theirs was an alliance of the second generation, as the father of 
Odjib'we was brother of the first Bu'gonegi'jlg and led his warriors 
against the Sioux. Bows and arrows were used in Odjib'we's earlier 
battles and neither Sioux nor Chippewa rode upon horses. 

1 Statutes at Large, vol. 7, p. 272. 

4 Eighteenth Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., part 2, map 33. 

3 J. V. Brower and D. I. Bushnell, jr., Mille Lac, St. Paul, Minn., 1900, p. 97. 

* From picture (numbered 67) in collection of photographs of North American Indians, in Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Photographs of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories for the years 169 to 
187S, inclusive, by W. H. Jackson, Washington, 1874. 



g2 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY &ULL. 53 

In generalship OdjftVwe was distinguished for sound judgment and 
steadiness of purpose rather than for reckless daring. His war expe- 
ditions were successful and he boasted that he was never wounded 
by the Sioux. 

OdjftVwe's prowess won for him the right to wear 11 war-honor 
feathers, each indicating that he had taken a Sioux scalp; these were 
eagle feathers and were worn upright in a band around the head 
(pi. 5). The writer saw OdjfcVwe wearing this decoration in a dance 
several years before his songs were recorded. Three of the feathers 
are notched, and the right to wear these was acquired by killing and 
scalping Sioux; the unnotched feathers indicated that he had scalped 
Sioux who had been killed by other warriors. The dots of rabbit 
skin on the feathers indicate the number of bullets in his gun at the 
time of securing the scalp. 1 Bits of once bright ribbon are at the 
tip of each feather. Odjib'we stated that "four feathers could be 
counted for the death of each Sioux; one was worn by the man who 
killed him, one by the man who scalped him, and the other's by men 
who assisted in the scalping.' 7 

OdjnVwe was entitled to wear also a skunk skin badge (pi. 6) on 
his right arm. This signified that he once caught a wounded Sioux 
by the arm, the incident being related in connection with song No. 3. 
His war club (pi. 7), of birch, has a knot for the head. According to 
OdjfiVwe, he. had despatched two Sioux with this club. After the 
wars were over he allowed his friends to blacken it and to decorate 
it with brass nails. The Chippewa war drum was called ogl'tcida 
dewe'igtin ("drum of the braves"). The frame of Odjib'we's drum 
is 17J inches in diameter; it is made of wood with metal rim. The 
frame is apparently not of native manufacture, but Odjib'we said it 
was the original. He said that in time of war it frequently became 
necessary to renew the cover on the drum, but the design was always 
duplicated on the new cover. The cover shown in the illustration is 
comparatively recent. The design on Odjib'we's war drum (pi. 7) 
was explained as follows in the language of the interpreter: 

There was a man who invented the use of the drum among the Indians. The 
lightning is a picture of his dream, and the sound of his drum was like the rumble of 
the thunder. When We'nabo'jo was wandering around he always sent Mici'ken 
("large turtle") on his errands; so the large turtle came to be considered a great war- 
rior. When Mici'ken went to war he had Miskwa'des ( ' ' small snapping turtle ") as his 
feftofc'tefe (messenger). That is why the picture of the lightning and the turtle is 
on the war drum. The Indians fought with bows and arrows, so a picture of a bow 
and arrow is also on the drum. 

Odjlb'we's war shirt was of scarlet flannel (pi. 8). After the wars 
with the Sioux were ended Odjib'we kept it in a bag woven of cedar 

All the war paraphernalia of Odjlb'we, including these feathers, are now in the National Museum at 
Washington. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 5 




ODJIB'WE'S WAR-HONOR FEATHERS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 6 




' 




FRONT BACK 

ODJIB'WE'S WAR-HONOR BADGE 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 7 





ODJlB'WE'S WAR CLUB AND WAR DRUM 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 63 

bark, a method of storage generally used among the Chippewa. 
Several years before his songs were recorded the writer saw the old 
warrior wearing this shirt in a dance. The decoration is of narrow 
strips of weasel skin, forming a fringe. The weasel is a hunter, a 
wanderer, and a warrior. A well-known authority states/ "I can 
not learn of any other creature that is more thoroughly possessed of 
the lust for blood than are these slim-bodied little creatures." 

The principal kinds of "medicine" carried by the Chippewa war- 
riors were bi'jfldwfick' 2 (" cattle ' herb medicine"), ml'nislno'wuck 
("island herb medicine"), and wa'btino'wttclc ("eastern herb medi- 
cine"). These medicines were secured by the warriors from the old 
men of the tribe, usually members of the Mide'wrwm (Grand Medi- 
cine Society), who made a special study of the compounding of herbs. 
They were used both externally and internally and were supposed to 
have efficacy as charms, their mere presence serving as a protection. 
They were believed also to "counteract the effect of bad medicine 
carried by the enemy." 3 

Bi f jilciwuck' , a medicine which derives its name from the principal 
ingredient, is commonly used among the Chippewa at the present 
time. It is said to be taken internally as a stimulant and as a cure 
for fits. It is used also externally as a stimulant and to check the 
flow of blood from wounds. 

According to Main'gans 4 (pi. 9), the origin of this medicine is as 
follows : 

There was once a Mide'wmi'nl [nlale member of the Mlde'wiwm] who dreamed 
that he saw horned animals resembling cattle, under the water. They came up from 
the water and talked with him, telling him how to prepare this wonderful medicine. 
In order to persuade them to return he composed and sang a song (No. 22). He was 
a young man at the time, but he sang this song until he was old. He sang it when- 
ever he dug the roots or prepared the Wfikiwhckf. Others learned it from him and 
now it is always sung when this medicine is prepared. 

It was customary for the old men when preparing this medicine to 
"make noises like cattle"; this was done also when the H'jflriwfok' 
songs were sung in war dances (see No. 23). 

Main'gans used four ingredients in compounding iritjflgiwtick' f The 
number of ingredients was said to vary from two to eight, according 
to the judgment of the man preparing the medicine, but the prin- 
cipal herb, that from which the medicine took its nam-3, was always 
present. 

1 Witmer Stone and William Gram, American Animals, New York, 1902, p. 237. 

2 From bi'iiki and wtick; the former was originally applied to the buffalo (see No. 99), but at the present 
time signifies "cattle," while the latter means "medicine." 

3 Cf. J. N. B. Hewitt, "Orenda and a Definition of Religion," in American Anthropologist, N. s., iv, 
no. 1, pp. 40, 41, 1902. 

* Main'gans and Odjlb'we, treating the sick, are shown in pi. 10, Bulletin 45. 



64 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULI-. 53 



Specimens of the four herbs used by Main'gans were secured and 
were identified by Dr. J. N. Rose, Division of Plants, United States 
National Museum. These herbs are as follows : 

(1) Bi'jfldwftck' (" cattle herb"), the plant from which the medi- 
cine took its name. This was said to be "a plant a few inches high 
which grows on the prairie toward the west and is sometimes found in 
sandy soil. The blossoms appear before the leaves, which are not 
notched but are round in shape; the root is white when dried, and is 
the only part used in making the medicine." The writer asked for a 
plant in blossom but was given a piece of dried root to which several 
downy white feathers were fastened (fig. 2). Main'gans said that he 
was unable to secure a plant in bloom, and that "the cluster of white 
feathers was the best he could do, they having the same appearance 

as the blossoms, only not 
so white." The report of 
Doctor Rose is as follows : 

The root is that of Polygala senega 
L. , Seneca snake-root. ' ' The bark 
of the root is the most important 
part of the plant; the ligneous por- 
tion is comparatively inert. The 
root possesses various medicinal vir- 
tues. It is a stimulant, diuretic, ex- 
pectorant, purgative, emetic, and a 
sudorific. For many years it was 
used by the Indians of our country 
as an antidote against the bite of 
the rattlesnake . According to their 
practice, it was applied externally 
and internally, either chewed and 
applied to the wound or in the form 
of a cataplasm. The Indians also use a decoction of this root in syphilis and in 
malignant sore throat. A decoction of the root has been used with marked success in 
cases of hydrophobia, with a view to its specific or remarkable operation on the 
apparent seat of this malady, the lungs, trachea, and larynx." 

(2) Bi'jilciwm'guck, a plant closely allied to the common sagebrush 
and identified as " Artemisia frigida Willd." 

(3) Bi'jlkiwi'lugesa'nug (" cattle plum"), identified as "Astragalus 
crassicarpus Nutt., or Ground Plum." 

(4) Bi'jlkiwi'ginlg' (" cattle berry ") , identified as " Rosa arkansana 
Porter, or Arkansas Rose." 

The roots only are used in preparing the medicine; these are 
washed, scraped, and dried, and then pounded to a powder in which 
small shreds still remain. The principal ingredient is prepared and 
kept separate; the other three herbs are pounded together, equal 
parts of each being used. Main'gans showed the writer his 
' medicine pouch (pi. 10) which he always carries with him. 




FIG. 2. Dried root of bi'jlkiwtick' with feathers attached . 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 10 




(Slightly reduced) 




[Actual size) 



POUCH AND MEASURE FOR BI'JIKIWUCK' 



DEXSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 65 

This contained a mixture of the three ingredients and a very small tin 
spoon, such as is used with a child's toy tea set. Held in place by the 
flap of the pouch was a small tied packet of the principal ingredient. 
Maiii'gans said that he frequently took a little spoonful of the powder 
from the pouch, and, suiting the action to the word, he took a dose of 
the medicine to show that it could easily be swallowed without water. 
On the following day, in the writer's presence, he prepared the medi- 
cine in liquid form. Taking a pail containing about a quart of hot 
water, he placed a little spoonful of the three mixed ingredients on 
the surface of the water at the eastern side of the pail, saying 
Wa'bunong (" at the east ") , then at the southern side, saying Ca'wttnong 
("at the south"), then at the western and northern sides, saying 
Ningabi'anong ("at the west"), and Kiwe'dinong ("at the north"). 
These words were merely explanatory of his action. The surface of 
the water was thus dotted with four small patches of powder. He 
then opened the tied packet of the principal ingredient, took out one 
scanty spoonful of the contents, and divided it equally among the 
patches of powder, placing it carefully in the .middle of each, beginning 
with the east as before but not repeating the names of the cardinal 
points. The ingredients soon dissolved in the hot water. According 
to Main'gans the medicine was then ready for use, though some 
preferred to secure a stronger flavor by boiling it. He said that the 
taste was agreeable and that the medicine should be taken four times 
a day, the dose to be small at first and then increased, the full dose 
being taken in a measure (pi. 10) which he gave to the writer. This 
is made of birch bark and contains about a tablespoonful. The 
drawings on the inside are said to represent animals and to indicate 
that the measure was to be used for this particular medicine. 
Main'gans swallowed a portion of the liquid after offering it to the 
writer. 

Ml 'nlslno' 'wttclc ("island herb medicine") also takes its name from 
that of its principal ingredient, which was formerly found only at a 
certain place on Lake Superior, but was discovered thirty years ago 
at Mille Lac, where it grows in fine, light sand along the shore. The 
medicine contains eight ingredients, said to be herbs of about the 
same sort. An herb called "the last ingredient" is found growing in 
the woods at White Earth. 

Na'waji'bigo'kwe said that many years ago the Sioux were "get- 
ting too powerful for the Chippewa," and that about that time a 
man "dreamed of a thunderbird, who told him how to prepare and 
use this medicine." She related the two following incidents of her 
personal experience with ml 'nismo 'wdck: In the autumn of 1909 a 
member of her family was involved in serious and complicated 
difficulties. She resolved to help him by means of ml'nlslno'w&ck. 
67996 Bull. 5313 5 



66 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

After searching many weeks in the woods she found at last one little 
root, not the principal ingredient but all she could find. She took 
this home, "sang and talked and prayed over it/' wrapped it in 
fresh birch bark and put it into the coat pocket of the man who was 
to be benefited by it, telling him that it would help him out of his 
troubles. To the writer's personal knowledge the man was entirely 
freed from his difficulties a few weeks later. 

Na'waji'bigo'kwe said also that two years before a man while in a 
drunken rage had killed his wife. His relatives hastened to Na'waji'- 
bigo'kwe and asked whether she had any ml'nislno'wuck. She gave 
them a small piece of the root, which the man carried in his pocket. 
The writer is reliably informed that the man is alive and free to-day, 
although it is well known that he killed his wife. 

Aside from its virtue as a charm, mi'nlsino'wiLck is said to be a 
powerful curative agent. It has the effect of checking the flow of 
blood from wounds, and is also used internally in many forms of 
sudden illness. It is a "life medicine," used for good purposes only. 
Four songs connected with this medicine are contained in this section 
(Nos. 24, 25, 26, 27). 

Wa'btino'wftck ("eastern herb medicine") is entirely different in 
both nature and use from either hi' jikiwiLck' or mi'nislno'w&ck. It 
is said to have had originally some good offices but to have had also 
evil uses, and as time passed the latter prevailed. Na'waji'bigo'kwe 
gave the following story of its origin: There was once a young man 
who was very anxious to join the MIde'wrwm so that he could gain 
power as a hunter. His father opposed this, saying, "You are too 
trifling to appreciate so solemn a thing as the MIde'." The youth 
was very sad because of his father's opposition. He went away and 
fasted many days. At last a manido' from the east came to him 
and told him about this medicine, saying that it had both good and 
bad properties. The youth at once gathered a number of men around 
him and they formed a kind of alliance; these men were known as 
Wa'bti/nog' .* They held dances and were unscrupulous in their use 
of the medicine. Eight men were destroyed at the first dance, given 
by a man who knew the secret of this medicine. This tradition was 
related to Na'waji'bigo'kwe by her grandfather. The medicine 
"would either kill or cure those who took it"; it had power also as 
an evil charm and the property of being able to "make things go 
through the air." There were said to be many songs connected with 
this medicine, but none have been recorded by the writer. It was 
said to have passed out of use among the Minnesota Chippewa except 
at Vermillioii Lake. 

1 Compare Hoffman, The Mide'wiwin or " Grand Medicine Society " of the Ojibway,in Seventh Ann. 
Rep. Bur. Ethn., pp. 156, 157. 



DKNSMOBE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 67 

The three medicines above described, imparting power of healing, 
success, and revenge, respectively, were welt adapted to the use of 
men on the warpath. 

SONGS CONNECTED WITH ODJIB'WE'S PERSONAL EXPERIENCE 1 

When Odjib'we was a boy his paternal grandfather, two of the 
latter' s brothers and two of his own brothers, one older and one 
younger than himself, were killed by the Sioux. Hatred filled his 
heart and he determined to hunt and kill the Sioux. Thus at an 
early age he chose the career of a warrior. 

In preparation for this vocation he frequently fasted for several 
days at a tune, remaining alone in the woods and hoping for a dream 
or vision. At length a dream came to him after a fast of four days. 
In this dream he saw a woman carrying several guns made of rushes. 
A party of Sioux approached and the woman gave a gun to each of 
the Sioux, telling them to shoot at him. The Sioux took the guns 
made of rushes and shot at him. Out of the guns came horseflies, 
which lit on him but could not harm him. Then the woman told him 
that he would be a great warrior and would always be protected. 
Odjib'we said that what the woman told him came true, for he was 
never wounded by the Sioux. The woman also sang a song which 
became his "dream song." Odjib' we stated that he " could never 
really sing the song until just before his first fight with the Sioux; 
then the dream returned to him very clearly and the song came to 
his lips so that he could sing it." After that he sang it freely. He 
placed his faith in it and often sang it before, or in the midst of, a 
fight. After the recording of this song on the phonograph the aged 
warrior bowed his head and said tremulously that he feared he would 
not live long, as he had given away his most sacred possession. 



No. 1. Odjib'we's Dream Song 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 392) 



VOICE J = 88 
Recorded without drum 




O- bic-ko- 






na-wa-wan i - n! - ni-iyo-wun 



i See also Nos. 32, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40,41, which are included in a subsequent chapter to illustrate certain 
events of a typical war expedition. 



68 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 



WORDS 



oblc'kona'wawan' when they shot, they missed 

inl'nlwun' J the man 

Analysis. This song contains nine measures and is divided into 
four parts, the first, second, and last containing the rhythmic unit, 
and the third containing the words. This form suggests a definite 
phase of musical expression. No words occur in the rhythmic unit, 
the mind of the singer being concentrated on the musical idea. In 
the part of the song containing words the interest centers on them 
and the musical idea is secondary. Comparison with other songs 
having the same form will show in many instances a less definite 
rhythm in the part containing the words (see Nos. 8, 12, 13, 30, 
39, 40, 81, 105). The tonality of this song is minor, but the opening 
interval of the first two phrases is a major third (see analysis of No. 9 > 
also of Nos. 34, 83, 94, 120). The melody tones are those of the 
second five-toned scale. Two renditions of the song were recorded; 
these show no variation in either rhythm or melody. 

In early youth Odjib'we took part in a dog feast. It was the 
custom of the tribe to hold feasts of this kind occasionally in order 
that the young men who aspired to become warriors might show their 
courage to the assembled people. An old warrior was selected to 
announce the feast. Walking through the village, he made the 
announcement in a loud voice. The next day there was a large 
gathering, especially of the young men. After much singing and 
dancing, and many speeches, the youths whose courage was to be 
tested were seated on the ground in a circle, in the center of which a 
dog was killed. The liver was then removed and cut into- small 
pieces, one of which was given each young man on a long stick. If 
he chewed and swallowed the morsel without flinching, he was con- 
sidered brave enough for the warpath, but if he shuddered or drew 
back he was deemed faint-hearted and was greeted with jeers by the 
assembly. Odjib'we said that he endured this test " without the 
slightest change of expression," but that for many days afterward 
he was unable to bear the thought of what he had done, although he 
never admitted this to any one. 

When Odjib'we reached the age of 20 he felt that it was time to 
begin his chosen career. Accordingly he consulted his cousin 
Ne'bunec'kun ("he who walks by one side of the thing"), a young 
man about his own age, and they decided to go on the warpath 
together. They told no one of their intentions, but pretended that 
they were going on a hunting expedition. With heavy hearts they 
left the village. They thought of the friends whose deaths they were 

1 In order to make this word conform to the music a meaningless syllable (wa) is inserted. The 
Chippewa custom of changing the words of a song to fit the music is considered in Bulletin 45, p. 14. 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



69 



to avenge, and there was probably in their minds uncertainty regard- 
ing their own fate. 

Odjib'we said that they sang the following song every one of the 
four nights they camped. The words imply that there were more 
than two in the party, but, on being questioned concerning this 
seeming discrepancy, Odjlb'we insisted that this was the song he and 
his cousin sang. 

No. 2. Odjlb'we's First War Song (Catalogue No. 371) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 

VOICE ^-192 
DRUM J 108 

( Drum in unaccented eighth notes*) 







Be - ba - ni - o - ne-yan nin-do - na - gi-mi-gog ni - ni-wug e 




be-ba-ni-o - ne - yan nin-do- na-gi - mi-gog m-ni-wug e 




be - ba - ni - o - ne - yan e nin-do-na - gi-mi-gog ni - m-wug 
* Drum-rhythm 



WORDS 

beba'nio'neyan on the fourth day 

nindo / nagi / migog / I am chosen by 

im'nlwug l the men 

Analysis. Four renditions of this song were recorded in August, 

1909, and it was sung also on two occasions by Odjib'we in March, 

1910, all the renditions being identical. The intonation was good 
throughout the renditions. The metric unit of the song is very 
rapid, but steadily maintained. The accents were clearly given and 
the transcription is divided into measures according to the accented 

JThis word, literally translated " men," is commonly applied to warriors (see p. 187). 






70 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BUM.. 5i! 

tones. The rhythmic unit varies somewhat in its repetitions, but 
begins uniformly with a 5-8 measure. In the measure marked 3-4 
the metric unit (/ = 192) is continued, but the rhythm is triple, 
necessitating a 3-4 instead of a 6-8 time indication. The intonation 
was good throughout the renditions. 

Odjlb'we's expedition was successful. On the fourth morning the 
party saw one Sioux and killed him. Taking his scalp, they returned 
to the village, where a great feast and dance were held in their 
honor. Odjlb'we sang the song of that dance, but the record was 
not transcribed. The words, however, are of interest as showing the 
arrogance of the youthful warrior after his first victory. 



WORDS 



nisese'smawa' I make him bite the dust 

Wape'tawan (Sioux word) l ... the Wapeton Sioux 
wabamiig' when I see him 

Odjib'we stated that he did not sing his dream song on the expedi- 
tion which has just been described, nor until first he was frightened by 
the Sioux, under the following circumstances: There was a Chippewa 
camp near the site of the present town of Little Falls, Minnesota. 
One day two men and their wives started from this village on a hunting 
expedition. While the men were away from their camp the women 
saw two Sioux scouts, and on their husbands' return so reported to 
them. All started at once to return to the main camp, arriving that 
evening. One of the hunters told Odjlb'we that the women had seen 
the Sioux, but Odjib'we thought little about the matter, saying the 
women were probably mistaken. As Odjib'we was eating his break- 
fast the next morning a man said to him, "Let us go and see if there 
are really any Sioux around." Odjib'we consented to go, but had so 
little confidence in the truth of the report that he put on his brightest 
finery, making himself a shining mark. Odjib'we and his friend 
left the viUage quietly and started on a run toward the place where 
the women said they had seen the Sioux, the former carrying his gun 
on his right arm. 

Two Sioux were on the watch, and when they saw Odjib'we and his 
companion approaching, they hid in bushes beside the road; one car- 
ried a spear, the other a club. Without warning they attacked the two 
Chippewa. The main body of Sioux warriors then appeared, some 

i "The Dakota call themselves Otceti .cakowin (Oceti sakowin), The Seven Fireplaces or Council-fires. 
This designation refers to their original gentes, the Mdewakanto^wan (Mdewakan-tonwan), Waqpekute 
(Wanpe-kute), Waqpe-towan (Wafipetonwan), Sisitcwa* (Sisitonwan), Ihank-tonwa" (Ihanktonwaq), 
Ihank-tonwanna (Ihanktorj wanna), and Titonwa* (Titonwan). . . . The Waqpe-to*wan or Wahpe- 
ton [:] The name of this people signifies Village-among-the-leaves (of deciduous trees), the gens being known 
to the whites as Leaf Village or Wahpeton." JAMES OWEN DORSEY, Siouan Sociology, in Fifteenth Ann. 
Rep, Bur. Amer. Ethn., pp. 215, 216. 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 71 

armed with spears and some with clubs. Odjib'we's companion 
was killed, but he himself escaped, running a long distance before he 
realized that he had a gun. Suddenly a Sioux attacked him with a 
club. OdjuVwe shot the Sioux and then hid behind a great oak tree. 
According to their custom, whenever a Sioux was killed the other 
Sioux suddenly disappeared. From behind the oak Odjlb'we could 
not see a single Sioux. He did not stop to scalp the man he had 
killed but started for the village. On the way he met some Chippewa 
and they all went back to look for the Sioux. They could not find 
any living enemies, but they scalped the dead man. It was during 
this skirmish that Odjib'we first sang his dream song (No. 1). 

The following song (No. 3) was composed by Odjib'we after killing 
a Sioux and was sung by him whan carrying the scalp in the victory 
dance. 

A small war party was organized by Bu'gonegi'jlg (Hole-in-the- 
day), Odjib'we being one of the number. They went to a point on 
the Minnesota River near the site of the present city of St. Paul and 
took their position near the road which the Sioux would travel in going 
from their viUage to the white settlement. Hole-in-the-day told his 
men to lie in a row behind a fallen tree and gave strict orders that 
they should await his signal for firing, that only one man should fire, 
and that no one should shoot a woman. In silence the Chippewa lay 
behind the log, waiting for an unwary Sioux to pass that way. Soon 
a company of men and women came down the path, talking and laugh- 
ing merrily. The warriors watched their leader but he gave no signal 
and the Sioux passed on. Later a man came alone. Hole-in-the- 
day gave the signal to Odjib'we, who fired. The Sioux staggered and 
fell on his side. Odjlb'we rushed forward and dragged the man 
toward a clump of bushes, but his victim died on the way. Because he 
caught the wounded Sioux by the arm Odjib'we was entitled to wear 
thereafter a skunk-skin badge on his right arm (see pi. 6; also 
p. 62). Hole-in-the-day gave the order, "Cut his throat at once." 
This was done, and Odjib'we himself took the man's scalp. The 
Chippewa then ran down to the river and, entering a canoe, started 
for the opposite shore. Meantime the sound of the firing had 
attracted the attention of the Sioux, who hastened from their village, 
but were unable to overtake the Chippewa. Helpless the Sioux stood 
on the bank and saw the Chippewa dancing on the opposite shore, 
waving the fresh scalp, and taunting them. Odjib'we sang the 
following song, which he composed at that time. 

After this dance the Chippewa returned to their home, Odjib'we 
saying that they "just killed that man to let the Sioux know they 
had been around." 



72 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 3. "An Eagle Feather I See" (Catalogue No. 346) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J=100 
DRUM J=104 
( Drum in accented eighth notes*) 




Gi-ni-wi-gwun ni-wa - ba-ma we o -gi-tcl-danin-de - bi - bi-nan 






* (Drum-rhythm) 



* 



etc. 



WORDS 

gini'wlgwun' an eagle feather l 

niwa'bama' 1 see 

ogi'tcida 2 a brave 

ninde'bibina' 1 have caught 

Analysis. Triple and double measures alternate throughout this 
song. The first and second measures constitute a rhythmic unit, the 
tones being those of the major triad of A. In the third and fourth 
measures this unit is repeated on the minor triad of F sharp. (Com- 
pare repetitions of the rhythmic unit in No. 5.) The remainder of 
the song consists of three phrases, each comprising a triple and a 
double measure; these, however, are not repetitions of the rhythmic 
unit. The manner in which the rhythm of the rhythmic unit influ- 
ences the rhythm of other parts of the song is worthy of observa- 
tion. Four renditions of this song were recorded, the rhythm being 
accurately repeated. 

The following song commemorates an incident unique in the annals 
of Indian warfare, relating to a scalp which was mislaid. 
^ Odjlb'we was leader of a small war party which went against the 
Sioux. The Chippewa were hiding in a ravine, when they saw a 
Sioux coming over the bluff with a gun. He did not come directly 
toward them, but turned toward a little lake, evidently intending to 
shoot ducks. He disappeared in the reeds beside the lake, and 
^ men to reconnoiter, saying, "Do not kill the Sioux 

'This refers to the feather worn by a warrior who took an enemy's scalp. (See p. 62.) 
2 From Su>ux aki'tita. Cf. pp. 76, 88, 108, 186, 190, 230. 



DEXSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



73 



until after he has shot the ducks." Odjib'we and the rest of his war 
party remained in concealment. Soon they heard the report of a 
gun, indicating that the Sioux had shot the ducks. Then they heard 
two shots and knew that their men had fired on the Sioux. Their 
aim was faulty, and the Sioux soon appeared, running toward Odjib'we 
and his warriors. Odjib'we stepped from his hiding place. The 
Sioux cried, "You can not hit me. I am a brave man." Odjib'we 
replied, "I too am brave," and struck at the Sioux with his gun. 
The latter dodged and attempted to strike back with his own empty 
gun. Finally the Sioux started to run away, and Odjib'we shot him 
in the back. 

Odjib'we allowed Mo'kadjiwens' ("little hill rising up to view") 
to remove the scalp, and the war party started for home. The scalp 
was in charge of the man who removed it; when the party stopped 
for their noon lunch he either laid the scalp beside him or hung it 
on a bush and forgot it. The scalp was not missed until the party 
went into camp at night, many miles from the halting place at noon. 
It was out of the question to return and find the scalp, so they com- 
posed this song, which they sang at home in the victory dance. 
Mo'kadjiwens' was given credit for taking the scalp, but mingled 
with the honor was open ridicule for having left it "hanging in some 
marsh." 

No. 4. Song of a Mislaid Scalp (Catalogue No. 387) 



Sung by ODJIB'WE 



VOICE J-108 
Recorded without drum 



l 



Mo - ka-dji-wens ga - ma - mi - junbwan-o - sti - gwun gi - a - 




go - de ma-na-ki - kin 



WORDS 



Mo'kadjiwSns' Mo'kadjiwens' (man's name) 

gama / mJjun took 

bwan'ostigwun' a Sioux scalp 

gi'agode' which is hanging 

ma'nakikiii' in a marsh 

Analysis. This is a particularly lively and attractive melody. It 
is one of the comparatively few Chippewa songs in which there is no 
change of time, the triple measure being steadily maintained. It 



74 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

contains eight measures and is divided into four parts, the first three 
consisting of a rhythmic unit (see Nos. 5, 19, 33, 34). In the last 
part it is to be noted that the dotted eighth note occurs on the 
second instead of on the third count of the measure. The song is 
harmonic in structure and minor in tonality. 8jx renditions were 
recorded ; these show no variation in either rhythm or melody. 

The next song concerns a war expedition which was organized by 
Ge'miwtinac' ("bird flying low through the rain"), 1 a member of 
the Pillager Band of Chippewa (Odjib'we was a member of the 
Mississippi Band). The Mississippi were not thinking of going to 
war, but a party of 20 Pillagers came to the village and wanted 
them to join the party. Ten Mississippi decided to go, as did seven 
of the Mille Lac Band. All started from Crow Wing in canoes. 
A few miles down the Mississippi Kiver they made their first camp, 
and had their first war dance. Odjib'we sang the song of that 
dance, which, he said, was sung every evening the party was away, 
but the warrior was feeble that day and the record is not sufficiently 
clear for transcription. He told of the scene : Some of the men danced 
around the fire while others sat still ; all sang before they went to bed. 
Early the next morning they broke camp and took their journey 
through the woods, traveling rapidly all day. When they reached 
the prairie, they rested in concealment by day and traveled by 
night. On approaching the Sioux country, they sent two scouts 
ahead with instructions to return at once and report if- they saw signs 
of the enemy. At this point in his narrative Odjib'we assumed the 
attitude of a scout, one hand shading his eyes and the other signaling 
to those supposed to be f oh 1 owing (see plate 1 1 , in which his costume, 
as shown, is not that of the warpath). 2 These men started about 
dark and traveled rapidly while the others followed slowly. In a 
short time the scouts came running back. "What did you see?" 
asked the warriors. " A wide path," replied the scout. "It is a new 
trail. The Sioux must have passed to-day." One scout said, " There 
must have been a hundred;" the other was more conservative, esti- 
mating the number at forty. 

It was decided to remain in a little grove until morning and then 
foUow the Sioux trail. In the gray dawn, after cleaning and 
loading .their guns, the Chippewa set out. Soon they came to four 
lodges made of green boughs where the Sioux had spent the night. 
Near by they saw the place where the Sioux had been dancing and 
where a council had been held. Forty-two stones placed in a circle 
indicated the number of warriors present at this council. While 

i See pi. 9 of Bulletin 45 and pp. 51, 95, 114, 115 of the same Bulletin. 
Cf. pi. 14. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 11 




ODJIB'WE IN POSTURE OF SCOUT 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 75 

looking over the camp, they heard in the distance the guns of the 
Sioux, who were evidently killing game on the way, and the Chippewa 
again sent out two scouts, with orders to go along the wooded shore 
of a long lake near at hand and ascertain whether the Sioux were in 
the open country on the opposite shore. The main body of the 
Chippewa followed in the same general direction. Soon they met 
the scouts coming back with the report that two Sioux were sitting 
on the other shore of the lake. When the Chippewa reached the 
place, the Sioux had gone. The Chippewa then very stealthily 
ascended a hill from which they could see the entire Sioux camp. 
They decided not to make an attack at that time because, owing to 
the distance, the Sioux could see them too soon, but to wait until 
night. The Sioux did not suspect the presence of Chippewa in the 
vicinity. From their hiding place tli3 Chippewa watched the Sioux 
cook a meal and later prepare for a night march. Being reluctant 
to let the enemy escape, the Chippewa sent three of their number 
to see whether a successful attack on the camp could be made, but the 
Sioux had gone before they reached the camp. Odjib'we was one of 
these three. He told his two companions to stay, saying that he would 
creep ahead (see pi. 14). After crawling some distance, he got behind 
brush where he could walk upright. Later he heard the enemy. He 
kept very still. The Sioux were evidently making another camp in the 
middle of the night, for he heard them chopping wood. He ran back 
and found all the Chippewa at the old Sioux camp. 

' ' Why did you not come ? " he cried. ' ' We could have killed all the 
Sioux." "We were waiting for you to come back and report," was 
the reply. Then all the Chippewa went forward and sat near the 
enemy's new camp. They could hear the Sioux singing and dancing. 
The Chippewa did not sleep, watching and waiting for the dawn. 
In the first light they saw the Sioux astir. Four Chippewa went 
ahead to watch at a spot where the Sioux would pass, and when the 
latter came up, shot one man. That was the beginning of a hot 
fight, which lasted all day and until after nightfall; it was fought 
in the open with no protection except the high grass. No bows and 
arrows were used, both Chippewa and Sioux being armed with shot- 
guns. The fighting was particularly fierce on both sides. Odjib'we 
said that he was obliged to "dodge and look out all the time," and 
that in the confusion it was impossible to tell who killed each man. 
Toward evening No 'din ("wind"), the Mille Lac chief, was killed, 
and the Chippewa could not recover his body. Three Sioux scalps 
were secured by the Chippewa. After the fight they did not follow 
the Sioux, but returned home with these trophies. 



76 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



This victory was celebrated by great dances at which the following 
song was sung, the words indicating that the singer would soon go on 
the warpath again. 

No. 5. Song of an Unsatisfied Warrior (Catalogue No. 391) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J 88 
DRUM J=88 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




Mi - su - wa -bun-ji - bo - zi- yan e 



a - sa - kum -ig - dj! - 




na - di-yan e 



WORDS 



mi'suwabunjibo'ziyan' to-morrow I shall start in my canoe 

asa'kumig'djma'diyan' although I have one already 

Analysis. This song comprises four parts, the first three of which 
contain a rhythmic unit (see Nos. 4, 19, 33, 34). It is interesting to 
note that the repetitions of this unit begin on the descending tones of 
the minor triad. Double and triple measures alternate throughout 
this song, the rhythmic unit consisting of a double followed by a 
triple measure. Reference to No. 3 will show an alternation in 
reverse order, the unit consisting of a triple followed by a double 
measure. Four renditions of this song were recorded, which are 
uniform in every respect. 

The following five songs are connected with the last notable fight 
between the Sioux and the Chippewa, which occurred May 27, 1858, 
in the valley of the Minnesota River at the village of a Sioux chief 
called by the Chippewa Ca'gob&ns (Little Six). The Sioux name of 
this chief was Ca'kpe 1 (Six) and as his father bore the same name, 
the son was commonly known among both Sioux and Chippewa as 
Little Six. The Chippewa changed the pronunciation slightly and 
added the Chippewa diminutive termination &ns, 2 so that the name 
became Ca'gobens. 3 The white men pronounced the name Shakopee, 
and a town of that name is now located where the Sioux village once 
stood. Little Six was a leading warrior and chief of a band among 
the Mdewakanton Sioux (see p. 70), and the writer has heard of his 
fame from Sioux living at Sisseton, South Dakota, and at Devils 
Lake, North Dakota. Both Odjlb'we and his friend Niski'gwun took 



Pronounced Sha'kpay. 



2 See pp. 186, 190, 230. 



3 Pronounced Sha'gob&ns. 



DENSMOHE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 77 

part in the fight and together they related its story, Niski'gwun 
also singing two of the songs. 

Regarding this fight Folwell gives the following information: 1 

The lower Sioux, who late in 1853 reluctantly retired to their reservations on the 
upper Minnesota, were wont to return in summer weather in straggling companies to 
their old homes. . . . Shakopee and his band of 150 had early in the summer of 1858 
come down and gone into camp near the town which bears his name. One of his 
braves, fishing in the river (the Minnesota) at an early hour, was fired upon. Shako- 
pee 's men instantly recognized the sound as coming from a Chippeway gun. They 
gathered at Murphy's Ferry and, presuming that the hostile shot came from one of 
some very small party, they let their women put 30 or 40 of them across. They did 
not suspect that back of the timbered bluff a mile distant there lay in hiding 150 or 
more Chippeway warriors. . . . They were wary, however, and placed themselves in 
ambush in a narrow space between two lakelets. The Chippeways . . . charged down 
from the bluff twice or more, without dislodging the Sioux. The day was not old 
when they gave up the effort and departed in haste for their homes, carrying their 
wounded and perhaps some dead. Four of their corpses were left to the cruel mercies 
of the Sioux. . . . Such was the so-called "Battle of Shakopee," May 27, 1858. 

An account of the fight from the standpoint of the native his- 
torian is given by Warren. 2 OdjuVwe's narrative is given below in 
connection with song No. 8, which concerns the death of a warrior in 
the engagement. 

The first song of the group has reference to the war charm worn by 
the warrior, the song being sung shortly before a fight to make the 
charm more effective. 3 Niski'gwun said that he sang this song before 
the battle at Ca'gobens' village. The last two words were sung with 
the repetition of the song, the melody remaining the same. The word 
"balls" was said to refer to the heads of the enemy, which the warrior 
would cut off and toss about. Reference is made to No. 35, in which 
war is compared to a game, the bodies of the dead being its score. 
The charm usually worn by the Chippewa warrior consisted of the 
skin of a bird, dried and filled with a medicine known only to the 
wearer, probably an herb or other substance suggested to him in a 
dream. (See No. 28.) This charm was hung around the neck of the war- 
rior, who believed in its power to protect him. It was said that if, by 
any chance, a bullet struck this charm it would kill the man. Accord- 
ing to Ma'djigi'jig (see p. 84), who made a duplicate of the old war 
charm (pi. 12), the bird used in preparing this charm was "the 
smallest of a kind of bird that flies at evening;" it was identified by 
Mr. Henry Oldys, of the Biological Survey, as the kingbird, or bee mar- 
tin ( Tyrannus tyrannus) . The characteristics of this bird may explain 
its use by Indian warriors in preparing a charm. "Nothing can be 
more striking than the intrepidity with which one of these birds will 
pounce upon and harass birds vastly larger and more powerful than 

1 W. W. Folwell, Minnesota, the North Star State, Boston, 1908, pp. 157-158. 

2 History of the Ojibway, in Colls. Minn. Hist. Soc., vol. v, 1885, pp. 502, 503. 

3 Other songs connected with the use of "medicine" are Nos. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 36, 141, 
142, 143. 



78 



BUREAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



itself. The kingbird is always prompt to perceive the approach of 
one of these enemies and always rushes out to meet it." x It does 
not fear to attack even hawks, owls, and eagles. The warrior's use 
of the skin of the weasel, the most ferocious of small animals, as a 
decoration has been already noted (p. 63). 

If a birdskin were not available, a charm in the form of a bird 
(pi. 12) was made of cloth and the medicine placed between the two 
layers of the material. 



No. 6. War Medicine Song 

Sung by NISKI'GWUN 
VOICE j 138 
DRUM J = 108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



(Catalogue No. 384) 








Ga - um - ba - ci - wad e niin - bi - ne - si - wa - yan ga - urn - 







nim-bi- n6 - sl-wa - yan ga-um - ba- ci-wad e 






nim-bi - n6 - si - wa - yau ga-um - ba - ci - wad e nim- bi - ng 

WORDS 
(First rendition) 

ga / umba / ciwad / i t is wafted upward 

nim'bine'siwayan' my bird-plumage 

(Second rendition) 

ga / umba / sin / they will be flying 

mm'bika'kwadon'. my balls 

Analysis. Four renditions of this song were recorded. In two 
of these the close of the song was as transcribed ; the other renditions 
were interrupted several measures earlier by shrill war cries. Indif- 
ference concerning the completion of a song has been noted in a few 
other instances, the singer seeming satisfied without hearing the 
final tone. This suggests that the relation of the tones to a keynote 
is not clearly felt. A strong rhythmic sense is shown by the accuracy 
with which the rhythmic unit "is repeated. The melody tones are 
those of the fourth five-toned scale. 

Niski'gwun stated that before the battle he sang his dream song. 
This song came to him when he was a young man, after he had 

i S. F. Baird, T. M. Brewer, and R. Ridgway, North American Birds, Boston, 1874, p. 318. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



79 



endured a vigil of 10 days, during which time he took only enough 
food to sustain life. The words are obscure, a feature characteristic 
of dream songs, the purpose being to conceal the exact nature of the 

dream. 

No. 7. Niski'gwfln's Dream Song (Catalogue No. 386) 

Sung by NISKI'GWUN 
VOICE J-88 
DRUM J-100 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 




Gi - jig 



ni-wi-dji-wi-go 






WORDS 

gi'jig the heavens 

ni'widji'wigo' go with me 

Analysis. This song was recorded three times; the transcription 
was made from the first rendition. In general character the song pre- 
sents a contrast to the songs recorded by OdjJb'we. The rhythm is less 
clearly marked. In it we find neither rhythmic unit nor repeated 
phrase; the succession of triple and double measures is irregular, 
and although the rhythm of the song as a whole has a certain indi- 
viduality it can scarcely be said to be complete and satisfactory. 
The melody is based on a major triad and would be classified as 
harmonic except for the E flat in the first measure. This tone was 
sung firmly and accurately. The sixth lowered a semitone is the 
accidental occurring most frequently in Chippewa songs (see Table 7). 
This accidental is found in the following songs of the present volume: 
Nos. 7, 8, 19, 22, 41, 101, 156, 160. 

The story of the fight at Ca'gobns' camp, as related by Odjfb'we, 
is here given. 

A war party of more than a hundred Chippewa determined to 
attack the encampment of Ca'gobgns, on the southern shore of the 
Minnesota Kiver. The Chippewa approached the river from the 
north and remained behind a bluff, from the summit of which they 
could see the Sioux tipis on the opposite shore. At daybreak a band 
of about 25 Chippewa warriors descended the bluff and hid in the 
bushes beside the water; among the number were Odjlb'we and 



80 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL, j 



Ga'witayac' (" whirling wind"), a very brave and handsome young 
man from Red Lake. Soon they saw a Sioux coming down to the 
shore. A woman sat on the high bank and watched him. With n' 
suspicion of danger the Sioux entered a canoe and started to cro 
the river. As he neared the shore the Chippewa shot at him. In an 
instant the screams of the woman gave the alarm and the Sioux 
rushed with guns in their hands to the river and crossed in canoes. 
Before Odjib'we and his party could return to the Chippewa camp 
the fight began beside the river. Odjib'we and Ga'witayac', who 
had used all their ammunition, were trying to catch a Sioux, their 
intention being to kill him with a war club. The man made his 
escape, and one of the Sioux in the river shot Ga'witayac', who 
fell mortally wounded. Odjib'we signaled to those who cared for 
the wounded and they carried Ga'witayac' back to the camp. 

The Sioux then forced the Chippewa out of the bushes and under 
cover of their shelter they fired on them in the open. The Chippewa 
returned to their camp and prepared for the homeward journey. 
The wounded were laid upon litters of poles, each carried on the 
shoulders of four men. On such a litter Ga'witayac' was borne, his 
friends standing around him as he sang his death song. Slowly hib 
voice faded away and in a few hours he died while he was still sing- 
ing. The large bear was his "manido' animal," in whose guidance 
he had trusted. 

No. 8. Death Song of Ga'witayac' (Catalogue No. 33 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J 92 
DRUM J=100 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 3) 






lt. 



Ki-tci-mak-wa ni- 







wa - ji-mig e 







DENS: MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



81 



WORDS 

ki'tclmak'wa large bear 

ni'waye'jimig' l deceives me 

Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song occurs eight times; it is 
somewhat modified in the last .two measures, giving strength to the 
close of the song. The first two measures constitute an introduction, 
after which the rhythmic unit is continuously repeated except in the 
middle part, which contains the words. (See Nos. 1, 12, 13, 30, 
39,40,81, 105.) 

The song is major in tonality and contains the flatted sixth as an 
accidental. The chords of the tonic and submediant form the frame- 
work of this melody, but the accented A flat prevents the classifica- 
tion of the song as purely melodic in structure. It is classified there- 
fore as " melodic with harmonic framework." 

Two songs were composed concerning this fight and were sung in 
the dances which followed the return of the warriors. One of these 
songs recalls the fight beside the river and is said to have been com- 
posed during the fight. The struggle continued until past noon. Five 
Chippewa were killed and 10 wounded, and many Sioux were killed. 

No. 9. "On the Bank of a Stream'* (Catalogue No. 339) 

Sung by ODJ!B / WE 
VOICE J 144 
DRUM J-104 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



A - ga - mi - zi - bi - wi - c8n en -da-na - dji-ml-go 



yan 




WORDS 

aga'nnzi^iwicen 7 across the river 

en / dana / djimigoyan / they speak of me as being 

Analysis. The ascending interval of an octave at the opening of 
this song was given accurately in the four renditions. This initial 
interval occurs in only five other songs of the series of 340 Chippewa 
songs (see Nos. 170, 174 in Bulletin 45 and Nos. 31, 53, 125 in the 

1 One syllable of this word was omitted by the singer. 
67996 Bull. 5313 6 



82 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



present volume). The two songs in Bulletin 45 and No. 125 in the 
present volume are songs of the moccasin game, No. 31 is a war song, 
and No. 53 the song before a boys' fight. The character of these 
songs suggests a correspondence between the mental state of the 
singer and the initial intervals of the songs. The tonality of the 
present song is minor, but the tonic does not appear until the ninth 
measure, the opening being based on the major third, which consti- 
tutes the upper part of the tonic triad. This opening is noted in 
five other songs of the present series (Nos. 1, 34, 83, 94, 120). Four 
of these are songs of war or of dances connected with war and one 
concerns thunderbirds. In a less marked degree it occurs in the fol- 
lowing songs in Bulletin 45: MIde' songs Nos. 51, 54, 59, 69, 79, and 
war song No. 130. 

At the close of this song we find the progression 8-7-8, which 
represents the descent of a whole tone to the seventh of a minor key 
and return to the tonic. This progression at the close of a song 
occurs in 9 other songs of various classes of the series of 340 (see 
Nos. 19, 126, 150 in Bulletin 45 and Nos. 50, 85, 100, 119, 124 of the 
present volume). This close of a song is frequently found in the 
ancient music of the white race, especially in old English Plain Song. 

This melody contains no rhythmic unit, but the phrase in the 
8th measure reappears in the 14th and in part of the 15th measure 
with a change of accent, a variation which gives character to the 
rhythm of the song as a whole. The metric unit was maintained 
with less regularity in this than in the majority of the songs. 

The second song concerning this fierce fight calls to mind the grief 
of the Sioux. Odjlb'we said he remembered the Sioux women fol- 
lowing them across the river, crying, and cursing the Chippewa. 



No. 10. "At Ca'gobgns' Tillage" 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 337) 



VOICE J 100 
DRUM J 108 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 3) 




Ca - go - b6ns o - do - de - nan ma - wi - wug e i - m - nl - wug 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 13 




(Copyright by Sweet Studio, Minneapolis, Minn.) 
MEJA'KIGI'JIG 



DEXSMOBE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 83 

WORDS 

* )& (First rendition) 

Ca'gobSns at Ca'gobens 

odo'denan' village 

ma>iwiig / (they) are weeping 

im'nlwug' the men 

(Second rendition) 

Ca'gobens at Ca'gob6ns 

odo'denan' village 

ma'wiwug' (they) are wailing 

ikwe'wug the women 

Analysis. This melody is characterized by opening measures 
minor in tonality and by the tonic appearing in the first measure. 
(See analysis of No. 9.) The first five measures have a rhythm 
which is complete in itself and is not repeated; the last six measures 
also have a rhythm of their own and may be said to constitute an 
answering phrase. Between these sections is the part of the song 
containing the words. This is not strongly accented, though the note- 
values are the same in all the renditions. The transcription contains 
the first half of the words, the remainder being given with a second 
rendition of the song. 

Eight months after this song was recorded on the phonograph it 
was sung again by the same singer and the renditions were found to 
be identical, even the slight deviations from exact time being repeated. 

PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF THKEE WARRIORS 



(BY MEJA'KIGl'jiG) 

Meja'kigi'jlg * (pi. 13), chief of the White Earth Chippewa, fur- 
nished, in June, 1911, the following narrative of his childish dreams 
and their fulfillment. He stated at that time that he was the sole 
survivor of the representatives of the tribe who selected White Earth 
for the abode of the Chippewa under the terms of the treaty of 1867. 
He stated also that he was in several war parties led by Odjlb'we, 
that he took part in ten campaigns against the Sioux, and was in 
four fights. The aged chief is honored and respected by all who 
know him, a man of wise counsels and kindly heart. 

Speaking through his favorite interpreter, Mr. John W. Carl (see 
pp. 130, 303),Meja / kigi / jIg said that when he was a little boy his father 
was killed by the Sioux. He well remembered trying every night to 
dream of something which should enable him, a boy of 7 years, to 

1 Rev. J. A. Gilfillan is authority for the statement that when he went to the reservation as a young 
man the name of the chief was explained to him by the old Indians as meaning " the sky over all the earth, 
coming down to the earth at the horizon." 



84 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [duLL. 53 

kill a Sioux. The older people told him to "go to sleep and be good/' 
but his young mind was filled with thoughts of war. He refused 
food, not going away from home to fast, after the custom of older 
boys, but remaining in the lodge. At length he dreamed that he 
shot a Sioux. Again he dreamed that his hair was gray and, pointing 
to his flowing locks, slightly streaked with gray, the old chief said 
that his dream had come true, for he was attaining the allotted age 
of man. 

Later, without leaving home, the boy fasted five days and five 
nights, hoping for further dreams, but none came. 

In the following spring he went away from home to fast. A few 
years had passed since the little boy could not "go to sleep and be 
good," but the purpose of his life had not changed; it had deepened 
and grown more serious. The birds were just beginning to come 
when he took his way to the "wilderness." Selecting a large tree, 
he built in it a "nest" for himself, in which he remained without food 
day after day. At last, on the fifth night of his fast, he dreamed that 
he held three scalps in his hand. Then he was sure of himself and 
of his career. With confidence he joined the warriors, and his faith 
in his dream remained unshaken and at last the day came when he 
held aloft three Sioux scalps. 

Thus the boy, grown to manhood, avenged his father's death accord- 
ing to the custom of his people. 

THE TRAINING OF YOUNG WARRIORS 

(By MA / DJIGI / J!G) 

Ma'djigi'jfg ("great sky") was a young man when the war parties 
swept across the prairie. His personal reminiscences were not those 
of a leader, but he recalled with distinctness the trials which fell to 
the lot of a recruit. Later he served many times as a scout, and, 
as a warrior, secured three Sioux scalps. In plate 14 he is represented 
in the attitude of a scout on the prairie, holding a wisp of grass or 
bit of brush before his face, and also as telling the story of the three 
scalps. 

According to Ma'djigi'jlg, "the old warriors treated the beginners 
as though they were nothing but animals." The young warriors 
camped a few rods in the rear of the rest of the war party, and united 
with the main camp only when near the enemy. The recruits slept 
in little shelters, or booths, which they made of boughs, two men in 
each. The older warriors had plenty of food and even were allowed 
to eat fat meat, while the recruits were given scanty rations of wild 
rice, either parched or only partially cooked, and seasoned slightly 
with maple sugar. Sometimes they were given dried fish or tough 
smoked meat and occasionally lean fresh meat hardly seared before 
the fire. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 14 




IN POSTURE OF LOOKING FOR THE ENEMY 




RECOUNTING THE TAKING OF THREE SCALPS 

MA'DJIGI'JIG 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 85 

When deer or other large game were killed by the warriors it was 
customary to hold a " breaking-bone contest" in the camp of the 
recruits. This was conducted as follows: A marrow bone (usually 
the leg bone) was laid on the ground. The man who intended to 
test his skill took his place beside the bone and then walked eight 
paces away from it. He was then blindfolded and, hatchet in hand, 
walked toward the bone. When he thought himself near it, he struck 
at it with his hatchet. Ma'djigi'jfg illustrated this for the writer, but 
age had shortened his steps and, blindfolded, he did not measure the 
distance correctly. In the old days the man who cracked the bone 
with the first blow of his hatchet hastened to carry away the spoils; 
after being cooked the marrow was removed by means of a stick made 
for the purpose. This was the only way in which a young warrior 
on his first expedition could secure a taste of fat. He was not given 
the prize unless he succeeded in actually breaking the bone, and much 
merriment resulted from the misdirected efforts of many of the young 
men. 

On their first war party men were required to put mittens on both 
hands when they left the village and to wear them until they entered 
a fight with the Sioux. These mittens were tied securely at the 
wrist, from which a small stick was hung; this the recruit was ordered 
to use in scratching his head or body. Failing to do this, on reaching 
home he would " break out with boils on his whole body." Some 
recruits refused to wear mittens or to use the " scratch stick," and 
Ma'djigi'jlg recalled one instance in which a man became covered 
with sores to so great an extent that he could scarcely reach home. 
The old man gave as a reason for the regulation that the recruits 
lacked the protective medicines carried by the warriors. 

Many rules were strictly enforced in the recruits' camp. Care was 
taken to avoid stepping over any article belonging to another. Thus 
if a man stepped across another's gun he was chased and severely 
punished by the owner of the weapon, as such action was supposed to 
render it useless. It was considered a bad omen for a recruit to see 
a snake. 

Ma'djigi'jfg related the story of an attack on a Sioux village, which 
took place during his first war expedition. At dusk the leader of the 
party sent several experienced men to reconnoiter. Under cover of 
night they approached the Sioux village, counted the tipis, and esti- 
mated the number of warriors. Soon after midnight they returned 
and made their report. Preparations for a march were begun at 
once and just before daybreak the Chippewa drew near the Sioux 
village. The leader then called for the wind and the wind came. 
The Sioux heard the wind singing through the tipi poles, and the 
flapping of the tipi canvas, but they did not hear the soft tread of the 
Chippewa as the latter entered the camp. The Chippewa lowered 



86 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

their guns, aiming at the places where the Sioux lay asleep. When 
all was ready one of the warriors blew a quavering note on a tiny 
whistle, like the call of a waking bird. At this signal the Chippewa 
fired and then rushed at the tipis, tearing them down and killing as 
many of the wounded as possible. With a quick slash they severed 
the head of a Sioux from his body and ran away with it, removing the 
scalp afterward. Three or four scalps were sometimes cut from one 
head. The term "scalp lock," however, was applied to the lock 
situated just back of the crown. As this is the only spot at which 
the scalp adheres closely to the skull, the scalp lock is especially diffi- 
cult to remove, but a skillful warrior could do so with one motion of 
his knife. He then slipped the end of the hair beneath the string 
which held his breechcloth, and the scalp dangled at the victor's side. 
If a war party ran short of provisions the leader selected a place to 
camp, near a lake. He smoked his pipe, sang his dream song, and 
smoked again. At length he pointed in a certain direction and said, 
"A deer is coming there; it is sent to you." Thus the camp was 
supplied with meat. Ma'djigi'jlg said he had known this to occur 
many times. He stated also that, before attacking a Sioux village, 
the leader of a war party frequently " called on the thunderbird to 
send rain," in order that the Sioux would remain at home, not chang- 
ing their camp or wandering in the vicinity, where they might detect 
the approach of the Chippewa. 

THE WAR BADGE 

(By A / KIWN / ZI) 

A'kiwSn'zi ("old man") wore proudly the double insignia of his 
success as a warrior feathers in his headdress and skunk skins 
attached to his ankles (pi. 15). Even at his advanced age he was so 
lithe and agile in the dance that one could readily believe his state- 
ment that as a warrior he was distinguished for fleetness of foot. 
Two of his war-honor feathers were won at the memorable fight at 
Ca'gobens' village (see p. 79). After that fight there were many 
dead and wounded Sioux lying on the ground. He kicked one of the 
latter and thus won the right to wear a skunk skin at his ankle. 
Later, as a member of a war party which pushed far into the Sioux 
country, he killed a Sioux near the site of the present Sisseton, South 
Dakota, afterward kicking the body of the slain; thus he won the 
right to wear his third war-honor feather, and the other skunk skin at 
his ankle. In June, 1911, A'kiwen'zi was living on the White Earth 
Reservation. There he and his war comrades frequently joined in 
social dances with their old enemies, and again smoked the pipe of 
peace with the Sioux. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 15 




A'KIWEN'ZI 



DESCRIPTION OF CHIPPEWA WAR EXPEDITION, 
WITH TYPICAL SONGS 

Every phase of a war ^expedition had its appropriate song, from 
the announcement of the leader's plan to the close of the victory 
dances. 

SONGS CONNECTED WITH ORGANIZATION OF WAR PARTY 

The warrior who wished to lead a war party sent an oc'kdbe'wls 
(messenger) with tobacco to ask the warriors to join his expedition. 
The messenger went to each village and requested the warriors to 
assemble; he then explained the purpose of the expedition, filled a 
pipe with apak'osigttn' (a mixture of tobacco and the inner bark of 
the red willow), and, holding the bowl of the pipe, offered the stem 
to one warrior after another. As he did this he sang the song which 
follows. All who were willing to join the expedition so signified by 
smoking the pipe. 

No. 11. Song of the War Messenger (Catalogue No. 358) 
Sung by ODJIB'WE 

VOICE Jn:100 

DRUM J 92 

( See drum-rhythm below ) 




Bi - da - ko - na - ma - wi - cm no - sis nin- do - pwa-gun 



- da - ko-na - ma-wl - cln no - sis nin-do - pwa-gun 




e , bi - da - ko - na - ma- wi - cm no - sis nin - do - pwa -gun 



r 



E3 









mm 



e bi - da- ko-iia-ma-wl - cln no- sis nin-do -pwa-gtin e 
Drum-rhythm 






etc 



87 



88 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



WORDS 

bidako'namawiciiv' come and hold 

nin'dopwa'gun my pipe 

no'sls my grandchild 

Analysis. The drum-rhythm of this song is unusual; it consists of 
an accented stroke followed by a short unaccented stroke correspond- 
ing to the second count of a triplet. The metric unit of the drum is 
slightly slower than that of the voice. Four renditions of the song 
were secured, throughout which the rhythmic unit was maintained 
with great regularity, though the intonation varied perceptibly. 

The tones of the melody comprise only the minor third and fourth, 
the principal interval being the descending minor third. The song 
contains a rhythmic unit, which occurs four times, constituting the 
entire melody. 

After the smoking of the pipe the oc'kabe'wls returned to the man 
who wished to organize the expedition and reported his success in 
the following song. 

No. 12. Return of the War Messenger (Catalogue No. 359) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J-192 
DRUM J 100 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 11 ) 



dan i - ji - na - gu - zi - wug 




O - gi - tci 






djig i - in - ni-wug e 



WORDS 



ogi'tcidaii like warriors 

ijina'giiziwug' they look 

be'zigwi'djig who arise 

inl'nlwug' those men 

Analysis. This song is divided into four parts, the first, second, 
and last of which contain the rhythmic unit, white the words occur 
in the third part, which has a different rhythm. (See Nos. 1, 8, 13, 
30, 39, 40, 81, 105.) The drum-rhythm is the same as in the pre- 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



89 



ceding song. The descending interval of the minor third occurs fre- 
quently, and the song is distinctly minor in tonality. 

In a short time, the warriors arrived and camped near the lodge 
of the leader. A feast was given by the leader, at which he explained 
more fully the proposed expedition, asking lor a final pledge from 
the warriors. All who were satisfied with the plan responded with 
lie he he, and the expedition was considered formally inaugurated. 
The leader then said, "We will have the first dance to-night, and we 
will dance every night until we reach the enemy." According to 
OdjXb'we the following song was usually sung by the Mississippi 
Band of Chippewa at this initial dance (see also No. 81). 

No. 13. "I Feel no Fear" (Catalogue No. 328) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J- 160 
DRUM J 104 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 3 ) 







Ka - win nin-ca - gwe - ni - mu - si ka - win nin-xja - 



3J 



-*- 






gwe - ni - mu - si ka - win nin - ca - gwe - ni - mu - si 



kl-tci- 



- bi - wi - ni - ni ni - bo - In wa - ya - win - dl - gin e 




win nin-ca - gwe -nl-mu - si ka - win nin - ca - gwe- nl-mu -si ka- 

1 i : 1 






win nin-ca - gwe - nl-mu - si ka-wln nin-ca - gwe - nl-inu - si 

WORDS 
kawln' I 

nincagwe'nfmusi' } l feel no fear 

Krtcizi'biwinl'ni when the Great River man l 

niboln death 

waya / windun 2 : . . speaks of 

1 The " Great River" was the Mississippi, and the term " Great River man" referred to a member of the 
Mississippi Band of Chippewa. 
8 The last syllable is divided and also changed, to fit the music. 



90 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN" ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. This is the first song recorded by Odjib'we. Four ren- 
ditions were secured and found to be uniform. The first two were 
without the drum; these were followed by a pause, during which it was 
explained to the singer that the drum was desired; he then resumed 
his singing with the accompaniment of that instrument. On com- 
parison it is found that the pitch and metric unit of the two parts 
of the record are identical. This ability to resume his song in the 
same tempo is the more interesting when we note the discrepancy 
between the metric units of voice and drum. 

The rhythmic unit occurs six times and is interrupted only by the 
change of words. (See Nos. 1, 8, 12, 30, 39, 40, 81, 105.) In this 
part of the song there is no decided accent and the enunciation of 
the words resembles rapid speech. The excitement of the song centers 
in these words, given on a high tone, descending in the next phrase to 
the flatted sixth, the accidental most frequently found in Chippewa 
songs. The flatted seventh also occurs, which strengthens the phrase. 
The song is grim in its suggestion, yet it is major in tonality and 
cheerful in its rhythm. 

The following song was sung at the dances preceding a war expedi- 
tion. It contains the name of a man who once stayed at home, and 
was intended to shame all who, without proper excuse, failed to join 
the warriors. 

No. 14. "The Man who Stayed at Home" (Catalogue No. 388) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 

VOICE J-152 

Recorded without drum 







Mi-nodj Jm-gwa-be mi no i - nl - nin gi-ne - ni-mud e 




wun go - eft o-don-da - me-ni-man 



WORDS 

mi'nodj . , although 

JIngwa'be Jmgwa'be (man's name; meaning, "man 

of the spruce tree") 

ini'niii 1 a man 

ine'nimud' considers himself 

wi'wun his wife 

gocu' certainly 

odon'dame'niman' takes all his attention 

1 The initial g of the fourth word in the music is carried over from the , the final letter of the pre- 
ceding word an example of elision by Chippewa singers. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 16 




CHIPPEWA WAR BANNER 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 91 

Analysis. Four renditions of this song were recorded with a short 
interval between the second and third. The rhythm was accurately 
repeated, even the slight variations in time being duplicated. It is a 
taunting, mocking melody, different from any other war song and 
admirably expressing the idea contained in the words. Compare No. 
38, which is also a song of derision. 

The leader appointed four men to act as his aids during the entire 
expedition. These men, like the messenger sent with the tobacco, 
were called oc'lcdbe'wls. They attended to all the preparations for 
the expedition and made the arrangements for the dances held before 
leaving the village. One of them carried the leader's pipe and the 
other carried the drum when the war party was on the march. They 
also arranged for the camps on the expedition. A war party always 
carried a generous supply of " medicine," also materials necessary for 
making and mending moccasins. Part of the equipment was provided 
by the leader, who also borrowed the " banner" or '"flag" borne by 
the war party. This was made of eagle feathers sewed on a strip of 
cloth about 4 feet long, which was fastened lengthwise to a pole. 
Odjlb'we stated that in the old days he knew of only one such banner 
among the Mississippi Band of Chippewa, made by a man named 
Gaga'grwlgwun' ("raven feather") and loaned to the war parties. 
It was considered the common property of the warriors, but this man 
was its custodian in time of peace, and it was preserved in his family 
after hostilities ceased. At the present time (1912) there is one war 
flag preserved at White Earth, but this is believed not to be the one 
made by Gaga'glwlgwun'. It was carried in the wars against the 
Sioux by Mi'gisms' (Little Eagle), and is now in the possession of his 
daughter. In plate 16 this banner is shown, held by the daughter of 
Mi'gMns', though a woman would not have carried such a banner in 
actual warfare. Mi'gMns' was so distinguished a warrior that a song 
in his honor is still sung at White Earth (No. 126, Bulletin 45). A 
similar banner, used at Waba'clfig, is shown in plates 44 and 45. 

The final event before the departure of the war party from the 
village was the dog feast. The head alone was eaten and only the 
men who were going with the expedition partook of it. Participation 
in this feast was considered equivalent to a pledge that the warriors 
were prepared to meet the full fortune of war, whether death or 
worse, at the hands of the enemy. 



92 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 15. Pledge Song (Catalogue No. 360) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



VOICE zrlOS 

DRUM J-108 

( See drum-rhythm below ) 



f f 


'ffff 

} 1 H- 


f * + 

^t^-E=a 


sfe? 


-F-P= 


1 
t*? M 


E ya 


nin-da- ca- ml-gog e ya 


4 1 -^~ 
nin- da- ca- ml-gog 

-W-F-r PT- 


-H+ f i 

e 2/a 

/ 

a-T J 




m * 


h*~r --F- 


E^?-! 1 ' ' 
nin - da - ca - mi - gog 


f4-l- p 

e yet 


- f4 trl r i [- ' 
nin - da - ca - mi - gog 


1 
1 


1 ^ ^. 


t=? 


T*> " 


i 




F 4 


H 


t J i L_-tf%-+. p 


1 




nin- da - ca- mt-gog e ya nin-da -ca-mi-gog e 

Drum-rhythm 

etc. 



\ i i i p== 

^ * * IF: 



WORDS 



nn^dacamlgog 7 ............... they feed me 

og^tcldag 7 ................... the braves 

nin / dacamlgog / ............... feed me 

Analysis. The second and third measures of this song constitute 
the rhythmic unit. Five renditions of the song were recorded. The 
opening measure was uniformly given, but in two instances the last 
measure was omitted, the corresponding quarter notes an octave 
higher taking its place. 

The written music appears to consist of seven two-measure phrases 
with an introductory measure, but the Indian's rendition divides the 
song into two parts, the first containing eight and the second seven 
measures, a strong accent being given the first note of the ninth 
measure. 

At the conclusion of the dog feast all the warriors danced, guns in 
hand, and sang the following song, which contains no words. All the 
final preparations had been made and they were ready to start on 
their journey. 



DEN SM ORB] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



93 



No. 16. Dance of the Dog Feast (Catalogue No. 361) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J 92 

DRUM J-92 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 15) 








Analysis. This song contains a rhythmic unit which is slightly 
varied in repetition. 'No variation in either melody or rhythm 
appears in the four renditions of the song except that in the second 
of each group of two renditions the singer avoided the first high note 
and began with the last note of the second measure. The tempo is 
slow and the drum and voice are in consonance. In general char- 
acter the song is dignified, yet vigorous, as befitted the song of those 
who were equipped and ready for the warpath. 

At the conclusion of the dog feast and dance the leader of the party 
began the "song of departure" and his warriors took up the melody. 
Dancing, not marching, they left the scene of the feast, and followed 
their leader toward the land of the enemy. Only one woman, 
usually the wife of the leader, was allowed to go with the war party. 
Four women escorted the warriors as they left the village, walking 
back and forth in front of them and joining in their song. These 
women had their faces whitened with clay. At last they divided, 
two standing on each side of the path, and the warriors passed 
between them. There were no farewells and the song did not cease. 
With eyes turned toward the enemy's country the warriors went 
forth to meet their uncertain fate. 



94 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 17. Song of Departure 1 (Catalogue No. 362) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J=108 

DRUM J=108 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 15) 
(1st) (1 st ) 






(2d) 




Bi-ma-ci-wug ni-mi-gwun-ug e bi - ma-ci-wug ni-mi-gwun-ug e 



WORDS 



bima'ciwug' they are sailing on the breeze 

nimi'gwunug' my feathers 

Analysis. The words of this song probably refer to the birdskin 
charm worn by the warrior (see pp. 77, 78). The song contains two 
rhythmic units, similar in the division of the last three counts but 
differing in the division of the first two. Each unit occurs twice, its 
repetition being followed by a triple measure. Thus the first unit 
followed by a triple measure constitutes the first part' of the song, 
and the second unit, steadier and stronger in rhythm and followed 
by a triple measure, constitutes the second part. The melody is 
harmonic in structure and is based on the tonic chord. 

SONGS OF THE WARPATH 

At evening the oc'kabe'wis selected a suitable place for the camp. 
According to Odjib'we, every evening the warriors seated themselves 
in a row facing the enemy's country; the four oc'kabe'wls sat in 
front of them, and in advance of all sat the leader with his drum. 
The leader sang alone, and the warriors did not respond with the 
shrill cries which punctuated many of the war songs. He placed two 
crotched sticks upright in the ground, with a crossbar between them, 
on which rested the stem of his lighted pipe, with the bowl on the 
ground. As he sang the leader shook his rattle of deer hoofs or laid 
it beside the pipe and looked away toward the enemy's country, while 
his silent warriors waited on his divination. 2 

i See No. 150, Bulletin 45. 

2 Cf. George Earl Church, Aborigines of South America, London, 1912, p. 284: [Among the Pampas 
Indians the wizards] "used the maraca [rattle], which they said told them many secrets and made all 
they said oracular." 






DENSMOBK] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC H 



95 



The following song was said to have been sung by the leader every 
night while on an expedition. 



No. 18. Song of the Leader 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 343) 




VOICE J_104 
DRUM Jr=104 
( Druin-rhythm similar to No. 15 ) 

I ~ 

m 



3=J=J 









A-ni de -ba - bun-da-man a - ki 



we 



a-ni de 



ba - bun-da- 




tzzst 



man a - ki we no, ga - ki 6n - i - go - kwag ga - ki - 






na a-ni de - ba - bun - da -man a - ki we a - ni de - 






ba - bun-da-man a - ki we 



a - ni de -ba - bun-da-mau a - ki we 



WORDS 



deba'bundaman' I see 

aki' the earth 

gaki'na 

en / igokwag / 



. 
the whole 



lt 



Analysis. The transcription of this song is from the first of four 
renditions, which differ only in the intonation of the tones marked. 
These tones are given with what might be termed a "toss" of the 
voice. Thus the third tone of the song is sung in one instance almost 
as high as G flat. There is an evident intention to lower slightly the 
next to the last tone of the rhythmic unit, but the interval is not 
definite. The close of the last phrase is given with more accuracy 
than the preceding, although the low pitch of the tone makes it more 
difficult to sing. 

The rhythmic unit occurs six times, its repetitions comprising the 
entire song. An additional quarter note is inserted after the second 
and fifth repetitions; this is found in all the renditions and adds 



96 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



fBULL. 53 



interest to the rhythm of the song as a whole. The metric unit of 
voice and drum is the same, the voice slightly preceding the drum. 

The following song was sometimes sung by a leader and was also 
used by oc'kabe'wfe and by scouts (see No. 82). This is a dream 
song and was always sung by men who were alone, never at the dances. 




No. 19. "I will go to the South" 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE j-112 
DRUM J-112 
( See drum-rhythm below ) 

r 



(Catalogue No. 333) 






Nin-ga - di - ja ca - wfin - ong nin-ga - di 



nin-ga - di - ja ca - wun - ong nin-ga - di - 




ja ca - wun-ong a 



nin-ga-bi - don ca-wun - i - no - din 



c nin-ga-di - ja ca- wun-ong nin-ga - di ca - wun-ong e 

Drum-rhythm 




etc . 



WORDS 



nin'gadlja' I will go 

caVunong 7 to the south 

nin x gabidon x I will bring 

caVuninoMm the south wind 

Analysis. This song was recorded twice, an interval of two weeks 
elapsing between the making of the two records. On the first occa- 
sion the singer sang the song twice, and, after pausing to explain the 
words, again sang it twice. On the second occasion also he sang the 
song twice. Thus six renditions were secured, in groups of two. On 



DKN8HOBK] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



97 



comparison it is found that these renditions vary in intonation, but 
that the note-values and accents are the same, with some slight 
exceptions in the tones which connect the phrases. In all the songs 
it seems allowable to divide or prolong these connecting tones at the 
will of the singer. The song contains a rhythmic unit, which occurs 
six times and is slightly varied near the close of the song. Each 
group of two rhythmic units forms a melodic phrase. The song is 
melodic in structure according to the present basis of classification 
because an accent is placed on an accidental tone, but the remainder 
of the accented tones follow the intervals of the tonic chord. The 
accidental is the sixth lowered a semitone. In form the melody 
resembles Nos. 4, 5, 33, 34. 

Many songs were used in the dances at the nightly camps, the 
warriors frequently singing of their former victories. The following 
two songs are characteristic of this class. 



No. 20. "A War Bird" 

Sung by 



(Catalogue No. 332) 



VOICE Jr=112 

DRUM J 116 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 




Ja- wun-I - bi-si 






ga - ka-na-wa-ba-mid 

I 1 



a 



WORDS 



ja / wunlbi / si a war bird 

ga / kanawa / bamld / who looked upon me 

Analysis. In the number and manner of renditions this song is 
similar to No. 19, two sets of records being made at an interval of a 
fortnight. As in the preceding instance, the rhythm remains identical 
throughout the renditions, but several unimportant note-values are 
altered. The rhythmic unit is short and occurs in both double and 
triple measures ; the song as a whole has an interesting completeness 
or unity of rhythm. The melody is clearly in the key of G, although 
the tonic does not appear until the eighth measure. 
67996 Bull. 5313 7 



98 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



By midday the warriors were on their journey. Odjib'we said 
that before starting the leader frequently filled and lighted a pipe, 
after which he took a puff and held the stem toward the enemy's 
country, saying, " Every Sioux who puffs this pipe will soon be a 
dead man." He then passed the pipe to all the warriors, each of 
whom took a puff. The leader then spoke to the drum in a low mut- 
tering tone, "Be faithful, my drum," or "Be faithful, be true." 

When this ceremony was finished the drum gave the signal and 
the warriors took up their journey, with the pipe-bearer leading the 
way, and the leader walking last, carrying his rattle of deer hoofs. 
After the party was well underway the drum ceased beating and the 
war party walked in silence except for the occasional sound of the 
leader's rattle. A Chippewa war party frequently traveled 25 miles in 
a day, stopping at intervals to rest and smoke. According to Odjib'we 
they made a camp and "had a good rest," if possible, before attacking 
the Sioux, several scouts keeping close watch on every movement of 
the latter. 

As the warriors neared the enemy they began preparations for 
actual warfare, chief among which was the singing of their medicine 
songs. It was a custom among the Chippewa warriors to dip the 
heads of the war arrows in red medicine, the following song being 
sung while this was being done. 



VOICE J=60 
DRUM J-84 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



No. 21. Arrow Song 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 370) 



*. 






O - na - mun-un i de - bwan o - na - mun-un i de-bwan wa hi 






yu hu ya, wa hi yu wa hi yu hu o - na-mun- 



3 , 3 , 




un i de - bwan o-na-mun - un i de-bwau yu wa hi yu hu ya 



WORDS 



o'namunun' scarlet 

de/bwan is its head 



DKNSAIORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



99 



Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song is short and vigorous. 
The melody is inspiring in character and well fitted to increase a 
warrior's confidence in his success. The ending is peculiar but was 
given uniformly, the five renditions of the song being identical in 
every respect. 

The principal war medicine carried by the Chippewa was the 
bi'jlkiwuck' (" cattle herb medicine"), which was said to "make men 
strong/' and to be a powerful healing medicine (see p. 63). It was the 
warrior's custom to chew this medicine and spray it from his lips upon 
his body and his equipment. The following song was sung while 
preparing the medicine. 

No. 22. Origin of the BFjIkiwftck' (Catalogue No. 372) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J 100 
DRUM J 100 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 



I* +- 

=jrf=3:= 



f- 



Mo - ki - yan nin - de mo - ki - yan 



mo - ki - 







V-9- 



yan 



I 

nin -de mo - ki - yan e mo - ki - yan e 




dji - wa - nuft mo-ki-yan e mo-ki-yan nin-de mo - ki-yan e 



WORDS 



I arising 

ninde / I myself 

mokidji / wanun / from the flowing spring 

Analysis. This is the first of a large number of songs based on the 
interval of a fourth or in which that interval is especially prominent. 
This group includes 11 songs in Bulletin 45 and 25 songs in the present 
volume, a total of 36, or 11 per cent of the entire collection. The 
interval of the fourth is usually (in its first occurrence) a descending 
interval and, except at the close of a song, is rarely if ever followed by 
the interval of a third, completing the chord of the sixth. It occurs in 
three ways, which form a basis for a closer observation of the group : 
First, two continuously descending fourths form the framework of the 



100 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

melody; thus Nos. 6 and 9 in Bulletin 45 are based on the descending 
intervals D-A, A-E, ending with the descending tonic triad D-B-G in 
the closing measures. No. 3 in Bulletin 45 and No. 82 in the present 
volume are based on the intervals C sharp-G sharp, F sharp-C sharp. 
Second, the melody is based on two descending intervals of a fourth, 
the second interval being only one tone below the first. No. 28 in the 
present volume is based on the intervals E flat-B flat, D flat-A flat. 
(See also No. 23.) Third, the interval of the fourth is especially 
prominent but this interval is, as it were, inclosed in the interval of 
the fifth; thus in the present instance (No. 22) the intervals which 
form the framework of the first four measures are the fifths E flat- 
A flat, D flat-G flat, but the principal intervals are the fourths D flat- 
A flat, C flat-G flat. The next four measures are characterized by 
descending fourths, the third of the tonic chord appearing for the 
first time in the final measure. The close of the song suggests that 
there should be another measure ending on G flat but that G flat was 
below the range of the singer's voice. 

Since 1 1 per cent of the series of 340 songs have a common melodic 
characteristic, we note with interest that they have also a common 
subject, all being songs concerning motion (20) or animals (15), in 
some instances the two ideas being combined. The single exception 
is a love song which contains the words "I sit here thinking of her." 
While the idea of motion is not expressed therein, it can not be con- 
sidered entirely absent from the mind of the singer. 

The numbers and titles (or words) of this group of songs are as 
follows : 

(a) SONGS CONCERNING MOTION 

Bulletin 45: 

No. 6. "I am raising my pipe" 

No. 9. "A bubbling spring comes from the hard ground" 
No. 10. " You are going around the Mide x lodge " 
No. 63. "The shell goes toward them and they fall " 
No. 86. "The flame goes up to my body " 
No. 91. "To the spirit land I am going, I am walking" 
No. 109. "The big bear, to his lodge I go often " 
No. 132. "The women are enjoying it [the dance] with us" 
Present volume : 

No. 22. " I arise from the flowing spring " 

No. 32. "The prairie land whence I arise" 

No. 34. "The Sioux women gather up their wounded" 

No. 39. "Odjlb'we brings back our brother" 

No. 105. "Go with me" 

No. 106. "Now I go" 

No. 110. "I go around weeping" 

No. 111. "Come, let us sing" 

No. 121. Ca'wuno'ga dance 

No. 162. "The sound of his approaching footsteps" 

No. 170. "Work steadily, I am afraid they will take you away from me" 

No. 174. "You shall depart" 



DENS MORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 101 

(b) SONGS CONCERNING ANIMALS (USUALLY REPRESENTED AS IN MOTION") 

Bulletin 45: 

No. 3. "In form like a bird it appears" 

No. 121. "I am afraid of the owl" 

No. 196. " Round-hoofed had pity on me" 
Present volume: 

No. 23. " Strike ye our land with curved horns " 

No. 28. "My bird-skin charm is my trust" 

No. 64. "The ravens are singing" 

No. 82. " Riding on my horse " 

No. 85. "I am walking in the sky, a bird I accompany" 

No. 95. Song of the deer (a) 

No. 96. Song of the deer (6) 

No. 97. Song of the deer dancing 

No. 103. Moccasin game song taught by a manido' in the form of a bear (a) 

No. 104. Moccasin game song taught by a manido' in the form of a bear (6) 

No. 147. "One bird, I am going with him" 

No. 180. "The crawfish cringes" 

Songs in praise of bi'jikiwuck' were sung in the war dances. When 
singing these songs the warriors imitated the action of wild cattle, 
holding their arms above their heads to simulate horns and pretending 
to paw the ground; they imitated also the calls of various wild 
animals, these being calls which they intended to use in decoying 
the Sioux. 



102 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 23. Dancing Song of the Bi'jikiwuck' (Catalogue No. 382) 
Sung by MAIN'GANS ("LITTLE WOLF") 



VOICK J=96 
Recorded without drum 




Bi - ti-go-cka-inok gi - ta - ki - mi-nan e bi - ti -go-cka-mok 

_ j 






gi - ta-ki-mi - nan e bi - ti-go-cka-mok gi - ta - ki - mi-nan e 



gsiliilli 






bi - ti - go - cka-mok gi - ta - ki - mi - nan 



we-wa - gi - wi - nl bi - ti - go-cka-mok gi - ta - ki - mi-nan e 






bi - ti-go-cka-mok 



gi - ta -ki - mi-nan e we - wa - gi - wi - 






nl bi - ti - go - cka-mok 



gi - ta - ki - mi - nan 



WORDS 



bi'tigo'ckamok' .................... strike ye 

gi'takiminan 7 ...................... our land 

. ............. with curved horns 



Analysis. The descending interval of the fourth is especially 
prominent in this melody (see analysis of No. 22). The first five 
measures comprise the rhythmic unit, which is weU adapted to the 
expression of the words. This rhythm, combined with the peculiar 
melodic outline, causes the song to produce an effect of rugged 
strength. 

During the preparation of mfnMno'wuck (" island herb medicine") 
and also before a battle the following four songs were sung by the 



DENSMOREl 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



103 



warriors to make the medicine effectual as a charm. This group of 
songs was rendered by Na'waji'bigo'kwe (" woman dwelling in 
the midst of the rocks")- 



No. 24. First Song of the M I'nMno'wftck 

Sung by NA / WAJI / BIGO / KWE 



VOICE J=69 

DRUM J-108 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



(Catalogue No. 373) 




Ka - ga - gi - wi - wan nin - dau ba - on - dji - o - non - ge - 







toi - ^ii- yan ka - ga - gi-wi- wan nin-dau ba-on - dji - o-non-ge - wi - yan 



WORDS 



[Free translation] 

kaga'giwiwan x 1 light as a raven's feather 

nindan \ 

ba / ondji / onongeyan / J is my flight 

Analysis. This melody was sung very slowly with a rapid drum- 
beat. The song is harmonic in structure and contains the tones of 
the fourth five-toned scale. The rhythmic unit does not vary in 
the four renditions of the song, but there is a slight variation in 
unimportant melody progressions. Attention is directed to the 
register of the woman's voice. Several other phonographic records 
made by Chippewa women show the same register. 

All the songs of this series close with the ejaculations We ho ho ho, 
which characterize also the Hide' songs. 



104 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 25. Second vSoiiff of the Ml'nlslno'wftc'k 

Sung by NA / WAJI / BIGO / KWE 



[BULL. 53 



(Catalogue No. 374) 




VOICE J-152 

DKDM J-92 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

r 






Gi - jig 6 - yo - ho- ne -he gi - jig e - yo - ho - ne - hi 



^ ff .^ m . ? ? m f -*' T -m- p . p . p p ^1 / 



gi - jig 6- yo - ho-ne - he 



he 



gi - jig e- yo- ho-ne - he 




gi - jig 6 - yo - ho-ne - he gi - jig - yo - ho-ne - 



he gi - jig 6 - yo - Ao-ne - 




gi - jig e- jo-ho-ne -he gi - jig e -yo- ho-ne -he gi - jig &-yo-ho-ne - he 



WORDS 



gi 7 jig ........................ the heavens 

.................... I use 



Analysis. The words imply that the heavens are secured as a 
defense by the singer. In all the renditions of this song the drum is 
struck after the melody tone is sung. This gives an effect of great 
irregularity to the performance and also shows the independence of 
vocal and instrumental expression. The rhythmic unit, which is 
accurately repeated, occurs 11 times. The double measures vary in 
length and apparently serve as resting places for the voice. 

1 See footnote 2, p. 89. 



DKXHMOBH] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 26. Third Song of the MFiiMno'wflck 

Sung by NA / WAJI / BIGO / KWE 



105 



(Catalogue No. 375) 



VOICE & . 76 
TCecorded without drum 



W T -&- + -*- *- -& + * 




Ga-mi-no- gi - we - pu- ya -ya- ne he ga - mi-no- gi - we - pCi -ya - ya - ne 

I ! 



* r -=* * ->- -* -3^ 



ga - mi-no- gi - we - pti-ya - ya -ne ga - mi-no gi - we - pu - ya- ya - ne 



ga / mlnogi / wepu / yane / I will return to my home in safety 

Analysis. This melody contains no tones except those comprised 
in the rhythmic unit, which was steadily maintained throughout the 
six renditions. Owing to the rapid tempo, the measure is a more 
convenient metric unit than the individual count in the measure; 
thus the metronome indication is for a dotted half instead of a 
quarter note. The song is harmonic in structure and contains the 
tones of the fourth five-toned scale; it was recorded without the drum. 



106 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



No. 27. Fourth Song of the MFnMm/wuck 

Sung by NA'WAJI'BIGO'KWE 




VOICE J 168 
Recorded without drum 

I 



(Catalogue No. 376) 






Na-mundj -ge - do-gwen e ba - on - dji - o - nan - ge- yan e 




na-mundj-ge - do-gwSn ba- on -dji - o - nan- ge-yan 




na-mundj-ge - do-gw8n g ba - on - dji - o - nan - ge - yan e 



1=*==^^ 

j 1 \ I 



t= 



na-mundj-ge - do- gwen bu - on - dji - bu - si - gwi - yan 







na-mfindj -ge - do- gwen bfi - on - dji - bu - si - gwi- yau 



WORDS 



namundj^edogwen^ it is uncertain what will happen 

baondj^onan^eyan 7 to the one from whom I fly 

namundj^edogwen 7 it is uncertain what will happen 

buondj^busigwiyan 7 to the one from whom I rise 

Analysis. This melody is unusually irregular in form. The prin- 
cipal measures are in 7-4 time; the rhythmic unit contains three 
measures and occurs five times. Four renditions were secured; 
these are identical except that after the first rendition the singer 
omitted part of the last phrase, closing with the calls We Jio Tio ho. 
Apparently this was done to avoid the very low tone at the close, 
which was sung with difficulty. The song is freely melodic in struc- 
ture and contains all the tones of the octave except the seventh. 

If a great fight were expected, the Chippewa made preparations for 
the care of the wounded. Litters were constructed of poles, these 
being especially required, as the Sioux always pursued the Chippewa 
in an effort to capture the wounded. Every war party included an 



DENSMOREl 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



107 



old man whose duty it was to carry an extra supply of medicine and 
of water; he did not fight but held himself in readiness to attend 
those in need of assistance. The feather flag (see p. 91) was carried 
by one of the bravest warriors, who ran to and fro with it during the 
fight. This man was a target for the Sioux and defended the flag 
with his life. The drum was beaten during the contest by one of the 
warriors, who also sang to inspire the men. This duty likewise 
required special courage. Before entering a fight the leaders 
arrayed themselves in brilliant trappings. Each wore a band around 
the head in which were bright feathers ; this rendered them con- 
spicuous and showed their fearlessness. The neck was usually 
encircled by a charm consisting of the dried skin of a bird, which 
contained a medicine known only to the wearer (see p. 77). This 
charm was wrapped in birch bark but before a battle the warrior 
tore off the cover, exposing the bird skin, and also sang the song 
which should make the charm effectual. The following song was 
used for this purpose. 

No. 28. Song of a War Charm (Catalogue No. 369) 

Sung by ODJ]B'WE 

VOICE J 80 

DRUM J 92 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

rQ 









^ 



We-go-n&i - i - wi - n8 - h% - he - ne e - 



- ni - mo - 




ya - fta-han e we- go-nSn - i - wi - nS - h& - he - ne e - p6 - ni - mo - 



1 

r * 

FO* b u _j r 


r 
\ 





I* 1* m 


* 


^ r .. fT3= 


E-5-k* ^ ^ 


m 


-f- 








tt% 




F- H * = 

i ' 



ya - Aa-han nin- bl - n6s - i - wa-yan e he he e e - pe"-m-mo- 




ya - /ia-han e we-go-n8n - i - wi - n - hi- he - ne e - p8 - ni - mo-yan 
WORDS 

wegoneViwinen 7 1 in what 

epe / nimoyan / is my trust? 

ninblnes / iwayan / my bird-skin charm 

epe / nimoyan / is my trust 



i See footnote 2, p. 89. 



108 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL.. 5- f 



Analysis. This song is transcribed hi the key of 1) flat, though 
the third of that key does not appear in the melody (see analysis of 
No. 53). In broad outline the 'framework of the melody may be 
said to be the descending interval of the fourth E flat-B flat, and 
D flat-A flat (see analysis of No. 22). The song is regular in form, 
the rhythmic unit occurring four times; the first two occurrences con- 
tain the words of the question while the last two contain the answer. 

According to Odjib'we the Chippevva always sang, if possible, 
before attacking the enemy. If the attack were to be made at day- 
break, the Chippewa crept stealthily to an ambush near the village, 
the drum was beaten very softly, and the following song was sung 
in subdued tones. Then came a piercing yell as the warriors dashed 
on the sleeping enemy. In open fight the war cry of the Chippewa 
was Bwan, Bwan, 1 the word by which they designated a Sioux. 
Odjlb'we stated that the leader started the drum song. The title is 
not fully explained, but may have been suggested by the muffled 
throb of the drum, which impressed itself indelibly on the mind. 



No. 29. Drum Song 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J-96 
DRUM Jz^96 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 15 ) 



(Catalogue No. 341) 



Ga - ki - na - ni - ni - mi - ag o - gi - tci-dag e en - da - ci - wad e 

^.r* 



_^_4 r _|_i 






ya e 



ga - ki -na - ni - ni - mi - ag o - gi - tci - dag e en - da - ci - 




wad e ga-ki - na-ni-ni-mi - ag o-gi-tci-dag en-da -ci - wad e 



WORDS 



gakina'ninimiag' I make them dance 

ogTtcidag 7 2 those brave men 

en'daclwad' every one of them 

Analysis. This melody is grouped about the tones of the chord 
of A minor, but begins on the tone above the fifth of that chord, a 
similar approach to the harmonic tone being found in the fourth 
and fifth measures from the close of the song (see analysis of No. 53) . 

1 The full form of this word is Abwan', plural Abwan'Hg ("Roasters"), but the contraction is the form 
in common use. (See Warren's History of the Ojibways, in Colls. Minn. Hist. Soc., vol. v, 1885, p. 36.) 

2 From Sioux aki'tita + g (ug), Chippewa plural ending. See also pp. 76, 186, 190, 230. 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



109 



Tho tone material comprises only the first, second, third, fifth, and 
sixth tones of the minor scale, the second being lowered in one 
measure. Although the song is minor in tonality it is found that 
8 of the 17 intervals (47 per cent) are major thirds. (See Nos. 83, 99.) 
The reverse of this, namely, prominence of minor thirds in songs 
of major tonality, is considered in the analyses of Nos. 140, 141, 151, 
161, 163. The rhythmic unit is repeated once accurately but is 
slightly changed at the close of the song, this change relieving the 
monotony and giving character to the rhythm of the song as a whole. 
The metric unit of voice and drum is the same, the voice slightly 
preceding the drumbeat. 

Three renditions of the song were recorded; these are identical in 
every respect. After a lapse of eight months the song was again 
recorded, the repetition of the melody being exact but the words 
being slightly different. , 

When the Chippewa met the Sioux in open fight one of their 
number might inspire the others to bravery by making himself a 
target. Throwing aside his weapons and divesting himself of all 
clothing, he rushed toward the enemy. If the Sioux failed to kill 
him at the first shot, it was permissible for him to attempt to escape. 
It is said that a man named Ogmia'wudjiwe'b' (" chief of the moun- 
tains") had an experience of this kind and made his escape. 

No. 30. Song of a Man Who Rushed Toward the Enemy 

Sung by ODJIB'WE (Catalogue No. 329) 

VOICE J-76 
DRUM J 88 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



f I 







-- -9- -- -- -- k- . -- - 




Ni - dji - ki-wS - i-dog e ge -go ji - ino-ke -gun 




nin zon-gi - de-e 

WORDS 

nidjiki'wSidog' my friends 

ge'go do not 

o'jimoke'gun 1 flee 

nin I 

zon'gidee' am strong-hearted 



1 The first syllable of this word was omitted because the previous word ends with the same vowel. 
See footnote, p. 90. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song is short but interesting. 
It occurs three times and comprises the entire song except that 
part which contains the words. (See Nos. 1, 8, 12, 13, 39, 40, 
81, 105.) The song was recorded four times, the renditions being 
uniform except that in the fourth from the last measure the pro- 
gressions vary slightly. It is worthy of note that this is the only 
measure whose principal tones are not those of the chord of F minor. 
The melody is strongly harmonic in feeling, although classified as 
melodic because of the accented B flat. 

The difference in intonation between the first and second E flat 
in measures 1 and 3 is interesting, as it appears in all the renditions. 
The song contains ten measures and is divided into four parts. The 
metric unit is slower than in most Chippewa songs. A slow metric 
unit is found in other songs of self-control under excitement (see songs 
Nos. 51, 52, 103, 161). As a rhythmic whole this song is particularly 
complete and satisfactory. 

During a fight a man frequently sang his dream song or a song 
which he had composed concerning a former victory. Odjlb'we 
stated that in time of great excitement a man would sing louder 
but probably no faster than was his usual custom. It is said that 
the following song was composed and sung on a field of battle by a 
woman named Omiskwa'wegi'jigo'kwe (" woman of the red sky"), 
the wife of the leader, who went with him into the fight singing, 
dancing, and urging him on. At last she saw him kill a Sioux. 
Full of the fire of battle, she longed to play a man's part and scalp the 
slain. Custom forbade that Chippewa women use the scalping knife, 
although they carried the scalps in the victory dance. 



DKNSMOREj 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



111 



No. 31. If I Had Been a Man (Catalogue No. 349) 

Sung by ODJJB'WE 
VOICE J-76 
DRUM J 92 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



JjL ft 






A - pi - due i - nl - ni-yan - ban ke - gt i - nl - nl nin - da - 



^ 


^ 


p 

-^ 


*- 


3 

^ 


~x 

m A ^- 

F i-l 1 

^4^ 


-b 1 - 


y| 


JL 

4= 


*= 


^ 


fe^ 



gi - ta-bi - bi - na 








WORDS 

api'duc ............................ at that time 

inini'wiyanban 1 ---- .............. if I had been a man 

kegeY ............................ truly 

inl'nl ............................. a man 

nindagi'tabibina' .................. I would have seized 

Analysis. The first progression of an ascending octave, followed 
by a descent along the tones of the tonic chord, characterizes this 
melody (see analysis of No. 9). The harmonic feeling is strong 
throughout the song, the accented C in the sixth measure being the 
only departure from the tonic and submediant chords. There is no 
rhythmic unit, but the rhythm of the song as a whole is complete and 
satisfactory. 

Three renditions of the song were recorded. In each the tempo 
was more rapid and less regular in the four measures following the 
words, returning in the last two measures to the metric unit of the 
beginning. This unit is slow, as in other songs of self-control. The 
more rapid and free rhythm of the middle part is the more inter- 
esting if considered in connection with the words and origin of the 
song. Other songs composed by women are Nos. 39, 40, 112, 127, 
151, 177, 178. 

When a Chippewa shot a Sioux he shouted, "I have killed a Sioux," 
and others took up the call, adding the victor's name. Thus other 
warriors were nerved to renewed endeavor. After the fight the 



i A syllable is omitted to make the words conform to the music. 



112 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 5.'1 



names were remembered, and the warriors were given proper credit. 
In the old days each warrior marked his arrows, hence it could usu- 
ally be determined by whose hands the slain fell; but after the intro- 
duction of guns it would have been impossible to ascertain who had 
killed the Sioux unless the call. above mentioned were given during 
the engagement. 

It was not unusual for a warrior to sink exhausted during a fight. 
This misfortune once befell Odjib'we, and the incident was related by 
his friend Niski'gwun, who was present on one occasion when Odjib'we 
was recording songs on the phonograph. Niski'gwun was with Od- 
jib'we in many of the contests with the Sioux. Niski'gwun stated 
that on one occasion Odjib'we went into a fight without his " medi- 
cine." The fight had scarcely begun when Odjib'we appeared to 
be almost paralyzed. He was not able to strike a blow in his own 
defense and would have fallen an easy prey to the Sioux had not 
Niski'gwun rushed to him and given him medicine from his own bag, 
mixing it with water. Niski'gwun also sprayed the medicine on 
Odjib'we's feet and limbs with a wisp of brush. This revived him 
and enabled him to rise. Soon he was entirely himself and the fight 
was won, the Sioux village being captured. 

Niski'gwun stated that he sang the following song when he applied 
the medicine. 

No. 32. Song of Help in the Fight (Catalogue No. 385) 

Sung by NISKI'GWUN 
VOICE J=144 
DKUM J=108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



f. JL ;. ^ j _^_. _^_ _ 



Muc-ko 



de 



a - kin we-yan-e 



ba - si - gwi-yan e 






muc - ko 



de a - kifi we - yan - e 



ba - si - gwi-yan e 




gpl 



muc- ko 



de a - kin we - yan - e 



ba - si - gwi-yan e 



WORDS 



muckode 7 the prairie 

akin / land 

weyan / eba / sigweyan / whence I arise 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 113 

Analysis. Four renditions of this song were recorded, in all of which 
the final word was mispronounced, this license being allowed in Chip- 
pewa songs. On the octave and fifth the intonation is fairly correct, 
and these tones were sung firmly; the other tones are variable in 
pitch, and the transcription should be understood as approximate. 
The signature is that of the key of D, as both F sharp and C sharp 
occur in the melody, but the " sense of key" is not clear. It seems 
probable that the singer's recollection of the song was not quite dis- 
tinct. The rhythmic unit contains seven measures, and its repeti- 
tions comprise the entire song. The framework of the melody is the 
descending interval of the fourth, a peculiarity which is fully con- 
sidered in the analysis of No. 22. While this is not an inspiring mel- 
ody, there is something in it deeper and stronger than enthusiasm; 
there are steadiness and control. Strongest of all is the idea of the 
words the picture of the prairie, calm in its consciousness of power. 

The following three songs relate to one of Odjlb'we's war expedi- 
tions and illustrate the singing of a death song and the composing of 
songs concerning a notable victory. 

These songs are connected with an expedition against a Sioux 
village called Gaye'dawima'miwuri ("lake in the valley"), which was 
located on the upper waters of the Minnesota River; its chief was 
known among the Chippewa as Manda'mlnes (Little Corn). A war 
party of more than a hundred Chippewa attacked this village and 
the first man killed was the Sioux chief. During the fight the Sioux 
women rushed out and dragged back the wounded men that they 
might not be scalped. Although seven of their number were killed 
the Chippewa would have been victorious had not a large party of 
Sioux come on the field from a distance. Finding themselves out- 
numbered, the Chippewa began to retreat. The Sioux used poisoned 
arrows. One of the Chippewa warriors was wounded in the foot by a 
barbed, poisoned arrow, but his friends were able to carry him away. 
The Sioux followed the Chippewa a long distance and many of the 
former were killed in this running fight. Name'bineV (Little Carp), 
a leading warrior of the Chippewa, was terribly wounded in the 
abdomen. His retreating comrades tried to take him with them but 
after a time, realizing that the attempt was useless, at his own 
request he was laid in a clump of bushes. There his friends left him 
with his gun, saying, " Defend yourself as best you can." Soon the 
Sioux came in hot pursuit of the Chippewa and from his hiding place 
Name'bineV shot a man. With ebbing strength he gave his last war 
whoop and his friends heard him cry, "Men, I have killed a Sioux." 

When Name'bineV was laid in the bushes he sang his death song, 
which he is said to have composed at that time. Looking into the 
faces of his comrades he said, "When you reach home sing this for 
the women to dance by and tell them how I died." 
67996 Bull. 5313 8 



114 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 33. Death Song of Name'bings' (Catalogue No. 335) 
Sung by ODJIB'WE 

VOICE J=104 
DRUM J 104 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

ir 






Ni - ma - ji-man-dis ni - ma - ji-man-dls nim - bi - dji-man-dis nim - 




"*^i_ - m. -^ 

bi-dji-man-dis nim - bi-dji-inan-dis 6 - na - su-mi - ka-yan e 



WORDS 

nima'jiman'dis the odor of death 

nimbi'djiman'dis I discern the odor of death 

8na / sumi / kayan / in the front of my body 

Analysis. Ten renditions of this song are on the phonograph 
cylinder, the transcription being from the eighth rendition. The 
words vary in the several renditions, sometimes only one word being 
used or meaningless syllables sung. The principal variation in intona- 
tion is on the tone A in the second measure. The intonation of the 
last three measures is uniform and the rhythm of the entire song shows 
no variation. The song contains a short rhythmic unit, which occurs 
five times without interruption. The last three measures are in a 
different rhythm. (Compare Nos. 4, 5, 19, 34.) In these measures 
the length of the tones is unusually regular and the voice and drum 
exactly coincide. The structure of this song is interesting. The 
accented tones follow the intervals of the triad of A minor and the 
unaccented tones in the fourth and sixth measures introduce the 
chord of C major, the song being in the major key. Thus the first 
two measures are on the chord of A minor and the next two measures 
on that of C major; then follows a measure in A minor (without the 
third), giving way again to C major in the last three measures. This 
alternation of minor and major is worthy of special note in connection 
with the origin of the song. (See No. 128.) 

At the first camp after this fight the Chippewa composed a song, 
the words of which refer to the Sioux women who came from the 
village to drag back the wounded men. 



CHIPPBWA MUSIC II 115 

No. 34. "The Sioux Women Gather Up their Wounded" 

Sung by ODJ!B / WE 



VOICE J-100 
DRUM J-108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 3 ) 



(Catalogue No. 336) 



zMlLt^FfFf.t- 




O -ma-mi-kweg o ya ne pa-ba - ma-de - mo-wug e 



o-na-dji - 




da - ba - ma - wun e o - di - ni - ni - mi - wun e a - ni - mu- 







de - mu - wug e 



WORDS 



Oma / mikweg / 

paba'made / mowug / 

ona'djida'bamawun' 

o'dinini'miwun 

ani'mude'muwug' 



the Sioux women 
pass to and fro wailing 
as they gather up 
their wounded men 

the voice of their weeping comes back to 
us 

Analysis. Six renditions of this song were recorded, the transcrip- 
tion being from the third rendition. The rhythm and the melody. 
tones are the same in all the renditions but the words vary slightly, 
affecting the length of the tones; for instance ; the word meaning 
" village" is used in one rendition and the order of the words is some- 
times changed. The tonality is minor but, as in many similar songs, 
the tonic does not appear in the opening measures. (See analysis 
of No. 9, also of Nos. 1, 83, 94, 120.) This song contains a short 
rhythmic unit which is repeated without variation except for the 
addition of a quarter note after the second occurrence of the unit. 
The closing measures are in a different rhythm (see Nos. 4, 5, 19, 33) 
and the rhythm of the song has a well-defined individuality. The 
interval of the fourth is especially prominent. (See analysis of 
No. 22.) 

On their homeward journey the Chippewa composed another song. 
Remembering the tread of the pursuing enemy, they sang of war as a 
game with the bodies of the dead as its score. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 35. "They are Playing a Game" (Catalogue No. 342) 
Sung by ODJIB'WE 

VOICE J=104 
DRUM J-104 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 15) 




Ga - bi - mi - bi - di-kweg muc -ko-deng bi - mi - a - ta - 






di-wug e i - ni - m-wug e 



ga-bi- mi - bi - di-kweg muc-ko - 






deng bi- mi - a - ta - di-wug e i - ni - ni-wug e ga- bi - mi - bi - di - 



* iH- 




kweg muc-ko-deng bi-mi-a-ta- di-wug e i-m-nl-wug e 



WORDS 



gabimi'bidikweg' the noise of passing feet 

muc'kodeng' on the prairie 

bimi'atadiwug' they are playing a game as they come 

ini'niwug' those men 

Analysis. This melody is based on the tones of the minor triad, 
the sixth being used as a passing tone and occurring only once. The 
song contains a rhythmic unit eight measures in length, which occurs 
three times, is accurately repeated, and comprises the entire song. 
It is worthy of note that the song contains only one upward progres- 
sion; this occurs between the second and third sections of the song. 
The compass of the song is unusual, as it begins on the tenth above 
the tonic and ends on the fifth in the octave below the tonic. Four 
renditions of the melody were recorded; the intonation of the tones 
marked is uniform in the several renditions. 

OdjuVwe stated that on one occasion a warrior sank exhausted as 
the war party was returning home. The other warriors, reluctant to 
leave him a prey to some wandering enemy, stayed with him. It 
seemed impossible for him to rise. However, he used his medicine, 
and after a time sprang to his feet, singing this song, which he com- 
posed at the time. The war party resumed its journey, and he 
accompanied them, still singing his new song. 






DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



117 



No. 36. Song of the Exhausted Warrior 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 367) 



VOICE = 84 

DRUM J^104 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




Ba - ba - pi - m - si - wa - gun ge - non -de - ci - nan 







r' _f" ^ f 


Ir 


f f f- 


jf- , 


=:= 


f ^ f$ 

b M Hi 


1 =i L_J U 


E 


tf-l 1 1 


=^ M 


-^ v 
i 


^d 14 

e ba- 


ba - pi - m - si - wa 


-gun 


14 

ge - non - de 


i i 

- ci-nan 





r"* 


f- J*- f-' f- , 







ca , 


-*v- V 


1 3 1 ^ 


! -1 4 f 





1-2 P" J^ 


j H"^& i 


^h> 


nii^*^f4 






i = S iU 





i e nm - ga - a - da - won-ge - yen ge - . on - dji - da-go 








ci-nan 



ge-6n- dji-da-go - ci-nan e 




baba'pinl'siwa'gun alas 

genon / decinan / I can not travel 

ninga'ada'wongen' 2 but I will borrow that 

geondji'dago'cinan' by means of which I can arrive 

Analysis. Three renditions of this song were recorded; these are 
uniform in every respect. This uniformity is of interest, as the 
rhythmic unit is long and irregular; it occurs three times without 
variation. The remainder of the song contains fragments of the 
unit, but no complete repetition. The song is minor in tonality and 
is characterized by the sharped seventh, which is found but rarely 
in the minor songs under analysis. By this accidental the song is 
more fully identified with what is commonly termed the minor scale. 
The relation of the rhythm to the content of the song is worthy of 
note, the effect of perturbation in the first part of the song being con- 
trasted with the more regular rhythm of the latter part. 

1 Where no words appear in the music above, meaningless syllables were sung. 
* A syllable is added to this word to make it conform to the music. 



118 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

SONGS ON THE KETURN OF A VICTORIOUS WAR PARTY 

On returning, a victorious war party sent runners in advance to 
carry the news of their approach, and preparations for a suitable 
reception were begun at once. Meantime the warriors made their 
last camp before reaching home; here they rehearsed the songs con- 
cerning the victory and arrayed themselves in their finest apparel. 
Then began the final stage of the journey. As they approached the 
village they fired guns as a signal and the women came out to meet 
them. One woman led the party, to whom were given the scalps 
taken by the warriors. Each scalp was dried, and fastened inside a 
hoop at the end of a pole. Occasionally several were fastened in the 
same hoop (see pi. 17, showing five scalps in a decorated hoop). 
Frequently a man gave his wife the Sioux scalp he had taken. The 
women took the warriors' blankets, beadwork, and tobacco bags, 
and even then* guns, none of which were they required to return. 
Then the women led the procession, the scalp bearers in advance, 
waving the scalps and singing. After the party reached the village 
preparations for the victory dance were begun. A suitable place 
was selected, to which was carried a large quantity of food dried 
meat, wild rice, and maple sugar. The poles bearing the Sioux 
scalps were stuck in the ground beside the pile of food, and the feast 
was called "feasting the Sioux." There was no song connected with 
this feast. After the feast a simple ceremony in praise of the war- 
riors took place. The victors were seated in a row and their friends 
brought gifts, which were laid before them. Often the following song 
was sung at this time. The words of this song require explanation. 
According to Odjlb'we, defeated warriors were treated with scorn 
and derision when they returned. This is the song of victorious Gull 
Lake warriors, who were being honored at some other village, the 
inference intended to be drawn from the words being the exact oppo- 
site of their direct translation. Odjib'we stated that the words of 
the song meant "at Gull Lake [our home] they will be proud of us," 
but the correct translation is as given. This song was recorded 
three times, a period of several weeks elapsing between the ren- 
ditions. The words varied somewhat, but Odjib'we stated that all 
have the same general meaning and that it was allowable to change 
the words of a song provided the "tune" and the meaning of the 
words remained the same. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 17 





FRONT BACK 

SCALPS ATTACHED TO HOOP 



DENSMORE] 



VOICE J 116 
Recorded without drum 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 37. Gift Song 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



119 

(Catalogue No. 389) 








-P -i 


i 1 ili ii P 1 


} |* ! 


* * P = q j -J J- 


^ [Lj4= _^=- 




__j | j *_ _^ m- 




f- 




^^ 


r~r^. . r * 


f- I 


1 cv P 


p p p P 


p p 1 


E^^^E 


^^=Efc 3E 


_^_ .__r p : 


1 




z i i 


1 i . f - - - ' ' 




bBi-=t-t 


r - i 


r i ill 


T Pi* trZH3l 


it . 


Z ! ' 


* 


f> ^ 



WORDS 



at Gull Lake 
manoga / yana / wenimigo / min. . let them speak lightly of us 

Analysis. This song was transcribed from the first of three ren- 
ditions. The melody consists of four parts. The rhythmic unit was 
accurately repeated except for a slight change in the note-values of 
the last measure. The other renditions were only partial and were 
similar to the latter half of the transcription. When different words 
were used the note-values differed accordingly, but the trend of the 
melody remained the same. The song is harmonic in structure and 
contains only the tones of the major triad and sixth. 

In response to this song the warriors rose and danced, singing of 
what they had done on the warpath. These songs were composed 
on the way home (see No. 35). The following is an example of this 
class of songs. 

Odjlb'we stated that this song was composed by his brother and 
sung in the victory dance. His brother had been on a war party 
with his father and Hole-in-the-day and had cut off a Sioux woman's 
head, bringing home the scalp. 



120 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 38. Scalp Song (Catalogue No. 366) 

Sung by ODJ!B X WE 
VOICE Jr=160 

DRUM j 104 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




Go - ni - ge - ta - gi - na a - ga- den - da-mo - dog o - ma - mi-kwe 



ZLT; u 

~9 f jTf S^^^SS r 


1 


I - - ^ 1 




we gi - kic - ki-gwe - jug 


IE! 


* J J - 

^> 


^ 



WORDS 



gonige'tagina' I wonder 

agadeu'damodog 7 if she is humiliated 

Oma'mikwe' the Sioux woman 

gikic'kigwejug' that I cut off her head 

Analysis. This is a song of derision, and in that respect it resem- 
bles No. 14; comparison of the two songs is therefore of interest. 
Both are minor in tonality, begin on the octave, and, as is unusual, 
have the descending fourth as their first progression. Both end on 
the fifth, the compass being from the dominant below the tonic to 
the octave above it; a more common range is from the tonic to the 
twelfth above it. Both songs are melodic in structure and neither 
contains an accidental. With these features the resemblance ends. 
No. 14 is in double time with two triple measures, begins on the 
accented part of the measure, and contains no rhythmic unit; while 
the song under analysis is in triple time throughout, begins on the 
unaccented part of the measure, and contains a short rhythmic unit 
continuously repeated. These points of difference show the individ- 
uality of the two songs. The derision in No. 14 is subtle and tan- 
talizing and the rhythmic swing is long, without a clearly defined 
unit; while in the present instance the derisive idea is more direct, 
the taunting more keen, finding expression in a short, crisp rhythm. 
Five renditions of the song were recorded, the rhythm showing no 
variation. 

Gifts were distributed to all the people by members of the war- 
rior's clan; for instance, Odjlb'we's do'dem, (clan animal) was the 
bear. When he returned bringing a scalp, all the men and women 
belonging to the Bear Clan danced around him with their arms f uU 
of presents, after which they distributed the presents throughout the 
village in his honor. 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



121 



The next event was the victory dance, which often continued until 
daylight, by the light of torches and bonfires. At this dance the 
Sioux scalps were carried and songs were sung in honor of the war- 
riors. (See Nos. 80, 83, 165.) This is illustrated by the following 
two songs, which were composed, respectively, by the wife and the 
mother-in-law of OdjJb'we and sung in recognition of his prowess. 
Odjflb'we recorded the first song 'n August, 1909, and sang it again 
in March, 1910, the renditions and the accounts of the incident being 
identical. 

OdjJb'we stated that his wife's brother was killed by the Sioux 
and that he organized a war party in return. The purpose of this 
expedition was to attack a certain Sioux village located on an island 
in Sauk River, but before reaching this village the Chippewa met a 
war party of Sioux, which they pursued, killing one man. There 
were nine Chippewa in Odjlb'we's party; not one was killed. They 
returned home at once and OdjJb'we presented the Sioux scalp to 
his wife De'kum (" across"), who held it aloft in the victory dance 
as she sang the following song. 



No. 39. The Song of De'kfim 

Sung by OPJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 348) 



VOICE J-168 
DRUM J 108 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 

^ 



mm 




l^E 



t=f 



O - d jib- we gi - sai - ye-nafi o- bi - nan 

WORDS 

OdjWwe Odjfl/we 

gisai'yenan our brother 

obi x nan brings back 

Analysis. The five renditions of this song recorded are uniform 
in all important respects. The rhythmic unit is interesting; this 
occurs three times, comprising all the song except the part in which 
the words occur. (See Nos. 1, 8, 12, 13, 30^ 40, 81, 105.) The minor 
tonality is well established and the approach to the tonic by the 
descending interval of a fourth is somewhat unusual. (See analysis 
of No. 22.) Other songs composed by women are Nos. 31, 40, 112, 
127, 151, 177, and 178. 



122 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



When De'kum had finished the song, her mother, Djiiigwa'kumigo'- 
kwe (" rumbling-earth woman"), arose, and, taking the scalp, danced 
while singing the following song, which she composed in honor of 
Odjib'we. 

No. 40. Song of Rejoicing (Catalogue No. 365) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J=168 
DRUM J 104 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




Mi - sft - na dji-mm - w6n - da-man nifi- gwi - zis a 




mi - su - na dji-min - w8n- da-man nifi -gwi - zis a 




gi - sai - ye gi - pi - da - ma - wi - yan nifi - gwi - zis e 




mi - s^ - na dji - min-w6n - da-man nifi - gwi - zis a ye 



WORDS 

ml / suna / ........................... it shall be 

djimmw8n / daman / ..... ............ that I rejoice 

ningwi'zis ........................ O, my son 

gisa^ye ............................ your elder brother 

gip^damawiyan 7 ................... you have brought back 

ningwi'zis ........................ O, my son 

ml'suna' ......................... it shall be 

djimmwen'daman' ................. that I rejoice 

ningwi'zis ........................ O, my son 

Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song, which occurs 3 times, 
is particularly interesting and inspiring. The song is divided into 
four parts, the words changing in the third section. (See Nos. 1, 8, 
12, 13, 30, 39, 81, 105.) The melody is major in tonality and moves 
freely along the fourth five-toned scale. In songs based on the fourth 
five-toned scale the second and sixth frequently occur only as passing 
tones. The sixth is accented in one measure and the song is therefore 
classified as " melodic with harmonic framework " instead of purely 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



123 



harmonic in structure. The four renditions of the song recorded 
are identical in every respect. Other songs composed by women are 
Nos. 31, 39, 112, 127, 151, 177, 178. 

Odjlb'we stated that he took part in a severe fight with a band of 
Sioux led by the famous chief Gaga'gins (Little Crow). The circum- 
stances were as follows : Little Crow 's band was in camp on the west 
side of the Minnesota Biver a few miles below the site of the present 
St. Paul. The blind warrior accurately described a level tract of land 
west of the first bend in the river. A large war party of Chippewa 
prepared to attack the Sioux village and sent two scouts in advance, 
who killed and scalped a Sioux woman coming out of a tipi. Think- 
ing that the scouts were unprotected, the Sioux warriors pursued 
them and soon met the entire force of the Chippewa. A terrible fight 
followed in which the Chippewa were victorious. The following song, 
which relates to this victory, was composed by Hole-in-the-day, 
leader of the expedition. (See p. 61.) 



No. 41. Victory Song 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 345) 



VOICE J=92 

DRUM J 104 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 






A - ci - do - ka - ma 



ge - wa - wi - ni - go - yan 



-F F- 



ci - do - ka - ma 




*-- ^ 
ge - wa - wi - ni - go - yan 



WORDS l 



aci / doka / ma surely 

gewa / winigoyan / I will have great praise 

Analysis. Seven renditions of this song were recorded, the tran- 
scription being from the sixth, which is the only one in which the 
words occur twice. The rhythm of the first part is uniform in the sev- 
eral renditions recorded, while that of the latter part varies with the 
presence or omission of words. The melody moves freely along the 



i Where no words appear in the music above, meaningless syllables were sung. 



124 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



intervals of the fourth five-toned scale. The first three measures 
constitute an interesting rhythmic phrase but it is not repeated and 
the song as a whole lacks rhythmic unity; it is, however, inspiring 
and joyful in general character. Attention is directed to the discrep- 
ancy between the metric units of voice and drum. 

The following incident illustrates the use of a dream song, which 
the warrior sang while on the warpath, to secure supernatural aid, 
and afterward in the victory dance to commemorate the triumph and 
the means by which he believed it had been attained. 

Odjib'we stated that long ago a party of Chippewa attacked the 
Sioux, killing several and securing the scalps. Then they started for 
home with the Sioux in hot pursuit. The leader of the party was the 
singer of this song. In his youthful vision he saw a protecting cloud, 
and when the Sioux pressed close he sang his dream song. Suddenly 
a dark cloud came across the sky, the rain fell in torrents, and through 
the storm the Chippewa made their escape. After reaching home 
the leader sang this song at the victory dance. (Compare Nos. 63, 
64, 66, 85, 87, 94, 140, 141, 145, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 153.) 



No. 42. "A Cloud" 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 330) 



VOICE J 96 
DRUM J 96 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 3 ) 



bi - mi - a - go - 6 - yan 




yan a - na-kwad ge - bi - mi - a - go - 6 - yan ge - bi - mi - 






i r 



a - go - 6 - yan a - na-kwad ge - bi-mi-a - go - o - yan 

WORDS 



^e'bimia'gooyan' circling above me 

a'nakwad' a cloud 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



125 



Analysis. This song contains three accidentals the second, 
third, and sixth lowered a semitone. The F natural was imperfectly 
given at the opening of the song but accurately sung in the latter 
part. Three renditions of the song were recorded and the accidentals 
were uniformly given though the intonation varied on several other 
intervals. The rhythmic unit occurs six times, the prolonged tones 
between the second and third occurrences of the unit being uniform 
in the renditions. 

The following is the dream song of a forgotten Warrior. 

No. 43. "I am Called" (Catalogue No. 331) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J 104 
DRUM J 116 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 
(1st phrase) 




( 2d phrase ) 







Na - na - wa - gam ki - tci - gam -I 

( 3d phrase ) 

I 



nin - on - do - mig 







ma-ni-do e 



WORDS 



nana'wagam' from the middle 

ki'tcigam'ing' of the great water 

ninon / domig / I am called 

manido' by the spirit 

Analysis. Four renditions of this song were given, with a pause 
between the second and third. Two weeks later the song was 
recorded twice. The six records are identical except that in the 
last two the tone E (last count, fifth measure from the close) was 
sung F natural. In one or two of the first set of renditions this tone 
was raised slightly, less than a semitone. The ascending progression 
on the last count of the first measure was given with a sliding of the 
voice which can not be accurately transcribed. 

It will be noted that the first five measures of the song constitute 
a rhythmic phrase, marked "1st phrase"; instead of repeating this, 



12(5 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BUU,. 53 

however, the song introduces another phrase of 7 measures, marked 
"2d phrase," followed by still another of 5 measures, marked "3d 
phrase." Thus the song contains 17 measures, divided into three 
parts, each part making "rhythmic sense," the three forming a 
rhythmic whole. 

The tones of the song are grouped about the chord of E minor, the 
tone A in the ninth measure being the only accented tone not belong- 
ing to that chord. The presence of this tone, however, makes it 
necessary to classify the song as melodic rather than harmonic in 
structure. The song contains all the tones of the octave, also one 
accidental the sixth raised a semitone. 

The principal drum-rhythm is that of accented eighth notes, but 
in the latter part of the first record the accent is intensified and the 
unaccented beat shortened until the drum-rhythm consists of triplets, 
the accented beat representing the first note, and the unaccented 
beat the third note, of the triplet, an eighth rest occurring between 
the two. This change of drum-rhythm in a record is unusual. 

At the conclusion of these dances 1 the scalps were carefully 
wrapped and kept until the next dance. When one village was 
tired of dancing with the scalps they were sent to another village, 
where similar dances were held. Mrs. English (the writer's inter- 
preter) stated that she remembered when Sioux scalps were sent 
from the Minnesota villages to those on the shore of Lake Superior, 
a distance of more than a hundred miles. The scalps were carried 
by the same oc'kabe'wis who bore the war message and tobacco before 
the organization of the war party. On this occasion also he carried 
tobacco and was prepared to sing the songs connected with the 
taking of the scalps. 

When all the villages had finished dancing the scalps were brought, 
back to the first village, where speeches were made and the poles were 
set in a grave. This was frequently the grave of the man whose 
death was avenged by the war party. There the poles bearing the 
scalps remained undisturbed until wind and weather completed the 
conquest of the Sioux. 

SONGS OF THE PEACE PACT 

Interspersed through the troubled years of strife there were periods 
of peace between the Chippewa and the Sioux. Odjib'we stated 
that the tribe desiring peace sent messengers to the other tribe 
asking for a cessation of hostilities. According to him, the Sioux 
were usually the tribe who sought peace. If the Chippewa were 
willing to join in a peace pact, the messenger returned to the enemy 
with a favorable reply. The Sioux then brought their families and 
camped near the Chippewa while each tribe made preparations for 
the formal proceedings. The meeting was attended with much 

' Other songs of the war dances are Nos. 83-93. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



127 



pomp and ceremony. The warriors arrayed themselves in their 
gayest attire. In each camp was the sound of singing and of shrill 
war cries, excitement was in the air, and it seemed that an encounter 
instead of a truce was in preparation. Amid shouting the opposing 
forces made ready to advance. The Chippewa were led by an 
oc'kabe'wls bearing the pipe, followed by four women; next came 
the leaders of the war party, while behind them were the warriors. 
The Sioux followed in similar array. As the two tribes approached 
each other the excitement subsided. One of the greatest scenes in 
the drama of Indian warfare was to be enacted. To and fro in 
front of the warriors walked the women. Often it was only their 
presence that prevented violence, the fire of battle bursting forth 
afresh as the warriors drew near their recent enemies. All sang as 
they came forward. The melody was the same in both tribes but 
the Chippewa sang the names of the Sioux leaders and the Sioux 
the names of the Chippewa leaders, each praising the valor of the 
other. Odjlb'we recorded the song, first as it was sung by the 
Chippewa, the transcription being from the first rendition which 
contained the name of Ga'gagins' (Little Crow), who is mentioned 
in connection with song No. 41. Without a pause he continued the 
song, introducing the names of the following Sioux leaders in the 
successive renditions: Ca'gobSns (Little Six), Bi'nicSns', and Wa'- 
bacons'. He then stated that he wished to record the song as it 
was sung by the Sioux. The melody was the same but the following 
names of Chippewa leaders were introduced: Bu'gonegi'jlg (Hole-in- 
the-day), Wa'bejic' ( " marten"), and Zon'gakum'Ig (" strong earth ") 



No. 44. Song of the Peace Pact 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 



(Catalogue No. 352) 



VOICE J-126 

DRUM J=76 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



1" 


! 
1 j | 


-, . 


rtm^ A. * 


-1-hJ- -J-4~i 


I 1 1 3 


1 ^>L/ T" ^^ ^^ 


J /J 


J j J 


E huft - ga 


c hufl - ga 


Ga - ga - gins 


f~ f" i*^ f~ 


, 1 


X 1 ' 




JL_ _^2^_ ^2 p _^_ 


-p !--- II 


p_^i|JZ ^ 


-1 i 1 1 1 


- -h5^- 


l_ *^ 




1 i i ii 


o - gi - ma e 
hun x ga 1 


uun - ga e nun - ga 

WORDS 


e nun - ga 


Ga / gagins / 


Little Crow 




o'girna 


chief 











1 From Sioux &ufca'. See S. R. Riggs, Grammar and Dictionary of the Dakota Language, Smithson. 
Contrs., vol. iv, Washington, 1852. 



128 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. This melody is characterized by directness and simplic- 
ity. It begins on the tonic, an unusual beginning in minor songs, and 
the minor tonality is fully established in the first two measures. The 
song contains 12 measures and consists of three parts, the rhythmic 
unit occurring in the first and last parts and the names in the middle 
part. The slow metric unit was maintained in the renditions with 
both Sioux and Chippewa names, suggesting that this was the tempo 
in which the song was actually sung, a tempo which gives dignity to 
the song, appropriate to the occasion of its use. 

The Sioux fired their guns into the air and did not reload them. 
The Chippewa did likewise. Nearer they came, the singing women 
walking to and fro, brave as the wives of warriors should be. Then 
the tribe which had asked for peace sent forward its pipe bearer. 
Holding the pipe in his hands, he offered the stem in turn to the 
opposing leaders, each of whom puffed the pipe. Then the other 
tribe sent forward its pipe bearer in the same manner. 

The following song was sung by the Chippewa pipe bearer when 
offering the peace pipe to the Sioux. 

No. 45. Song when Offering the Peace Pipe 

(Catalogue No. 390) 



VOICE J - 72 
Recorded without drum 



Sung by ODJ!B / WE 




Nin - do-kidj an nin- 



do - kidj an nin-do - kidj an 



WORDS 



nindo'kldj my pipestem 

Analysis. This sorg is in the key of G, yet the tonic appears only 
once (in the seventh measure) as an accented tone. Harmonic 
tones are frequently approached from the tone above. (See analysis 
of No. 53.) The rhythmic unit occurs only twice, the latter part of 
the song containing a division of the count similar to one which 
occurs in the unit but not containing a repetition of the unit. The 
rhythm of the song as a whole is particularly interesting and pro- 
duces an effect of dignified action well suited to the occasion of its 
use. The melody tones are those of the fourth five-toned scale. 
The four renditions recorded are uniform in every respect. 



DKNSMORKj 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



129 



When the smoking of the peace pipe was finished, the opposing 
warriors shook hands, and the Sioux were offered the hospitality of 
the Chippewa camp. 

After the forming of a peace pact the two tribes camped near each 
other for some time and social dances were held every night; these 
were called ca'wuno'ga (southern dance). Odjib'we stated that 
only ca'wuno'ga songs were sung at the peace dances and that these 
songs were sung at no other time. Presents were sometimes given, 
but the exchange of gifts did not form an essential feature, as in the 
woman's dance (see p. 38). A woman sometimes beckoned to a 
gayly arrayed young man, threw her blanket over his head, and Cook 
some of his finery as they danced together. It is said that the 
ca'wuno'ga songs were particularly pleasing and that the people were 
so carried away with the excitement that the dance often lasted all 
night. 

The origin of the ca'wuno'ga was thus described by Na'waji'- 
bigo'kwe: 

The ca'wuno'ga is a very old dance and was first a dance for healing. It was not to 
cure people who were very ill, for that was done by the MIde', but it was for people 
who were not in good health. The South Manido' taught this dance to a very good 
young man whose relatives were ill. It is called ca'wuno'ga because it came from 
the South Manido', and the people who first used it were people living south of the 
Chippewa country. The young man got up the dance as he was instructed by the 
South Manido' and his relatives recovered. Afterward the dance was used as a social 
dance, and the songs are particularly pleasing. 



No. 46. Ca'wftno'ga Song (a) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J-88 

DRUM J 104 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



(Catalogue No. 354) 








Analysis. This song should be regarded as one of those fugitive 
melodies in which the signature indicates the pitch of the tones rather 
67996 Bull. 5313 9 



130 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



than an established key. The six renditions of the song recorded 
are identical. In every instance the close was as transcribed, and 
the return to the first measure was without a pause. The first two 
measures are in an ordinary rhythm, and around them, in the repe- 
titions of the song, there circles a succession of measures so irregular 
hi rhythm as to fascinate and hold the attention. One can readily 
imagine that to such rhythms the excitable Indians might have danced 
all night. 

No. 47. Ca'wftno'ga Song (b) (Catalogue No. 355) 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J=168 

DRUM J=108 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

(1) 



Ca-wtin - o ga-yan i hi ca- wun- o ga- yan i hi ca-wun 




o ga-yan i hi ca-wun-o ga-yan i 




WORDS 



ca'wuno' south 

ga'yan dancing 

Analysis. The four renditions of this curious song show no varia- 
tion. The general effect of the song is jerky, yet the rhythm has an 
element of indefinite continuity; it is a rhythm which fascinates and 
could be kept up for a long time. The principal rhythmic unit occurs 
four times at the opening of the song, and is followed by a shorter 
rhythmic unit, which likewise occurs four times and contains the 
same syncopations as the first. These syncopations were uniformly 
given and are the principal characteristic of the song. (See No. 88 
of present work and Nos. 123, 147, 152, in Bulletin 45.) 

WAR SONGS CONCERNING WOMEN 

The incident concerning the first of this group of songs was narrated 
to the writer by Mr. John W. Carl (see pp. 83, 303) . Mr. Carl, who is a 



DKNSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



131 



grandson of Bfca'ganab, said that in his childhood he often heard 
the following story : 

There was once a Hudson's Bay trader who came to the Chippewa country, loved a 
Chippewa maiden, and wooed her according to the custom of her people. He gave a 
great feast, invited her father, and asked his consent to the marriage. Three daughters 
were born to them, one being the mother of BIca'ganab . Years passed and BIca'ganab , 
granddaughter of the Hudson's Bay trader, grew to womanhood. One day as she was 
lighting her breakfast fire she heard the cry, "The Sioux are upon us !" This was 
followed by the report of guns. Immediately the camp became a scene of confusion, 
the men trying to repulse the Sioux and the women hastening to put their house- 
hold goods into canoes. The father of BIca'ganab went into the fight ; he was 
wounded five times but contrived to get near the water and was helped into a canoe. 
It was supposed that BIca'ganab had been killed, but when the escaping party were 
far from shore they saw a woman fighting the Sioux with a club. The Sioux drove 
her into the water and she swam toward a canoe. The Sioux followed, trying to 
strike her on the head with a club, but she actually broke and tore their canoe with 
her hands. It was said that she was like a great bear in her ferocity. The Sioux 
were forced into the water and she pounded them with a paddle as they made for the 
shore. Instead of following the retreating Chippewa she went upstream, hiding in 
the bushes, returning later to the battlefield by a circuitous path. There she found 
only the dead Sioux, covered with their blankets; beside them lay their guns and 
much beautiful beadwork. BIca'ganab scalped the Sioux, put on a Sioux war bon- 
net, and made a great pack of blankets, guns, and beadwork; then she painted her 
face and went to the Chippewa camp with her trophies. 

BJca'ganab, one of the bravest of Chippewa women, died in 1892. 



No. 48. Song Concerning a Brave Woman 



Sung by ODJ!B'WE 
VOICE J 160 
DRUM Jjr 160 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 15) 

E-^ 

^1^ 



(Catalogue No. 351) 






ni - we"k we win ja - wa - so win gi - ja - wa - so mln - di - 




mo-yan we ja-wa-so - no-da-go-nan ya e ya e we 



WORDS 

S'niwek' greatly 

win she 

gija'waso defending her children 

mln'dimoyan' the old woman 

gigijawa'sonoda'gonan 1 fought for us all 



1 The first two syllables of this word, and in one instance the first syllable of the third word, are 
omitted to make the words conform to the music. 



132 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



LBULL. 53 



Analysis. This melody presents an interesting study of rhythm. 
It contains 19 measures and is divided into three parts, the first con- 
taining 5 measures, the second 4, and the third 10. It has no rhythmic 
unit, yet there is a melodic phrase which occurs three times in the 
second and third, and in the sixth and seventh, measures. It occurs 
also in the tenth and eleventh measures, but in the latter instances the 
first measure is a triple one, strongly accented on a tone not found at 
the opening of the song. If the first tone of the song were unaccented 
it might, be regarded as the second count of a triple measure, but it is 
strongly and unmistakably accented. Five renditions of the song 
were recorded, all identical. The metric unit of voice and drum is 
the same, but in rendition the voice slightly preceded the drum. 

The following two songs were composed about a war expedition 
which occurred when Odjlb'we was a young man. The fight took 
place on the prairie, a few miles north of the site of the present St. 
Cloud, Minnesota. It was a hard-fought engagement and 20 Chippewa 
were killed. One of the Sioux women seized an ax and attempted to 
repulse the Chippewa who attacked her, but she and all her children 
were killed. The father of Odjlb'we composed this song concerning 
the incident. 

No. 49. "The Sioux Woman Defends Her Children" 

(Catalogue No. 364) 
Sung by ODJIB'WE 

VOICE J = 92 
DRUM J 92 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




Ne - ta - gi - ca-wa - so - sig 



Wa-pe-ton bi - a - pi - s! - ka - dug go- 




ca-winbi-gi - ca-wa-sud 



WORDS 



neta'gica'wasoslg' once careless of her children 

Wape'ton l (Sioux word) she of the Wapeton Sioux 

biapi'slka'dug now comes in haste 

go'cawin'.. surely 

bigica'wasud' . to their defense 

Analysis. The five renditions of this song recorded are singularly 
uniform. Not only is the rhythm identical, but slight variations in 

1 See footnote, p. 70. 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



133 



tempo are duplicated. The melody is based on the major triad and 
would be classified as harmonic in structure except for the accented E 
in the fourth measure. 

Among those taken captive in this fight was a Sioux woman. It 
was decided to kill her and she was led forth to be shot. After the 
preparations for her execution were complete she was allowed to sing. 
We do not know what the song may have been, but it moved the 
elder brother of Odjflb'we so strongly that he rushed forward and 
rescued her. The war party soon started on its homeward way. At 
the first camp a dance was held. During this dance the captive 
woman arose, shook hands with the warriors and kissed them to 
show gratitude for her deliverance; she also sang the following song, 
which she composed at that time. 



No. 50. Song of the Captive Sioux Woman 



Sung by 
VOICE J 80 
DRUM J = 100 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 3 ) 



(Catalogue No. 334) 






Ka-ka-ta-wu wi he o ya -ba- ma - gin go - dji - ma he ke- 




wo, 



nin-ja- we - ni-mig e 



WORDS 

Kaka'tawu * any Chippewa 

waya'bamagln' 2 whenever I see 

nin'gaodji'ma 1 I will greet with a kiss 

keget' truly 

nin / jawe / nimlg / he pities me 

Analysis. Five renditions of this song were recorded. The metric 
unit varies slightly in these renditions, the metronome indication 
being from the fourth rendition. The same rhythmic pecularities 
appear in all the renditions, the first count in the second measure 
receiving more than the regular time and the last two measures be- 
ing sung more rapidly than. the preceding part of the song. The 
upward progressions in the second measure are uncertain in intona- 

1 Word used by the Sioux in designating the Chippewa. 

2 The first syllable of this word is omitted and the following word Is changed in order to adapt the 
words to the music. 



134 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



tion, the upper tones not being clearly sung but rendered with what 
might be termed a "toss" of the voice. The song contains no 
rhythmic unit, yet the melody as a whole has a complete and satis- 
factory rhythm. Attention is directed to the interval of a whole 
tone between the seventh and eighth of the scale, near the close of the 
song. This interval was firmly given. It is an unusual progression 
in recorded Chippewa songs although found also in songs Nos. 9, 85, 
100, 119, 124. 

After an interval of eight months three renditions of this song were 
recorded by the same singer; these were identical with the first 
record in both melody and rhythm but differed slightly in the words. 

War Songs White Earth Reservation 

MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 





Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Major 


27 


*4 


2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 


Minor 


23 


46 


26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 37, 40, 41, 42, 47, 49 
1, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 24, 29, 30, 34, 35, 








36, 38, 39, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 50 


Total 


50 















BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 



Beginning on the 


Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Thirteenth 


3 


6' 


19 20 29 


Sixth 


1 




45 


Twelfth 


11 


J# 


1, 2, 3, 7, 12, 16, 22, 27, 40, 41, 42 


Fifth 


g 


16 


5 9 15 18 24 31 39 47 


Tenth 


11 


22 


8 10 11 17 21 26 33 34 35 36 49 


Ninth 


5 


10 


6 13 23 25 28 


Octave 


10 


20 


4 14 30 32 37 38 43 44 48 50 


Fourth 


1 


2 


46 










Total 


50 















ENDINGS OF SONGS 



Ending on the 


Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Tonic 


01 






Fifth 






27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 47, 
49,50 


Third 
















Total 

















DENSMOBB] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



135 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

TONE MATERIAL 



Numbers Per cent 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Second five-toned scale 

Fourth five-toned scale 

Major triad and sixth 

Major triad and second 

Minor triad and seventh 

Minor triad and sixth 

Minor triad and fourth 

Minor third and fourth 

Octave complete 

Octave complete except seventh 

Octave complete except seventh and 
sixth 

Octave complete except seventh and 
second 

Octave complete except sixth 

Octave complete except fourth 

Octave complete except fourth and 
third 

Octave complete except fourth and sec- 
ond 

Octave complete except second 

Total... 



1, 17, 24, 30, 34, 44 

3, 6, 8, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 26, 31, 40, 41, 42, 

45,47 
33,37 



29,35 

10, 12 

11 

43 

2, 7, 25, 27, 32 

38 

14,15 

9, 39, 46 
13, 20, 48 



5 
4,50 



ACCIDENTALS 



Songs containing 



No accidentals. 



Seventh raised a semitone 

Sixth raised a semitone 

Sixth lowered a semitone 

Fourth lowered a semitone 

Second lowered a semitone 

Second, third, and sixth lowered a semi- 
tone 

Second lowered a semitone and fourth 
raised a semitone 



Total... 



Numbers 



Per cent. 



76 



Serial Nos. of sonps 



1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 35, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50 

36 

43 

7, 8, 19, 22, 41 

30 

29,46 

42 



STRUCTURE 



Numbers 



Percent. 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Harmonic 

Purely melodic. 



Melodic with harmonic framework 

Total... 



14 



3, 4, 5, 10, 17, 24, 26, 33, 35, 37, 50 

1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 

29, 32, 34, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 46, 48 
8, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 30, 31, 40, 41, 44, 45, 47, 49 



136 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

FIRST PROGRESSIONS 





Numbers 


Percent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 




30 


60 


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, G, 8, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 




20 


40 


24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 
45, 47, 49 
7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16, 18, 20, 25, 26, 31, 32, 34, 37, 








42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 50 


Total 


50 















RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 
PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 





Numbers 


Percent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


On accented part 


24 


48 


2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 23, 25, 26, 27, 31 


On unaccented part 


26 


52 


32, 37, 38, 40, 43, 44, 46, 48, 49 
1, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 21, 22 24 28 29 








30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 45, 47, 50 


Total 


60 















RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 



Beginning in 


Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


2-4 time 


26 


52 


5 6 9 11 13 14 16 18 21 23 24 29 30 31 


3-4 time 


19 


38 


32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46, 48, 49 
1 3 4 7 8 10 12 15 19 20 22 28 36 38 39 


7-4 time 


1 


2 


43, 44, 47, 50 

27 


5-4 time 


3 


g 


17 25 26 


5-Stime 


I 


2 


2 










Total 


50 















CHANGE OF TIME 



Songs containing 


Numbers 


Percent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Change of time 


38 


76 


1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 








20, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 39, 


No change of time 


12 




40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 49^ 50 










Total 

















DENSMOKE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 
RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

RHYTHMIC UNIT 



137 



Songs containing 


Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 




38 


76 


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 


Two rhythmic units 


2 


4 


21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 
35, 36, 37, 38; 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46 
17, 47 


No rhythmic unit 


10 


20 


7, 9, 10, 14, 31, 41, 43, 48, 49, 50 










Total 


50 















COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 





Numbers 


Percent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Unit the same 


12 


24 


5, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 29, 33, 42, 48, 49 


Unit different 


29 


58 


2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 


Recorded without drum 


9 


18 


30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 
47,50 
1, 4, 14, 23, 26, 27, 35, 37, 45 










Total 


50 















i For more detailed analysis see Table 20, p. 30. 

CHILDREN'S GAMES OF WAR 

The children as well as the older members of the tribe formed 
new acquaintances while the Chippewa and the Sioux camped near 
together. Games were arranged in which the children of the two 
tribes contended with each other. War was the chief interest and 
even found its way into the play of the children. 

Odjlb'we stated that he remembered an instance which happened 
when he was a little boy. The Chippewa and the Sioux were camped 
near each other and the small boys had a sham battle, with the men 
and women of each tribe as spectators, cheering on their young 
warriors. Rushes, sharpened at one end and notched at the other 
so that they could be shot from bows, were used as arrows. The sting 
inflicted by these was painful, as the boys wore no clothing, but no 
one who entered the contest was allowed to run away. The rules of 
the game forbade shooting at the heads of the opponents, as otherwise 
serious injury might have resulted, but the fight was waged right 
lustily and blood flowed freely. 



138 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
No. 61. War Song of Odjlb'we's Childhood 



[BULL. 53 




(Catalogue No. 278) 
Sung by ODJIB'WE 

VOICE J=80 
DRUM J=:80 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 

Nin - do-kldj a nin - 




. 

do-kidj a nin-do-kidj a 



WORDS 



nindo'kldj .' my pipestem 

Analysis. This song contains the tones of the fifth five-toned scale 
according to Helmholtz (see p. 4), a scale which comprises the tones 
of the diatonic octave, with the exception of the second and fifth. 
The song is in the key of D minor and the tones E and A do not 
appear. No. 52 is based on the same scale. This song is charac- 
terized by the approach to an harmonic tone by means of the tone 
above. (See No. 53.) The three renditions recorded are uniform in 
every respect. The metric unit is very slow, a characteristic of many 
songs of self-control. (See Nos. 30, 52, 103, 161). 

The following song was used as a preliminary to a sham battle 
between Chippewa and Sioux boys. The combatants, divested of 
clothing, were ranged in facing lines. The men of each tribe stood 
behind the boys and sang the song with them. When the song was 
finished the men shouted, "Now start to fight," and thereupon the 
little warriors flung themselves into the scrimmage. The rules of 
this battle were different from those referred to in connection with the 
preceding song. In this contest the boys tried to kick one another 
down, not being allowed to use their hands. If a Sioux boy succeeded 
in felling a Chippewa, the war whoop arose from the whole band of 
Sioux. Perhaps this exultation was still at its height when a Sioux 
boy fell before the sturdy kicks of the Chippewa, and a whoop arose 
from the Chippewa ranks. The battle was well fought and in it 
many a boy received his first training for the sterner game of tribal 
warfare. 

> This and the two songs next following are included in the tabulated analysis of White Earth songs, p. 306. 



DENSMOBB] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



139 



No. 52. Song Before the Boys 5 Fight (Catalogue No. 279) 
Sung by 



VOICE = 63 
Recorded without drum 




*=-*- ^--*--*- m m -*- m 




Analysis. This melody, like the preceding, is based on the fifth 
five-toned scale with D as the tonic. The song is minor in tonality 
and very slow in tempo. The subdominant triad (G-B flat-D) 
is prominent in the middle section while the minor third on the tonic 
(D-F) characterizes the first and last sections. A slow metric unit 
in songs of controlled excitement is noted also in Nos. 30, 51, 103, 161. 



VOICE J-96 
Recorded without drum 



No. 53. Little Girls' War Song 

Sung by ODJ!B / WE 



(Catalogue No. 280) 







Nin-a-bem ga-mo-kwa-na-wlnd 
WORDS 

nina'bem. : my husband 

gamo'kwanawind' who was wounded 

While the boys held their sham battles the little girls mimicked 
the woman's share in war. The aged warrior remembered well 
the boys' contests and also the song which the little girls sang, 
giving several uniform renditions of it, but in his description of 
the girls' play there lingered a trace of the boy's condescension. 
Odjlb'we said merely that "the little girls were dancing and jumping 
around." 

Analysis. This melody contains three peculiarities which rarely 
occur in Chippewa songs. First, it begins and ends on the same tone. 
This feature is found in only 1 1 songs (3 per cent) of the entire series 
of 340. The examples found in Bulletin 45 are Nos. 132, 142, 149, 



140 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

150, 170, 174, 197; those in the present volume are Nos. 53, 112, 125, 
and 127, the last being another version of No. 149 in Bulletin 45. 
Of this number 4 are moccasin game songs, 2 are war songs, 1 is a 
love song, and 3 (including the present example) are songs for the 
entertainment of children. Second, it begins with the upward pro- 
gression of an octave, a characteristic of only 5 other songs of the 
entire series; possible connection of this with the content of the song 
is noted in the analysis of No. 9. The other examples are Nos. 170 
and 174 in Bulletin 45, and Nos. 9, 31, and 125 in the present volume. 
Third, this song does not contain the third tone of the scale. Only 12 
songs (3.5 per cent) of the series of 340 show this peculiarity, the song 
here considered being the first of the group in this volume. The 
serial numbers of the entire group are 45, 49, 60, 91 in Bulletin 45, 
and 28, 53, 112, 113, 116, 121, 178, 180 in the present work. We 
note that three of these songs were sung by women or by little girls 
and that 3 concern women, the 6 constituting half the group. Three 
of the remainder are songs of the Mide'wrwm, to which women as 
well as men belonged, 1 is a begging dance song, 1 a war song, and 1 a 
song for the entertainment of children. The present song (No. 53) 
is the only one which contains only the first, second, fourth, and 
fifth of the scale. No. 121 contains only the first, second, and fifth; 
No. 113, the octave complete except the third; No. 60 (Bulletin 45), 
the octave complete except the seventh and third; No. 28 (herein), 
the octave complete except the fourth and third; and No. 116, the 
sequence of tones designated by Helmholtz as the first five-toned scale 
(see p. 4) ; and we find only the first, second, fifth, and sixth tones in 
Nos. 45, 49, 91 of Bulletin 45, and in Nos. 112, 178, 180 of the present 
volume. With the exception of No. 45 in Bulletin 45, and No. 180 
herein, these songs are major in tonality. A brief analysis of them 
for comparison is given herewith. 

Bulletin 45 

No. 4$ ' "I can tame the shell;" MMe' song; key of B minor; 
tones comprised in melody, 1, 2, 5, 6; trend of melody, 2-1, 6-5. 

No. 49. "Do not speak ill of a woman;" MIde' song; key of A flat 
major; tones comprised in melody, 1, 2, 5, 6; trend of melody, 2-1. 
6-5. 

No. 00. "Weasel, thou art calling me;" Hide 7 song; key of G flat 
major; octave complete except seventh and third; progression 2-1 
occurring frequently in the melody. 

No. 91. "I am walking to the spirit land;" MXde' song; key of 
B major; melody tones, 1, 2, 5, 6; trend of melody, 2-1, 6-5. 



DENSMOBB] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 141 

Present work 

No. 28. Song of a war charm; key of D flat major; octave complete 
except third and fourth; trend of melody, 2-1, 6-5. 

No. 53. Little girls' war song; key of F major; melody tones, 
1, 2, 4, 5; trend of melody, 5-4, 2-1. 

No. 112. Song of an ambitious mother; love song; key of E flat 
major; melody tones, 1, 2, 5, 6; a free melody with the progressions 
6-5 and 2-1 occurring frequently. 

No. 113. Love song; key of E flat major; octave complete except 
third; the progressions 6-5, 2-1 emphasized in melody. 

No. 116. Begging dance song; key of G major; melody tones, 
1, 2, 4, 5, 6; progressions 6-5 and 2-1 prominent in melody. 

No. 121. Song of ca'wuno'ga dance; key of A flat major; melody 
tones, 5, 2, 1; trend of melody, 5-2-1. 

No. 178. "He is going away;" love song; key of F major; melody 
tones, 1, 2, 5, 6; progressions 6-5 and 2-1 prominent in melody. 

No... 180. Song of the crawfish story; key of C sharp major; melody 
tones, 1, 2, 5, 6; trend of melody, 6-5, 2-1. 

In examining these outline analyses we note that 2 and 6 occur 
as tones of approach to 1 and 5. This characteristic allies the group 
under analysis with another group in which the harmonic tone is 
frequently approached by the tone above, this group consisting of 
Nos..29, 45, 51, 53, 65, 137, 139, 141. It will be noted further 
that the tones 1, 2, 5, 6 (hi a song of major tonality) are the tones 
of the fourth five-toned scale lacking the third; another form of the 
incomplete fourth five-toned scale consists of the tones 8, 6, 5, 3, 1 
occurring as given in descending order. This is the major tonic triad 
and sixth, which constitutes the tone material of 42 per cent of the 
340 Chippewa songs under analysis. (See Table 6.) It has been 
noted that in songs containing this tone material the sixth is usually 
a preparatory tone to the fifth; the present group, however, may be 
considered the more primitive as both tonic and dominant are 
approached from the tone above and the intermediate third is absent. 
The emphasis of the fifth suggests a particularly strong feeling for 
that interval. The fifth is absent from only 2 (Nos. 51, 52) of the 340 
Chippewa songs. The prominence of the octave and twelfth (or 
fifth) in the beginning, as well as in the range, of these songs is shown 
in Tables 2-5. In this connection it is interesting to note that these 
are the principal " overtones" (see p. 4) of a fundamental tone. 



DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY 

In October, 1910, the writer witnessed the ceremony accompany- 
ing the presentation of two drums by the Lac du Flambeau Band 
of Chippewa in Wisconsin to the Menominee Indians in the same 
State. Part of this ceremony was enacted on the Lac du Flambeau 
Reservation and part on the Menominee Reservation. It is called 
by the Lac du Flambeau Chippewa Dewe'igun oml'giwen' (" a drum 
is given away") or the Drum-presentation Ceremony and is described 
by Barrett under the title of the Dream Dance. 1 

During four days before their departure the Chippewa danced on 
their own reservation, the Menominee dancing the same length of 
time before their arrival. There were also four days of dancing on 
the Menominee Reservation when the drums were presented and four 
days of dancing together after the ceremony. 

So great is the veneration in which the drum and its ceremonies 
are held that there has sprung up what is called the " drum religion." 
This does not supplant the MMe' (Grand Medicine), but introduces 
a new element. The MMe' 2 has regard chiefly for the individual; its 
aim is to secure health and long life for him, and its instructions con- 
cern his own character. Its precepts regarding the relation of man to 
his neighbor (so far as observed) are connected with the cure of illness 
and general rectitude of conduct. The "religion of the drum" incul- 
cates a developed and broadened sense of responsibility and con- 
cerns peace between peoples who have been at enmity. The cere- 
monies of the Mide' are not marked by extreme ritual exactness and 
some latitude is allowed the leaders in the choice of songs as well as 
in the text of their discourses, but in the ceremonies connected with 
the drum certain songs and no others must be sung, and dancing 
once begun must be continued the prescribed length of time regard- 
less of conditions. The central idea of the " drum religion" is that of 
peace, yet mingled with this idea is law, rigorous and inflexible. The 
Chippewa say that the drum and its "religion" came to them from 
the Sioux many years ago, but it came to them also through 
development of character, as a step in the progress from the childhood 
toward the manhood of a race. 

1 S. A. Barrett, Dream Dance of the Chippewa and Menominee Indians of Northern Wisconsin, in Bulletin 
of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, vol. 1, art. 4, 1911, pp. 251-371. Cf. also section entitled 
" The Dreamers," In The Menomini Indians, by Walter James Hoffman, M. D. (Fourteenth Ann. Rep. 
Bur. Ethn., pt. 1, pp. 157-161. 

2 See Bulletin 45, p. 13. 

142 






DBNSMOBE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 143 

4 

No attempt has been made herein to analyze this "drum religion," 
but the attitude of the Indians toward it is indicated by the follow- 
ing statement of Wls 'kino (" bird ") , the Menominee chief to whom one 
of the Chippewa drums was given. Referring to his position as owner 
of a drum, Wis'kmo said: 1 

I will keep this drum in my house. There will always be tobacco beside it and 
the drum pipe will always be filled. When I smoke at home I will use the pipe that 
belongs to the drum. My friends will come to my house to visit the drum. Some- 
times my wife and I will have a little feast of our own beside the drum, and we will 
ask the drum to strengthen us in our faith and resolution to live justly and to wrong 
no one. When my wife and I do this alone there will be no songs. Only special men 
may sing the songs of the drum, and my part is that of speaker. 

When asked how often his friends came for this purpose, he said: 

We visit the drum about every fourth night and sing a few songs. Any persons who 
desire may come and each brings a gift of tobacco. The owner of the drum is the only 
speaker at these small gatherings. He speaks as representative of those who come, and 
presents the tobacco to the drum, after which it is given to the singers who sit at 
the drum. 

It is said that many generations ago the Sioux gave to the Chip- 
pewa a large drum similar to the one used at the present time in the 
ceremony here considered, taught them the " songs belonging to the 
drum/' and related to them the tradition concerning its origin. It 
is believed that permanent peace between the two tribes was a 
result of this presentation of the drum. Following this presentation, 
in accordance with the instructions which accompanied it, the Chip- 
pewa made similar drums, which they afterward gave away, with 
the proper songs. In presenting a drum it is customary for the giver 
to relate his individual dream to the recipient, thus adding to the 
value of the gift and strengthening the bond between the two men. 

The tradition concerning the origin of the drum was a subject of 
inquiry among the Lac du Flambeau Chippewa, the Bad River 
Chippewa on the La Pointe Reservation in northern Wisconsin, and 
also among the Menominee. Ten or twelve informants agreed on 
the principal features of the account, all stating that a woman was 
the means used by the manido' 2 in giving this type of drum to the 

1 This and other speeches by WIs'Mno were interpreted by Mr. Frank Gokay, a prominent member of 
the Menominee tribe. 

2 The word manido' (spelled also manito) is denned by Baraga as "spirit, ghost." The following explana- 
tion of the word insome of its compounds was given by Rev.J. A.Gilfillan: Ki'j'ie' manido' , literally, "he who 
has his origin from no one but himself, the Uncreated God " ; MSn'ido wenda'g wtik, that which is so astonish- 
ing as to be considered superhuman; Manido' wab, the name of a man, meaning, "he looks through the thing 
as God does, or with superhuman insight"; Man'idoka'zo, he tries to make people believe he has superhuman 
power, but he is an impostor. The same authority states that a small wild animal is called man'idowtm', 
meaning " a poor, miserable little spirit," the explanation being that the little animal is not a clod of earth, 
as is shown by its running around, but has life, or "spirit." 

Na'waji'bigo'kwe, a member of the Mlde'wlwln, said that the Chippewa believe in many manido', 
or spirits (see Bulletin 45, p. 21), the highest of all being called Ki'jie' manido', and that there are four 
manido' connected with the Mlde', each being regarded as dwelling at a cardinal point of the compass. 
Four Mlde' manido' are mentioned in songs Nos. 16 and 24, Bulletin 45, as "living in the four layers of the 
earth." The word is applied to animals in the Mlde' (songs Nos. 34 and 41, Bulletin 45), and a man who 
sees an animal in his youthful vision calls that animal his manido' and wears some part of the animal on 
his person as part of his "medicine." 



144 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Indians, thus securing peace betwee'n the Sioux and the Chippewa. 
They agreed also in the statement that the woman hid in the water 
four days, her face being concealed by a broad lily pad. In minor 
details the accounts differ somewhat. The first part of the following 
account was given by a Lac du Flambeau Chippewa and the remainder 
by one of the Bad River Band living at Odanah, Wisconsin. These 
two narratives were the clearest and most authoritative secured by 
the writer, and they are given, combined, as nearly as possible in the 
words of the interpreters. 

When the Sioux were fighting the white men a party of them were closely pursued, 
and one woman, unable to keep up with the warriors, hid in a pond of water. There 
she stayed four days, submerged in the shallow water at the edge of the pond, with a 
lily leaf over her face . At the end of four days she heard a voice say , ' ' The people who 
have been killing your friends are about to eat; come and share their food." The 
woman was afraid to leave her hiding place. Soon she heard the voice again, saying, 
"Come; I am calling you to come." At last she believed the voice and came from 
the water. The voice said, " Keep right on this path and I will see you after a while." 
The next the woman knew she was among soldiers and eating with them. She could 
see them, but they could not see her. After eating she started in the direction her 
people had taken. Then she saw the person whose voice she had heard. He was a 
manido' and appeared in the form of a white man. He gave her directions for making 
the drum, taught her the songs which should be sung with it, and told her that by 
means of it the Sioux would make friends with all their enemies. He told her that the 
women could sing with the drum, but that only the men could dance around it; he also 
told her that when the first drum was finished he would come down to it and that two 
men must be offered to him in return for his gift of the drum. 

The woman told the men how to make the drum. When it was finished and the 
singers had learned the songs they all gathered around it. The instant that the drum- 
mers struck the drum for the first time 1 the manido' appeared again and the two men 
who had made the drum fell dead beside it. 

It is said that the drums now given by one tribe or band to another 
are similar to the one made at the direction of the manido', and that 
the same songs are still sung. Thus the songs used at all important 
points of the Drum-presentation Ceremony witnessed by the writer 
were Sioux songs and were credited to the Sioux. When a drum is 
transferred the proper songs are carefully taught to the members 
of the new drum party by the leading singers of the party presenting 
the drum. 

During the dancing which precedes and follows the presentation 
each tribe sings its own songs, the Chippewa using certain of their 
war songs on these occasions. In accordance with this custom, 
typical Chippewa songs are interspersed with the Sioux ceremonial 
songs in the following narrative, but the songs of the two tribes are 
considered separately in the tabulated analyses. 

Drums of two types may be given in this ceremony. These differ 
slightly in size and in elaborateness of decoration. The larger is 

1 A certain formality attends the first stroke on the drum made by the person to whom the drum is 
given (see p. 171). F. D, 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 18 




DRUM AND STAKES USED IN DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY 



I.KNSMOKE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 145 

called o'gima dewe'igun (chief drum) and the smaller ogl'tcida 
dewe'igtin (warrior drum) . The chief drum, as the name implies, is 
usually given by one chief or leader to another and the warrior drum 
is presented by one member of the tribe to another. The word 
" chief" as used in this connection refers to the leading man of a 
village or settlement and throughout the description of the ceremony 
the word "warrior" refers to any of the men of the assembly. 

At the ceremony witnessed by the writer the chief drum was pre- 
sented to Wls'kmo, chief or "speaker" of the West Branch Settle- 
ment of the Menominee tribe, by Bi'jlkens * ("small ox"), a promi- 
nent member of the Lac du Flambeau Band of Chippewa, and the 
warrior drum was presented to a Menominee from another part of 
the reservation by a Lac du Flambeau Chippewa. 

The chief drum (pi. 18) presented on this occasion was seen by the 
writer in the house of Bi'jlke'ns. It was placed on a low box in one 
corner of the room; the box and the floor around it were covered 
with a clean white quilt. Beside the drum were the various articles 
belonging to it, the pipe filled and ready for use, and the drum- 
sticks in neat cloth cases. The drum and all that pertained to it 
were treated with greatest respect by Bi'jIkSns and his family. 
After some hesitation he gave his consent to the photographing of 
the drum and it was carried to the dancing circle by his son and his 
son-in-law (pi. 19), two of the men officially intrusted with its care. 

The curved stakes supporting the drum were more than 3 feet in 
height and when in position were about 6 feet in span (pi. 18). The 
drum was 27 inches in diameter and about 12 inches in thickness. 
It had two heads of un tanned hide decorated alike one half painted 
blue and the other half red, with a band of yellow near the edge of 
the blue segment. The sides of the drum were concealed by a strip of 
red flannel edged with blue, which hung below the rim; this was deco- 
rated with pierced silver disks. Around the upper rim was a band of 
otter fur 2 inches wide, with four loops of fur which served as 
handles for lifting the drum and also as a means of suspending it 
from the stakes when in use. Below the band of fur was a broad band 
of beadwork edged with a deep fringe of beads terminating in tassels 
and metal thimbles. Four ornaments of heavy beadwork decorated 
the sides of the drum. The stakes supporting the drum were com- 
pletely covered with beadwork and bands of otter fur. In a socket 
on the top of each were placed two large feathers, and each stake was 
tipped with the tufted end of a cow's tail and several ribbon stream- 
ers, blue on the stakes at the west and north and red on those at 

i This name is composed of two words, "bi'jlki," meaning originally "buffalo" and later applied to "cat- 
tle" (see pp. 63, 203), and "ins," a diminutive termination. The meaning of the name was given as 
"small ox," this being the more common translation of bi'jiki. 

67996 Bull. 5313 10 



146 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



the east and south. Beside the drum were the four drumsticks used 
by the leading drummers, each covered with soft brown deerskin and 
decorated with a band of otter fur and long ribbon streamers. There 
was also a longer stick used only by the owner of the drum in a par- 
ticular part of the ceremony (see p. 171) . This stick was more than 3 
feet long. Over the curved end was slipped the skin from the neck 
of a loon, its glossy black feathers dotted with white. The pipe 
belonging to the drum had a flat stem decorated with geometric 
drawings, with a tuft of red woodpecker feathers sunk in the wood 
(fig. 3) . (The second pipe belonging to the drum, known 
as the warrior pipe, is not shown in the illustration, as 
it had been sent to Wfe'kmo in anticipation of the cere- 
mony.) Beside the pipe are seen also a turtle shell, which 
contained apdk 1 'osigtin' (tobacco mixed with the inner 
bark of the red willow) and a wooden box having three 
compartments; those at the ends contained, respectively, 
tobacco and red willow and the middle one contained 
matches. In a similar box are kept the feathers which 
decorate the stakes of the drum. There are also 8 or 10 
ordinary drumsticks used by the drummers. 

Four years ago this drum was given to Bi'jikSns by a 
leader of the Bad River Chippewa. Although he has 
parted with it, Bi'jIkSns retains the right to make dupli- 
cates and to give them away at any time. In connection 
with this right the folio wing incident came to the writer's 
notice: A few weeks before the presentation of the drums 
to the Menominee a drum was given by Mec'kawiga'bau to 
a Chippewa at a neighboring settlement. Mec'kawiga'bau 
stated that he intended to make a 'duplicate of the drum 
during the coming winter and to give it away the next 
summer. According to him there are no songs or cere- 
monies connected with the making of a drum, but the 
songs used in connection with the new one must be 
those he received with the original drum. He did not 
receive the drum in the usual manner. It had been 
given to Me'dweya'sufi (seep. 249), the chief of the Lac du Flambeau 
Chippewa, whose advanced age rendered him unable to discharge the 
obligations associated with it. A few months before his death, there- 
fore, he gave a dance at which he made a speech saying that he was 
very feeble and wanted the drum to be in safe keeping, but that he 
was not strong enough to visit some other settlement in order to 
present it to the people. As he did not want to impose that duty on 
his children in the event of his death, he publicly transferred the drum 
to Mec'kawiga'bau, who was willing to assume the responsibility. 



FIG. 3. Stem 
of the drum 
pipe. 






DKNSMOKK] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 147 

Drums of similar design have been seen by the writer on the 
White Earth, Leech Lake, and Red Lake Reservations hi Minnesota. 
These, which were said to have been received from the Sioux, were 
used in the social dances. At Waba'cmg settlement, on the Red 
Lake Reservation, the drum was suspended from crotched sticks 
(see p. 252) ; in all other instances it rested on the ground. No 
decorated drumsticks were used, there was no pipe belonging to 
the drum, and its significance as a peace symbol seemed to have been 
lost. It is reported, however, that occasional ceremonies of drum- 
presentation are still held in remote parts of the Minnesota reserva- 
tions. The Chippewa of Minnesota are in frequent contact with the 
Sioux, the two tribes advancing side by side in civilization. In 
Wisconsin the contact is less recent and more of a glamor is thrown 
around the past, the old men telling how in former days the war 
canoes of the Sioux came up the Chippewa River from the Mississippi. 

A drum party originally consisted of 29 persons and it was not 
customary for a person to " belong'' to more than one drum. At the 
present time, however, it is necessary for each of the good singers to 
belong to more than one and even for the same person to hold more 
than one office in a drum party. The complete personnel of such 
party is as follows: The chief of the settlement; the owner of the 
drum; the speaker; the aid (oc'kabe'wis) ; the manager of the 
dancing hall or circle; five men who take care of the drum; the man 
who takes care of the drum pipe (used by the drummers) ; the man who 
takes care of the warrior's pipe (used by the dancers) ; the chief drum- 
mer and singer; four leading drummers and singers (one being seated 
at each "leg" of the drum) ; four leading women singers (seated behind 
the leading drummers) ; four assistant women singers (seated between 
the leading women singers) ; four leading dancers (said to be "one for 
each leg ' of the drum ") . There are also other singers and drummers. 

During a ceremony the chief drummer is usually seated at the 
western side of the drum and at his right hand are placed the drum 
pipe, the turtle shell filled with apak'osigrtn (tobacco mixed with red 
willow bark), and the other articles belonging to the drum. He 
it is who starts the songs and leads the singing. The leading drum- 
mers are seated by the four stakes, or "legs" supporting the drum, 
and between them are the singers and drummers of less importance, 
who have no permanent seats. The women form a large outer 
circle, sitting with bowed heads, their mouths covered by their hands 
or shawls. The singing of the women, which is entirely through 
the nose, gives the melody with clear intonation, an octave above 
the voices of the men. The octave appears to be a natural interval 
between the voices of men and women when singing together. It 
is possible that the perception of the octave as a pleasing musical 



148 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

interval may have come to the Indians from this source. The promi- 
nence of the octave in Chippewa melodies is noted on page 4. 

The chief of the band, owner of the drum, speaker, and the four 
leading dancers sit on the long seat which surrounds the dancing hall 
or circle. The aid sits alone at a little distance, ready to act as mes- 
senger. Those who take care of the drum and the pipes have no 
official duties during a ceremony and are usually seated with the 
drummers. 

As the gift of a drum involves the return of gifts supposed to equal 
in value the drum and the presents bestowed by the original drum 
party, it is customary for the man presenting the drum to ascertain 
from the one to whom he wishes to present it whether the latter 
desires to assume the obligations associated with its acceptance. This 
is done several months before the drum is to be given. It is the duty 
of the recipient to see that a suitable quantity of gifts is presented to 
the drum party at the ceremony, that one or more feasts are pro- 
vided for the guests, and that their camp is supplied with food during 
their entire stay. At some later date he must return a full equiva- 
lent of gifts to the donor of the drum. A year or two may elapse 
before he is prepared to do this. When he is ready he sends a mes- 
senger to the donor, and shortly afterward visits him with a large 
party carrying the gifts. 

About 10 days before the presentation of the drums by the Lac 
du Flambeau Chippewa to the Menominee two messengers were sent 
with the warrior pipes belonging to. the two drums. Before they 
left Lac du Flambeau a dance was held, the final song being the 
Sioux song of departure sung at the close of all the gatherings con- 
nected with the Drum-presentation Ceremony. 

All the ceremonial songs given in connection with the following 
narrative were sung by Mec'kawiga'bau (pi. 20), one of the promi- 
nent singers of th*e tribe. As he was the leading singer of the drum 
presented by Bi'jikSns, these songs represent those of a chief drum; 
the songs used during the presentation ceremony of the warrior drum 
were different, although they have the same general characteristics. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 20 




MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



149 



No. 54. Song of Departure (Catalogue No. S. I) 1 

Sung by ME / CKAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J=76 
DRUM J 76 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



* -- ~P~ m ^~^ x- ~^^-. "f~ "*" m "*" <^*^ 














Analysis. The three renditions of this song recorded are uniform 
throughout. The time is not rigidly maintained, but varies in cor- 
responding measures in the several renditions. The intonation of the 
D flat in the opening measures was faulty in the first two renditions, 
but practically correct in the third rendition (compare Nos. 129, 
133, 146, 164). A faulty intonation on the interval of a second occurs 
also in Nos. 55, 61, 64, 145, 166. 2 It is noted that the rhythmic unit 
occurs in both double and triple measures. 

The two messengers smoked the pipes with the two Menominee 
who were to receive the drums, and said that they would return with 
their people after a certain number of days and smoke the pipes again. 
This number of days was supposed to allow adequate time for the 
messengers to return and the people to make the journey. 

When the messengers reached Lac du Flambeau, active prepara- 
tions for departure were begun. It was the custom for each tribe to 
dance four days on its own reservation, and during this period the 
Chippewa held a ceremony called the Restoring of Mourners, and, if 
occasion required, a Ceremony of Divorce. 

i Catalogue numbers preceded by S. refer to phonograph records of Sioux songs. 

8 As this concerns manner of rendition and not structure of melody, the reference includes both Sioux 
and Chippewa songs. 



150 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



At the presentation of the drum the tribes dance together for four 
days, and on the fourth day a Dog Feast may be held for the further 
cementing of the peace bond. This feast was not held on the Menom- 
inee Reservation, but the writer witnessed it on the Leech Lake 
Reservation in Minnesota during the celebration of July Fourth, 1910 
(see p. 173). A Dog Feast may be held independent of a Drum-pres- 
entation and is of somewhat frequent occurrence on the Wisconsin 
Reservation. 

On the first day of dancing on their own reservation the Chippewa 
sang a series of five songs, called, respectively, the Song of the Chief, 
Song of the Speaker, Song of the Owner of the Drum, Song of the 
Warriors, and the Song of Giving Away the Drum. These were 
also sung at the opening of the ceremony on the Menominee Reser- 
vation, and if the final four days of dancing had been held at Lac du 
Flambeau these songs would have been repeated at the beginning 
of that period of the ceremony. 



VOICE J=88 
DRUM J-96 
( Drum-rhythin similar to No. 2 ) 



No. 55. Song of the Chief 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 



(Catalogue No. S. 2) 








Analysis. All the renditions of this song show faulty intonation 
on the interval of a second in the opening measures, in some instances 
the upper tone being flatted and in others the lower tone being sharped. 
This uncertainty suggests that it may be difficult for the singer to 
adapt his voice to so small an interval (see Nos. 54, 61, 64, 100, 145, 
166). The interval of the eleventh was sung with reasonable accu- 
racy in beginning the repetitions of the song. In the first two meas- 
ures the harmonic tone is approached by the tone above, which is 
accented; this characteristic leads to the classification as melodic 
with harmonic framework of a song which otherwise would be classi- 
fied as harmonic in structure. The song contains only the tones of 
the minor triad and fourth. 



DMN8MORB] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



No. 56. Song of the Speaker 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J = 184 
DRUM J 80 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 3 ) 

^^^^^. 



151 

(Catalogue No. S. 3) 



-M= 



i 



ILJL 



-19- 







Analysis. This song is transcribed as it was sung in three rendi- 
tions. The first part of the song is distinctly major and the last 
part minor in tonality; therefore it is transcribed in the keys of 
D major and D minor. The F in the opening measures is clearly 
sung F sharp, and the F in the latter part is as clearly sung F 
natural; the C in the twelfth measure is sung C sharp in the first 
two renditions, C natural in the third, and between the two tones in 
the last. The rhythm does not vary in the several renditions. A 
half note followed by a quarter note occurs frequently but can 
scarcely be said to constitute a rhythmic unit. The metric unit of 
the voice (indicated by J = 184) is very rapid. If each drumbeat 
were regarded as a quarter note the tempo of the drum might be 
indicated as J = 160, but the drumbeats are in groups of two; it is 
more convenient therefore to regard each drumbeat as an eighth 
note and indicate the tempo as J = 80. 



No. 57. Song of the Owner of the Drum 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 

VOICE J-80 
DRUM J 92 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



(Catalogue No. S. 4) 



m 










152 



BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. This is an instance in which the sharps at the beginning 
of the transcription should be regarded as indicating the pitch of 
certain tones rather than as implying an established key. Thus the 
song is transcribed as in the key of E major although the third of 
that key does not appear. The principal chords of the key of E 
accompany the melody in a satisfactory manner and the tones F 
sharp, C sharp, and D sharp are found in the melody. 



No. 58. Song of the Warriors 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 



(Catalogue No. S. 5) 



VOICE J-108 
DRUM J=116 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 16 ) 






fe 






3i 



Analysis. This song is characterized by the approach to an har- 
monic tone by means of the tone above it. The melody tones are 
those of the fourth five-toned scale and the trend of the song is an 
almost unbroken descent. Four renditions were recorded, which are 
uniform in every respect. 

No. 59. Song of Giving Away the Drum (Catalogue No. S. 6) 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE j 80 
DRUM J-80 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

*- . +-+-+- 





m 



DENSMOBE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 153 

Analysis. The intonation of the opening measures of this song 
was faulty in all the renditions. The melodic tones are those of the 
fourth five-toned scale and the trend of the melody is steadily down- 
ward. Although strongly rhythmic in character, the song contains 
no unit of rhythm. 

CEREMONY OF RESTORING THE MOURNERS 

The ceremony called Restoring the Mourners, usually held during 
the preliminary days of dancing, begins on the first day, if possible, 
in order that those whose period of mourning is formally ended may 
join their friends in the remainder of the dance. 

This ceremony was witnessed by the writer at Lac du Flambeau 
October 16, 1911. It was held in the dancing inclosure of the Lac 
du Flambeau Chippewa, which is situated on a knoll overlooking the 
Indian village; this inclosure is surrounded by a high board fence 
(see p]. 19). Four drums were placed at intervals around the circle 
and beside them were seated their respective drummers and singers. 
E'niwub'e ("sits farther along")? leader at one of the drums, had 
painted the lower half of his face black, as a token of mourning. 

At this ceremony the period of mourning of four persons a man 
who had lost his wife, two young women who had lost children, and 
an aged woman who had lost her husband came to an end. All 
these deaths had occurred since a similar gathering of the tribe, the 
period of mourning usually lasting from six months to a year. Dur- 
ing that time a mother who has lost her child carries a cup tied in a 
cloth around her waist. This she frequently fills with berries or 
some other delicacy and places beside her "for the child." After 
a little while she gives the food to some needy person and replaces 
the cup in the cloth. 

The mourners were seated in the center of the circle. The women 
were newly arrayed in bright dresses and gay shawls. The man wore 
a bright blue shirt with beaded sash. Even the aged woman was 
dressed in bright colors and her hair was tied with a gay ribbon. 
These brilliant colors contrasted sharply with the evident sadness of 
the mourners, who sat with downcast eyes. At intervals some one 
stepped forward and hung a bead chain around the neck of one of 
them or laid a bright garment or shawl at his side, but the gifts were 
received without response. 

It was a strange scene. Looking beyond the inclosure one saw the 
towering pines, majestic in outline but 'wondrous in soft shadows; 
to the right lay the scattered cabins of the Indians grouped on the 
shore of the lake, and at a little distance was another hillside on which 
were the smaller cabins of the dead. Above all was the bluest of 
October skies. Some said the ceremony was pagan, yet in it was 



154 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



mingled all that is deepest and most tender in human life. 

The leader of the ceremony was White Feather, who. is highly 
respected by both Indians and white men. On being asked his 
11 Indian name" he gave, not the Chippewa equivalent of White 
Feather (Wa'bickigwftn'), but Odja'nimwe 'wegijlgons'. 1 

At the opening of the ceremony a woman brought water and soap, 
which she placed before the man who had lost his wife. He washed his 
hands, drying them on a towel which she offered for the purpose. A 
man then parted his hair and combed it very smooth, while the 
following song was sung at one of the drums. 



No. 60. Song of Restoring the Mourners 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE Jr= 176 
DRUM J-88 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



(Catalogue No. S. 7) 











Analysis. This song is characterized by a very rapid tempo and 
by measures containing five counts. A few measures in quadruple 
time break the monotony. It is worthy of note that the interval of 
an octave and a fourth is compassed in three measures. 

After a short time a woman brought water and offered it to one 
of the women who had lost a child, this being done also for each of 
the women while the same song was sung at one of the drums. 

When this was finished White Feather rose and said: 2 

1 The meanings of the component parts of this word are as follows: odja'nim signifies a disturbance; 
wewe is a root implying a swaying motion (see footnote 2, p. 241); and gi'jlg in proper names is usually 
translated " sky." The last-mentioned part of the word is found also on p. 249, with the prefix ki'tci, 
" large." Hence the name as analyzed thus far may be translated " sky in commotion." The termina- 
tion ons in some cases indicates that the bearer of the name was small in stature, but more often that 
his father bore the same name. (Cf. pp. 76, 145.) 

2 This and other speeches made by White Feather were given the writer at a later date by White Feather 
himself and are transcribed in the words of the interpreter. 



DKNSMOREl 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



155 



A person who believes in the drum and has lost friends can not go to a dance unless 
he is invited, but I asked that these mourners be invited. I came myself and spread 
my own blanket on the ground for them, and I asked the warriors that they be invited 
and their mourning ended. When I did this I knew how this ceremony should be 
conducted. I thank my people and Manido' that the warriors are so generous as to 
bring these mourners here to share our happiness. 

A woman then stepped forward and painted a row of dark blue 
dots below the eyes of the man who had lost his wife. Before the 
painting of the two younger women White Feather made another 
speech somewhat similar to those which are here recorded. There is 
no prescribed pattern for the painting. The younger women were 
painted with a horizontal red line below the eyes, and on one the 
parting line of the hair was painted red. It was said, "Red means 
blood (life), and the red paint is for long life." While the faces were 
being painted the following song was sung. 

No. 61. Song of Painting the Faces (Catalogue No. S. 8) 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J 92 
DRUM J-96 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 15 ) 



*- 
L 



3 










g 



IS 




Analysis. This melody contains a peculiar grace and charm. The 
E in the opening measures was sung slightly below pitch (see Nos. 
54, 55, 100, 145, 166). After the opening measures the song flows 
smoothly along the intervals of the second five-toned scale, with 
special emphasis and feeling of repose on the tonic. There is no unit 
of rhythm, yet the rhythm of the song as a whole is pleasing and well 
defined. The metric unit of the drum is slightly more rapid than that 
of the voice and seems constantly urging the voice forward. Four 
renditions were recorded, which are uniform in every respect. 



156 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



The eldest woman among the mourners was White Feather's 
mother, who mourned the death of his father; for this reason it was 
deemed not fitting that he should make the speech which preceded the 
painting of her face, so he asked that one of the old men speak in his 
stead. 

An old man arose and, leaning on his staff, said that he had fought 
in the Civil War. He told of his bravery as a soldier and said that he 
would give to this mourning woman the strength and power which 
upheld him on the field of battle. He then handed paint to a woman, 
who, kneeling before the aged mourner, traced scarlet lines on her 
thin face. 

It is said that a man who has distinguished himself in war may 
give the full result of his prowess to a friend in this ceremony, and yet 
by so doing not lose it himself. If he is entitled to wear a feather, he 
may give his friend the right to wear a similar feather, and even to 
point to it saying, "I was as brave as that." Sometimes the right 
thus generously shared was won at the risk of the man's life. 

The following song was sung during the ceremony. 



No. 62. Mourners' Song 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 



(Catalogue No. S. 9) 



VOICE J 84 
DRUM J-84 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 



JL [f: ^L. -<t. VI JL.JJLJL . *. f^ -^- -F---P- 

tg=j^j L^ji^-t^^^==^^^r^ 



*- -f- -f- 



^ 



^-^ 






-S 



*^T 



Analysis. The metric unit of this song is unusually slow and was 
not maintained with absolute regularity. The three renditions 
recorded show no variation. The rhythm is less interesting than in 
many songs of the present series, but was clearly marked and accu- 
rately repeated. The song is minor in tonality and has a range of 
12 tones. 



DBNSMOREJ CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 157 

When the painting of the faces was finished, White Feather thus 
addressed all the mourners: 

Lift up your eyes. Look at your friends sitting around you so gaily arrayed. If 
you still look down your sorrow will not leave you. Do not think so much about 
your sorrow and that you, too, will soon die. It is true that we all must die, but we 
shall meet afterward. You must not cling to your sorrow nor hold an unkind feeling 
toward anyone. Have faith in yourselves and people will think more of you and 
Manido' will help you. There are no enemies around you. Think only of what is 
good. 

The mourners were then led to then* respective seats, those who 
belonged to one of the drum parties being seated at the drum and the 
others being placed with friends at the edge of the circle. From time 
to time additional gifts were silently laid beside them, but they made 
no response, sitting with downcast eyes or sadly touching the gay 
little trinkets. 

On the evening of the day following the ceremony of Restoring 
the Mourners the writer went again to the Lac du Flambeau village. 
The Indian village is about 4 miles from the Government school, but 
the drum could be heard distinctly and, as there was a full moon, it 
was thought possible that the Indians were dancing outdoors. On 
arriving at the village, however, the bright light in E'niwub'e's 
window and the sound of the drum indicated where the Indians 
were gathered. The house is small and in beating the drum the In- 
dians make little difference whether they are beneath a roof or the 
dome of the sky. The four or five drummers, seated around the 
warrior drum which would be presented to the Menominee, played 
and sang right heartily. A drum of similar type was on a table, 
the decorations of the two instruments forming spots of vivid color. 
A few women were seated on the floor behind the drummers, with 
heads bowed and their shawls held over their mouths as they sang 
in a weird, high falsetto. From time to time the men sitting in 
the room rose, and danced in then- places with a bending of the 
knees and a rhythmic shifting of their weight from one foot to the 
other. There were soft brown tints of unpainted wood; dull colors 
of weatherworn garments, and a bit of brilliant green where 
E'niwub'e's familiar blanket hung against the wall. The dark faces 
were grave with the import of the dance and the lamplight cast strange 
shadows. It was a scene long to be' remembered. Chippewa war 
songs were sung during these dances. It was stated that all war 
songs could not be used, but that the following three songs were 
frequently sung at the dances preceding or following the presentation 
of a drum. 



158 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

No. 63. "The Sound Comes Pleasingly" 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J = 100 
DRUM J 112 
( Drum- rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



[BULL. 5o 



(Catalogue No. 423) 







Ge - bi - o - dja- mm - we - we gi - jig e ge - bi - moc 







ki - ne - a - ci - yan gi - jig e 



WORDS 



gebi 7 odja x mmewewe 7 the sound comes pleasingly 

gi x jig across the sky 

gebi 7 inockine / aciyan x filling the air 

Analysis. This is the dream song of a man who had a vision of the 
thunderbird. On hearing thunder he took tobacco in his hand, and, 
holding it toward the sky, said to the storm, "Go around that way," 
tossing the tobacco in the direction he wished the storm to go and 
singing this song. The three renditions recorded show no variation. 
The melody contains the tones of the fourth five-toned scale and is 
melodic in structure. 



DENSMOHKj 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



159 



No. 64. "The Ravens are Singing" (Catalogue No. 424) 

Sung by fi'NiwftB'E 
VOICE J 120 
DEUM J=120 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 

r 







Ka-ga- gi-wug e ka-ga - gi-wug e na-gum - o-wug gi - 



tf-ft-4 ^ u^ ' * 






jig- ung 







WORDS 



kaga'giwug the ravens 

na'gumo'wug are singing 

gi'jlgufig' in the sky 

Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song is short, interesting, and 
repeated frequently. In the five renditions recorded the only difference 
was that in one rendition the tone G in the sixth measure was sung 
as a quarter instead of as a half note. This exact repetition of the 
rhythm is interesting because the intonation in the first part of the 
song was very uncertain. It appeared difficult for this singer to 
keep correct intonation on small intervals (see Nos. 54, 55, 61, 100, 
145, 166). The song is minor in tonality, melodic in structure, and 
contains all the tones of the octave except the seventh/ The interval 
of the fourth is prominent in the structure of the melody (see No. 22). 



160 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 65. War Song (Catalogue No. 425) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J=116 
DRUM J 126 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 

% r 













Analysis. In structure this song is classified as melodic with har- 
monic framework. It begins on the twelfth and ends on the tonic, 
the descending intervals of the tonic chord being varied by a fre- 
quent occurrence of the tone above the harmonic tone, which is 
accented and forms an important part of the melody (see No. 53). 
The rhythmic unit is long and occurs only twice. Five renditions 
of the song were recorded. 






UBN8MOBX] 



VOICE Jr^ 88 
DRUM J 112 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 66. "I am Small" 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 

C> V 



161 

(Catalogue No. 432) 






Wen- 




dji - a - ga - ci - ya - an wen - dji - a - ga - ci - 



.-^HM-a-i 


-^^ rzr ^?^ 


^to 


-Btztaiid JUST- -f - 


~f~i ~~r r^ F ~^ 


--^-P- 


J tyP ^,1 


r L ^4 




"(? t ^^ U- 


_ ._ 


'^^ I 


ya - an wa ca-wun-o - nang don-dji-ba a 


wen - 


S^^^^S^SHEi ^ 


1 p= S r^, Tn , 


^^b^^L^^-fl^^^r 

dji - a-ga - ci - ya - an 


" "I A ^ ^ ^ 9 IJ J J 


S 



WORDS 



wendjia/gaciyan' I am small 

ca'wunonaiig' from the south 

don'djiba 7 I come 

Analysis. This melody, which contains seven sections, is based on 
a rhythmic unit, although that unit does not appear at either the 
beginning or the end of the song. The opening phrase has a rhythm 
of its own, and the closing measures were slightly hurried in tempo, 
as though the singer were in haste to reach the final tone. The song 
is major in tonality and comprises the tones of the fourth five-toned 
scale. In structure it is melodic with harmonic framework. 

After listening to a number of songs in the house of 'niwu;b'e the 
writer passed into the open air. The lake was white and glistening 
in the moonlight and the pines were outlined darkly against the sky. 
A party of Indians, carrying a drum, were- coming down the road, ; 
and in the distance a light shone from Bi 'jlke" ns' s window. On inqu iry- 
it was learned that the party belonging to the chief drum had been 
dancing at Bi'jlkens's house and that they were bringing that drum 
to E'niwub'e's, where they would sing with both drums. 
67Q96 Bull. 5313 11 



162 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Remembering the sound of the lesser drum in the house of E'niwub'e, 
one did not wish to return and hear the chief drum. Far on the road 
through the pine forest the throb of the drum was heard, and one 
knew that in E'niwub'e's lamplight the dark figures were dancing as 
the Indians danced before ever a white man came to their shores. 

CEREMONY OF DIVORCE 

A Ceremony of Divorce is sometimes held on the last day of one of 
the periods of dancing. There are four songs for this ceremony; 
these are similar in character, and only two are recorded. The cere- 
mony is said to be very simple, the man or woman desiring the divorce 
merely going through the motions of throwing something outside the 
dancing circle as these songs are sung. 



No. 67. Divorce Song 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 



(Catalogue No. 428) 



VOICE J 88 
DRUM J 80 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 













Analysis. This melody consists of four parts, two of which are 
major and two minor in tonality. The song opens with a particularly 
bright and happy strain in which the rhythmic unit occurs twice; a 
few measures later this unit is used (without the tied notes) in the 
minor tonality. It does not appear with the return to the major 
tonality, the rhythm of these measures being direct and somewhat 



DBNSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



163 



emphatic, but is used in the recurring minor passage and is suggested 
in the triple measure near the close of the song, as though sung in a 
lingering fashion. (Other instances of a change in tonality are Nos. 
189, 192, in Bulletin 45.) It is of interest to compare this melodic form 
with the content of the song. The rhythm was clearly given and the 
important tones of the song were accurate in intonation. The three 
renditions recorded are uniform in every respect. 



No. 68. Divorce Song 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 



(Catalogue No. 429) 



VOICE J=84 
DRUM J 80 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

I 



'* 




!EE 



i r 



:p r r= 



* 



^ 



Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song resembles that of the pre- 
ceding, but is in triple instead of double time. This unit occurs five 
times, comprising practically the entire song. The interval of the 
fourth is emphatic at the close of the song, but can not be said to 
characterize it as a whole. In this connection the frequent use of the 
fourth in songs concerning motion (see No. 22) should be noted. The 
six renditions of this song recorded show no variation. 



There was a controversy regarding the day for leaving Lac du 
Flambeau, some maintaining that if they started on the day after 
the dancing they would reach the Menominee Reservation before they 
were expected. A certain number of days were to elapse between 
the presentation of the pipe to the Menominee chief and the arrival 
of the Chippewa drum party, but it was uncertain whether the day on 
which the pipe had been given should be included in the count. It 
was finally decided that the start should be deferred a day. As a 
result the Menominee awaited their arrival with some anxiety. 

The Chippewa village is about 7 miles from the railroad station at 
Lac du Flambeau. Thither the Indians drove their shaggy ponies 
and then turned them loose to forage. On Tuesday morning, 
October 18, 1910, a party of about 70 Chippewa took the train, 
carrying the two drums, tents and camp equipment, rolls of blankets 
and matting, and huge packs containing the gifts intended for the 



164 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

Menominee. The distance to the Menominee settlement by rail, the 
route taken by the writer, was about 150 miles. The Indians, how- 
ever, left the train at Antigo, a station about half that distance from 
Lac du Flambeau, and walked eastward 20 miles across the country. 
This part of the trip was carefuUy planned they would walk 12 
miles the first day, camp at night, finish the journey the second day, 
and, after camping overnight, would be ready for the ceremony. 

From the car window at Antigo they were seen starting gaily on 
their way, strange figures on the streets of a prosperous little city. 
They walked in groups of two or three. The packs did not seem 
heavy nor the clutter of small articles a burden. The bearer of the 
large drum walked alone, not forgetting his dignity, with the drum 
fastened on his back. From within the shawl on many a woman's 
back there peered a grave little face with blinking eyes. The older 
children trudged sturdily along and the women jested together. The 
road was hard and firm beneath the feet and the sweetness of the 
autumn was in the air. Surely it was good to go to the country of 
the Menominee. 

After a circuitous journey, the writer arrived the following day at 
Neopit, a town on the Menominee Reservation. The place of the 
ceremony was reached by driving westward about 5 miles through the 
pine forest. There the Menominee were found dancing. They had 
completed the four days of preliminary dancing and, while awaiting 
the Chippewa, they spent part of each day in their dancing circle 
(pi. 21). The place selected was near a vacant Government day 
school, the house intended for the teacher and two or three cabins 
occupied by Indians completing the settlement. An open area of 
several acres afforded ample space for a camp. The Menominee who 
came to attend the gathering did not use this ground but left it for 
the Chippewa. The dancing circle was about 30 feet in diameter and 
was outlined by a bank of earth which served as a seat for the dancers. 
The bare earth within the circle was pounded hard, but the seat for 
the dancers was turfed. There were three openings in the circle, 
located approximately at the east, south, and west, but only the one 
nearest the east was used; the others were narrower and had been 
closed by logs. An American flag on a tall pole was placed near 
the eastern opening, where the man w r as seated who took the toll of 
tobacco, each person who entered the inclosure giving him a small 
piece. Two drums were at the right of the entrance, resting on rush 
matting similar to that made by the Chippewa. 

Wis'kmo ("bird"), the chief of the West Branch Settlement of the 
Menominee, received the writer with courtesy and said, through an 
interpreter, that the Chippewa were reported as on the way and 
greatly wearied with their long journey. He had requested his people 
to go to meet them and to bring the women and children in their 



1) 10 VS. \roKK I 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 165 



wagons. Some had already gone and he was hourly expecting their 
return. Several miles westward the first Chippewa were found rest- 
ing by the roadside, while in the distance others appeared, toiling 
and staggering beneath their packs. Could these be the same men 
who had set forth so bravely the day before ? Footsore, dusty, tired, 
and bedraggled, they had reached the country of the Menominee. 

The next morning the Chippewa were much refreshed. A tempo- 
rary camp had been established about a quarter of a mile from the 
dancing circle. The tents, which were close together, shone white 
beneath the pine trees; camp fires burned brightly, kettles were 
steaming, and a pleasant, cheery atmosphere pervaded the scene. 

Meantime the Menominee assembled in the dancing circle and 
danced at intervals for about two hours. Shortly before 12 o'clock 
on the 20th of October Wls'kmo summoned his messenger and said: l 
" We are now ready to receive our visitors. You will go to them and 
tell them to proceed to this place. They will inform you what we 
are to do." 

Wls' kino's messenger was a tall, finely built Indian. His headdress 
was of stiff moose hair and erect feathers and his garments were bright 
with beads and scarlet trimmings. He was a picturesque figure as 
he ran down the winding road in the direction of the Chippewa camp. 
In a short time he returned and said, " They have accepted your invi- 
tation and are on the way." 

Wis'klno then directed the messenger to take up the American flag 
and carry it before him. Preceded by the flag, Wfe'kmo left the 
dancing circle, the members of the tribe following him in single file, 
and took his position about 50 feet from the entrance of the circle, 
with the flag bearer beside him. The men of the tribe formed a line 
which extended almost to the circle; behind this were two lines of 
women and children, a space of about 6 feet being left between the 
lines. Thus the Menominee stood ready to receive their guests. 

Soon a wagon was seen at the turn of the road, heaped to its highest 
capacity with the camp equipage of the Chippewa. Beside the swag- 
ing load walked Na'ganac' (Head Flier), who might be termed the 
"man of affairs" among the Chippewa. At a short distance followed 
the drum parties, each consisting of a flag bearer, a pipe bearer, the 
owner of the drum, an aid, a man carrying the drum, and others 
carrying the supports and drumsticks; these were followed by the 
singers and drummers, while other members of the tribe, with the 
women and children, brought up the rear of the procession. All were 
arrayed in then* brightest garments and gayest decorations. 

The Chippewa paused a short distance from the Menominee and 
planted their flags in the ground. White Feather then advanced, 

1 This and all the other speeches of WIs'kIno were given the writer by him a few days later and were 
interpreted by Mr. Frank (Jokay. 



166 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

followed by the pipe bearer of the chief drum (pi. 21). When about 
midway between the two tribes, White Feather made the following 
speech (see footnote 2, p. 154) : 

This is the day which the warriors named for our meeting. Manido' commanded 
us to meet here to-day. We meet in order to have a happy time together. Manido' 
gave us this happy time that we might be at peace with each other. We will use a 
pipe as we meet before Manido'. After we smoke we will all shake hands and enjoy 
ourselves in the sight of Manido'. 

In response to this speech the Menominee aid stepped forward, 
shook hands with White Feather, and returned to his place. The 
Chippewa pipe bearer then advanced and made a somewhat similar 
speech. A Menominee pipe bearer then came toward him, the two 
presented their pipes four times to the circle of the sky, and lit them; 
the pipes were then crossed, each man puffing the other's pipe. The 
Chippewa pipe bearer then approached Wls'kino and offered him the 
pipe, Wis'kmo puffing it as he held -the bowl. The pipe bearer then 
passed down the lines, offering the pipe to each member of the tribe. 

Meanwhile the company of Chippewa approached Wis'klno. First 
to shake hands with him was Bi'jlkens, from whom he would soon 
receive the chief drum. Others followed rapidly and greetings were 
exchanged. Wis'kino had an especially cordial welcome for many 
whom he had met at previous gatherings (pi. 22). After shaking 
hands with Wis'kino the Chippewa passed down the three lines, each 
member of the Chippewa party shaking hands with each of the 
Menominee. 

When this was finished Wis'khio led the way to the dancing circle, 
preceded by the flag of the Menominee, which was returned to its 
former place, the two flags belonging to the Chippewa being set in 
the ground outside the circle at the left of the entrance. The two 
drums brought by the Chippewa were placed within the circle, the 
chief drum at the left of the entrance and the warrior drum next to 
it. The drummers seated themselves in their proper places and the 
drum pipe was laid at the right of the leading drummer, with the 
tobacco pouch, the turtle shell, and the other articles belonging to 
the drum (see p. 147). 

Wfe'kino then made a speech of welcome in Chippewa : 

My relatives, the Chippewa. I thank Ki'jie' Manido' [see footnote 2, p. 143] that 
we join in peace where we were once at war. We leave all differences behind us as 
we shake hands. Ki'jie' Manido' has seen us shake hands. Let us remain in peace 
as we are now. My relatives, the Chippewa, when the Indians of one tribe present 
a drum to those of another tribe they perform that ceremony in the sight of Ki'jie' 
Manido'. To-day Ki'jie' Manido' sees all that we do. I thank you all. Now I shall 
wait to see how you will proceed. I hope that you will proceed at once and that we 
may finish this ceremony by to-morrow. I have work undone. The product of my 
farm is not gathered, but I prefer to serve Ki'jie' Manido' before I finish gathering my 
harvest. Then I shall return to my work with good spirit. Of course I may expect 
success by serving Ki'jie' Manido x before I finish my harvest. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 21 




MENOMINEE AWAITING APPROACH OF CHIPPEWA 




APPROACH OF CHIPPEWA 

PARTICIPANTS IN DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 22 




CHIPPEWA SHAKING HANDS WITH MENOMINEE 




MENOMINEE LISTENING TO SINGING OF CHIPPEWA 

PARTICIPANTS IN DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY 



DBNSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 167 

The Menominee beat their drums and sang and danced around 
them, the Chippewa then sang the songs used at the opening of the 
four days of dancing at Lac du Flambeau, the series containing the 
special songs of the various officials of the drum party (see p. 150). 
The Menominee listened as the Chippewa sang, the women sitting 
with heads bowed, in a position similar to that assumed when they 
were singing (pi. 22). 

At the conclusion Wis'kmo rose again and said, "My relatives, the 
Chippewa, you must be tired and hungry after your journey. 1 We 
will set before you whatever cooked food we have. I will send some 
of my men to my own house and to the houses of my people and 
they will bring the food here to you." 

Wfe'kuio asked the Chippewa aid where the food should be placed 
and he directed that it be put at the left of the entrance. Soon both 
men and women appeared with kettles and pails containing wild rice, 
white rice, squash, and tea, while others brought pans heaped with 
fried bread. Each Chippewa took out his cup or pan and spoon and 
the Chippewa aid superintended the distribution of the food. Thus 
the Chippewa enjoyed the hospitality of the Menominee, none of 
whom partook of the feast. When the feast was finished the kettles, 
pails, and pans were placed outside the entrance where, a few hours 
later, the Menominee women were seen identifying their own by 
familiar dents or by colored strings on the handles. 

During the remainder of the day the two tribes danced together. 
Meantime Na'ganac' had piloted the swaying load of equipage to 
the place assigned for the camp, the white tents had sprung up, and 
that night the camp of the Chippewa was fully established. 

The next morning a cold, dismal rain was falling. The water was 
deep in the little hoUows of the dancing circle. At the Chippewa 
camp a few fires were smoldering and most of the tents were tightly 
closed. It was evidently impossible to proceed with the ceremony 
and that day was not counted as one of the four days of dancing. 
It was stated that this was permissible because the actual presenta- 
tion of the drums had not taken place. 

With the sudden changes of weather which characterize the autumn 
season the next morning dawned bright and clear. Preparations 
were begun at once for the presentation of the chief drum. Every 
one was in good spirits. Gala trappings were brought out, faces were 
carefully painted, and long braids rearranged. The men in charge of 
the drums cut branches of pine trees and laid them in the dancing 
circle, spreading them thick where the drum was to rest and the 
drummers and singers were to sit. These circles of fresh green 
added effectiveness to the picture, setting off the bright shawls of the 
women and the beadwork worn by the men. 

1 The Chippewa were supposed just to have arrived after a continuous journey from their own reservation. 



168 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

By about half-past 10 in the morning all the Chippewa and Menomi- 
nee were in the dancing circle. Wis'klno, his aid, and his leading 
dancers were seated on the farther side, opposite the entrance. On 
the right of the circle were two Menominee drums; at the left, next 
to the entrance, was the chief drum, which was to be given away that 
day, and next to it was the warrior drum to be given away the fol- 
lowing day, while nearest WIs'kIno was a Menominee drum. Thus 
there were five drums in the circle. Only a few persons were seated 
around the Menominee drums, but the full quota were around the 
two Chippewa drums, where most of the singing was to be done. 
The. aid of the chief drum sat on a low seat at the entrance and 
received a toll of tobacco from all who entered the circle. He was 
elaborately attired and as a badge of his office wore a garment 
received from the Sioux, called by them warni'Tima'Tca. The writer 
has seen a similar garment worn by the Teton Sioux in their social 
dances and also by the Chippewa at Leech Lake, Minnesota, July 4, 
1910, who said they received it many years ago from the Sioux. 
This garment consists of a piece of cloth about 18 inches wide and 
40 inches long, on which large feathers are closely sewed, being 
lightly fastened by the quills, so that they move with every motion 
of the wearer. The garment, which is attached to a belt, hangs 
behind the wearer, reaching to his ankles (pi. 23). In order that it 
may not be injured, it is customary among the Chippewa and the 
Menominee for the wearer to spread a blanket over the box on which 
he sits, allowing the garment to rest on the ground behind him. As 
he sits down he spreads the feather garment carefully on this blanket, 
so that it may not be injured. The four leading Menominee dancers 
wore these feather garments, resembling a row of brilliant birds. 

The officials of the chief drum sat at the side of the circle, on the 
left of the entrance. Their faces were painted, and they wore orna- 
ments of beadwork and many streamers of bright-colored ribbon. 

PRESENTATION OF THE DRUM 

Bi'jIkSns opened the ceremony with a formal speech, after which 
the tobacco which had been placed before him was distributed to the 
entire assembly. As chief of the band, he gave what might be termed 
an " invocation," standing with right hand extended toward the drum 
and speaking with dignity, and then repeated it as owner of the drum, 
dancing three times around the drum with right hand extended over 
it and pausing after completing each circuit (pi. 23). 

The leading drummer then started the Song of the Pipe, and the 
pipe bearers of both drums rose in their places and, after presenting 
the pipes to the circle of the sky, lighted them and offered them first 
to the drummers in order of importance, then to the entire company, 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 23 




AID 




OWNER OF DRUM (DANCING) 

PROMINENT CHIPPEWA ACTORS IN DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY 



DENSMOREl 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



169 



the Song of the Pipe being sung continuously. In presenting the 
pipe to the sky the drummer stood facing the east, holding the pipe 
almost horizontal and turning it four times in a circle above his head. 
This was done four times during the day, at intervals as nearly 
equal as possible, the last offering of the pipe being near the close of 
the day. By reason of its frequent repetition this song became par- 
ticularly familiar to those attending the ceremony. 



No. 69. Song of the Pipe 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J = 84 
DRCM J 92 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 
(1) 

r 



(Catalogue No. S. 10) 



-- -* -- -*- -f- -- -- -- -f- - 




-- 







. , I -W- -9~ -W- -W- -W- -W- I m -- 






Analysis. This song consists of two distinct parts, each of which 
is characterized by a rhythmic unit. These units are somewhat simi- 
lar in divisions of the count and form answering phrases. It should 
be noted that the melodic feeling of the song seems to require a break 
between the first and second measures of the repetition of the second 
rhythmic unit, a feature showing the extreme freedom of native 
musical expression. The effect of the triple measures is interesting, 
as they add character and effect to the rhythm of the song as a 
whole. The song is minor in tonality and contains the interval of a 
whole tone between the seventh and tonic. (See No. 9.) The acci- 
dental was uniformly given in the several renditions. 

There were many speeches, and the ceremony, so briefly described, 
lasted many hours. At noon a feast was held similar to that of the 
preceding day. Certain delicacies had been " presented to the drum " ; 
these were placed beside the drum until the time of the feast, when 
they were divided among the singers and drummers. 

It sometimes happens that the untanned head of the drum becomes 
loosened during a ceremony. When this occurs, the Song of the 



170 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Drum is started by one of the drummers. At this- signal the five men 
who have charge of the drum rise and dance around it. When their 
special dancing is finished, they take the drum from the inclosure 
and hold it near a fire until the desired resonance is restored. The 
fastening of a drumhead is rarely disturbed, tightening being accom- 
plished by exposing it to the heat of a fire or of the sun. 



No. 70. Song of the Drum 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J-84 
DRUM J 92 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



(Catalogue No. S. 11) 












Analysis. This melody is major in tonality and contains the tones 
of the fourth five-toned scale. The rhythmic unit, which is short, is 
found in both double and triple measures. The song is somewhat 
awkward in both phrasing and progressions. 

The actual presentation of the drum began about 3 o'clock in the 
afternoon. Bi'jlkens crossed the dancing circle, and, taking Wls'kmo 
by the hand, led him to a seat beside the officers of the chief drum. 
Standing before him, Bi'jikensvthen made the presentation speech, 
asking him to select those among his people whom he intended to 
intrust with the care of the drum. Removing all his beadwork, Bi'- 
jlkens hung it around the neck of Wls'kmo, even bestowing on him 
his coat and vest. A blanket was then spread on the ground before 
Wls'klno, and the Chippewa proceeded to heap gifts upon it. Among 
other articles women brought strips of cloth or garments they had 
made and shawls and quilts, while the men brought blankets and 
shirts. There seemed no end to the variety of gifts, some new and 
some well worn. More than one woman, taking the shawl from her 
shoulders, laid it on the pile and walked away with no protection 
from the chilly autumn wind. Even little children added their gifts 
to the constantly growing store. 

When the pile of gifts was considered complete, the drum was lifted 
from its supports and allowed to rest on the matting, the supports 
were taken down and laid beside the drum, the singers and drummers 



DRNSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 171 

retired, and the singing was done by the party at the other Chippewa 
drum. Only Bi'jKkSns and the pipe bearer remained near the chief 
drum. 

Wfe'kmo then crossed the circle, and taking a young man by the 
hand, led him to a seat on the matting beside the drum. This was 
the man whom Wls'kmo had selected to have charge of the pipe 
belonging to the drum. It would be his duty to see that the pipe was 
always filled and also to be present whenever the drum was taken 
from Wfe'kmo's house for use in a general assembly. The pipe belong- 
ing to the drum was then presented to Wls'kmo by the Chippewa 
pipe bearer. 

The drum was then considered transferred to Wls'klno. He brought 
Menominee men and women and seated them beside it, and his aid 
took the seat next to the entrance, where the Chippewa aid had been 
seated. All the gifts bestowed by the Chippewa were divided among 
the Menominee, Wls'klno himself superintending the distribution. 
While this was being done the Menominee erected the supports of the 
drum and put it in position; then they sang, drumming lightly on 
the edge of the drum. 

After this song Wls'kino stood beside the drum, holding in his hand 
the long drumstick with the loon neck at the end (see p. 146). With 
this he pretended to strike the drum three times and as many times 
drew back. The fourth time he touched the drum lightly, and at the 
same time each of the four leading drummers struck it a sharp blow 
with his decorated drumstick. The Song of the Owner of the Drum 
(No. 57) burst forth, signifying that the drum belonged fully to the 
Menominee. The striking of the drum by Wls'klno was done with 
great dramatic effect; his feints at striking held the people in sus- 
pense, and the final tap was welcomed as a relief from the tension. 
The Menominee drummers took up their task with sight good will, 
singing a number of Menominee songs. 

It was then the turn of the Menominee to present gifts to the Chip- 
pewa, though it was not expected that a full equivalent would be 
given at that time. A blanket was spread on the ground, and on it 
were laid articles similar to those which the Chippewa had given to 
the Menominee. 

Wis'klno made a speech concerning the drum, saying that he would 
take good care of it and that the persons whom he had selected as his 
drum party could use it whenever they desired to do so. He pre- 
sented Bi'jlkens with three or four new blankets and added several 
crisp bank notes which he took from his wallet. The two then shook 
hands and sat down side by side. 

The day was wearing to a close. Rising in their places, the pipe 
bearers again presented their pipes to the circle of the sky, lighted 
them, and passed them from one to another in the assembly, each 
person puffing the pipe. 



172 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



In a short time the leading singer started the Song of Departure, a 
signal that the day's ceremony was at an end. The Chippewa 
returned to their camp without the chief drum. This was placed 
with all the accustomed respect in the house of the Menominee chief 
and beside it as of old was the pipe, filled and ready for use. 

On the following day took place the presentation of the warrior 
drum. This was given by a Chippewa to a member of the Menominee 
tribe from another part of the Menominee Reservation. The cere- 
mony, which was not so impressive as that for the chief drum, 
lasted about the same tune. The differences between the ceremonies 
were but slight. For instance, the drum was lifted from the ground 
and placed on the pile of gifts, all being presented together; and when 
the new possessor of the drum was about to strike it with the long 
drumstick, two of the leading drummers stood up, holding the drum. 

The fourth day of the ceremony was occupied entirely with dancing, 
during which the Chippewa presented to the Menominee all their 
adornments, consisting of beaded belts and bags, gay headdresses, 
and other articles. On this day the Song of the Closed Door was 
sung, after which no one was aUowed to leave the inclosure without 
paying a fee to the aid, who was seated at the entrance. 

No. 71. Song of the Closed Door (Catalogue No. S. 12) 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J-92 
DRUM J 92 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 










Analysis. This song begins on the seventh and the opening meas- 
ures do not suggest the chord of F, which characterizes the close of 
the song. It is interesting to note, therefore, that the several rendi- 
tions were begun on the same tone, the transition from the close of the 






IMOXSMOKKl 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



173 



song to the beginning being made with no break in the time and no 
apparent difficulty. The last tone in the first and fourth measures 
was slightly prolonged, while other tones also were prolonged but for 
periods too small to be indicated. AIL these variations from exact 
time were uniform in the several renditions. The song is major in 
tonality, melodic in structure, and contains all the tones of the octave. 

DOG FEAST 

A Dog Feast is sometimes held on the fourth day of a drum-presenta- 
tion. Such a feast was not held on the Menominee Reservation, but 
the writer witnessed one on the Leech Lake Reservation, Minnesota, 
during the celebration of the Fourth of July, 1910. Only Chippewa 
took part in this ceremony, two of them enacting the part of Sioux 
who were said to be " teaching them the ceremony." It was stated 
that the ceremony had been received from the Sioux and that the 
feather garments worn by the four leaders were given to the Chip- 
pewa by the Sioux about fifty years ago. The songs of the Dog Feast 
(sung by Mec'kawiga'bau) were recorded at Lac du Flambeau in 
October, 1910. His description of the ceremony as given on that 
reservation corresponded with the ceremony witnessed in Minnesota, 
and it may be assumed that the songs he furnished are the proper ones. 

The four chief actors in the ceremony were two Chippewa repre- 
senting respectively the oc'kabe'wfe (aid or messenger) of the entire 
Drum-presentation Ceremony and the oc'kabe'wis of the Dog Feast, 
and two Chippewa representing the Sioux. These men wore elabo- 
rate native costumes, and feather garments of the kind described on 
page 168. The ceremony was held late in the afternoon. A large 
number of Chippewa were seated around the dancing circle, many 
having come from other reservations to attend the ceremony. 

The first song was sung as the messenger of the Dog Feast brought 
in the kettle containing the cooked dog. He placed this kettle near 
the entrance of the circle and danced during the song; when the song 
was finished he removed the kettle to the western side of the inclosure. 



No. 72. First Song of the Dog Feast 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J 80 
DRUM J 88 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 



(Catalogue No. S. 13) 







174 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. This song was sung with great vibrato. The rhythm, 
which was clearly given, was uniform in all the renditions, but the 
time was not maintained with absolute regularity. 

The following two songs were sung with no pause between them. 
During the first song the four men knelt on the ground, the two 
oc'kabe'wls on one side, and the two men representing the Sioux on 
the other side, of the kettle, at a distance of about 6 feet. As the 
song was sung they raised their arms high above their upturned 
faces, then lowered them until the palms of their hands almost 
touched the ground. This was repeated five or six times, the sweep- 
ing downward motion of the arms being simultaneous. Then the 
second of the group of songs was sung, the men rising and dancing 
around the drum, led by the oc'kabe'wis of the drum, with their 
hands extended in turn toward the north, east, south, and west. 

(Catalogue No. S. 14) 
No. 73. Second Song of the Dog Feast 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J 88 
DRUM J 88 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 

(1) (1) 

r 










(2) 



(i) 



--..-- __ 



Igpllll5 








Analysis. This song contains two rhythmic units, the first occur- 
ring four times, the second three times. A pleasing effect is pro- 
duced by the succession of these units in the middle and latter part 
of the song. The rhythmic unit of No. 77 (S. 18) is similar to the 
second unit of this song and with one exception forms the only instance 
of duplication in either the present volume or Bulletin 45. The 
tempo of this song is slow; the song begins on the twelfth, ends on 
the tonic, and is melodic in structure. 



UEXSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



No. 74. Third Song of the Dog Feast 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J 120 
DRUM J - 104 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 
(1) 



175 

(Catalogue No. S. 15) 














Analysis. This song, like the preceding, contains two rhythmic 
units; the last measure of these is the same while the first measure 
is in double time in the first unit and in triple time in the second. 
In the latter part of the song the division of the closing measure of 
the second unit is slightly changed, and the sixteenth note followed 
by a dotted eighth is transferred to the measures intervening between 
the units. The two renditions of the song are exactly uniform, a 
fact which shows that the rhythmic structure of the song was clear 
in the mind of the singer. The song is minor in tonality and contains 
the tones of the second five- toned scale. The tempo of both voice 
and drum is more rapid than in the next preceding song. 

After dancing around the drum the four men side by side, with 
arms uplifted) advanced toward the kettle containing the dog. As 
they approached the kettle they lowered their hands, extending them 
over it. This was done several times, the men forcibly ejaculating 
ho ho ho Jwj as described in connection with the Mide' ceremony. 1 
The last time they lowered their hands rapidly, as though about to 
strike the kettle. This motion was the signal for the drumming and 
singing to cease. The following song was sung during this part of 
the ceremony. 

i See Bulletin 45, p. 44. 



176 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

(Catalogue No. S. 16) 
No. 75. Fourth Song of the Dog Feast 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J_88 
DRUM J 88 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 

I I -- -- -- -- 




if: ---0-.- s? - 




Analysis. The three recorded renditions of this song are uniform 
in every respect, the repetitions beginning with correct intonation 
and without break in the time. The opening measures in 5-4 time 
contain no secondary accent and are readily distinguishable from the 
triple measure followed by a double measure, which occurs later in 
the song. Attention is especially directed to the progressions in the 
fifth measure; these intervals were correctly sung, the accidental 
being given firmly and accurately. The song is transcribed in the 
key of C minor, but the fifth of that key does not occur in it. 

This song was followed by a dancing song, the oc'kabe'wfe signaling 
all to rise and dance. 

(Catalogue No. S. 17) 
No. 76. Fifth Song of the Dog Feast 

Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J 88 
DRUM J 96 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 

Ti rr 







9. it < 




Analysis. A 5-4 measure characterizes this song, the only change 
of tune being at the close, where three measures in double time occur. 
(Compare No. 78.) The tempo was strictly maintained in thesQ 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



177 



double measures and the repetitions of the song began without a 
break in the time. It should be noted that the phrase which occurs 
on the fourth and fifth counts of the third measure is used on the 
third and fourth counts of the following measure. Three renditions 
of the song were recorded, which are uniform in every respect. The 
song is based on the fourth five-toned scale and is melodic in structure. 
After the song was ended the oc'kabe'wfe of the Dog Feast 
took a small piece of meat from the kettle. It was said that he 
selected the piece nearest the head of the dog and that he took it on 
a small spoon fastened at the end of a long stick. After dancing 
around the drum he presented the piece of meat to the owner of the 
drum, who accepted and ate it. The following song was sung as the 
oc'kabe'wls danced alone around the drum. 

(Catalogue No. S. 18) 
No. 77. Sixth Song of the Dog Feast 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE j 104 
DRUM J 104 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



w 






s 



- 



, r n r i -^ ... 







Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song is the same as that of 
No. 73. The four renditions of the song recorded show no variation. 
All the tones of the octave except the seventh are found in the song, 
which is major in tonality and melodic in structure. 

At the conclusion of the song the head of the dog was taken from 
the kettle and placed in a pan at the eastern side of the dancing circle. 
The oc'kabe'wfe of the entire Drum-presentation Ceremony then 
danced several times around the drum, after which he selected four 
men from the assembly, leading them forward one at a time and 
seating them beside the pan. These were warriors of the tribe who 
had distinguished themselves by deeds of valor. They ate the meat 
from the dog's head as the following song was sung at the drum. 

67996 Bull. 5313 12 



178 



BUKEAU OF AMEKICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

(Catalogue No. S. 19) 
No. 78. Seventh Song of the Dog Feast 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J=88 
DRUM J 96 
( Dram-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 




Analysis. This song begins in 5-4 time and ends in double time. 
(Compare No. 76.) Four renditions were recorded. There was no 
break in the time throughout the entire performance. The song is 
based on the fourth five-toned scale and is melodic in structure. 

When the four warriors had finished eating, they returned to their 
places, and the following song was sung. 



No. 79. Warriors' Song 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J = 88 

DRUM J-96 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 



(Catalogue No. S. 20) 














Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song occurs four times in a 
double, and once in a triple, measure. Four renditions were recorded. 



DENSMOKE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC n 



179 



The repetitions were exact, but the time was not maintained with 
absolute regularity. The song begins on the sixth above the tonic 
and ends on the fifth in the lower octave; thus about half the melody 
is above the tonic and half below it. The song is melodic in structure 
and contains the tones of the fourth five-toned scale. 

After this song the warrior who was first selected danced around 
the dog's skull, which had been taken from the pan and laid on the 
ground. After dancing he made a speech regarding one of his most 
distinguished victories and sang a song commemorating the event. 
A similar course was followed by each of the three other warriors who 
had eaten of the dog's head. 

The following song is typical of this class of war songs. It was 
recorded by Mec'kawiga'bau, who learned it from the composer, a 
prominent warrior among the Lac du Flambeau Chippewa, Memen'- 
gwa (Butterfly) by name. 



No. 80. The Song of Butterfly 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J 84 
DRUM J 84 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 



(Catalogue No. 437) 



/"" 



Bi-gi - ja - te gi - jig e tci-bi-na - ni - ba - wi - yan 




WORDS 



in the coming heat 

gi^Ig of the day 

tcibinani / bawiyan / I stood there 

Analysis. In this melody it is interesting to note the influence of 
the rhythmic unit on parts of the song in which it is not repeated. 
Thus the sixth measure from the close of the song resembles the first 
measure of the rhythmic unit, the fifth and third measures from 
the close are similar to the last measure of the unit, and the measure 
next to the last is similar to the second measure of the unit. Obser- 
vation of many of these songs will detect separation of the rhythmic 



180 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

unit into phrases, one or two of which are combined with other meas- 
ures to form the rhythm of the song as a whole. This song is classi- 
fied as melodic with harmonic framework. The metric unit is unusu- 
ally slow. Four renditions of the song were recorded; these show no 
important variation. 

At the conclusion of this song the kettle containing the remainder 
of the dog was passed to the women of the company, some of whom 
ate small pieces. The kettle was then passed to the men and in a 
short time the feast was concluded. 



Returning to the narrative of the Drum-presentation Ceremony, as 
witnessed on the Menominee Reservation the day after the drum- 
presentation was completed the writer went again to the place where 
the Indians were assembled. The Menominee had proved most gra- 
cious hosts, and the Chippewa had decided to remain four days longer. 
Custom required that each tribe dance four more days, and it was 
decided that they should dance together. It was a hospitable sug- 
gestion on the part of the Menominee, which promised much pleasure, 
but a gray cloud lay close to the horizon, and in a day or two the 
snow came, falling steadily in large, soft flakes. Several inches of 
snow covered the ground, but still they danced, as custom required 
that the dancing, once begun, be finished. 

More difficult than the dancing was the weary tramp of 20 miles 
which the Chippewa must take in order to reach the railroad. Their 
packs were lighter than when they came, for the gifts they then car- 
ried had been given away and the Menominee had not yet returned 
the full equivalent, and, further, quantities of provisions had disap- 
peared. The shawls which seemed a burden when the sun shone so 
warm were but a scanty protection from the keen north wind. 

It was a rather forlorn company that returned to Lac du Flam- 
beau; yet it was something to have been for a little while on the 
heights and to have given two drums to the Menominee. 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



181 



Sioux Songs of Drum-presentation Ceremony 
MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 





Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 




Major 


11 


55 


56, 57, 58, 59, 70, 71, 72, 76, 77, 78, 


79 


Minor 


9 


45 


54,55,60,61,62,69 73 74 75 














Total 


20 



















BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


On the twelfth 


2 


10 


62,73 


On the fifth ... . 


3 


15 


57, 69, 76 


On the eleventh 


1 


5 


55 


On the tenth. 


9 


10 


74,75 


On the ninth 


2 


10 


72,78 


On the octave 


6 


30 


54.56,60 61,70 77 


On the seventh 


1 


5 


71 


On the sixth 


3 


15 


58 59 79 










Total . 


20 















NOTE. The Chippewa war songs occurring in the Drum-presentation Ceremony (Nos. 63, 64, 65, 66, 80) 
are included in the tabulated analysis of war songs on p. 195, and the divorce songs (67, 68) are included in 
the songs analyzed on p. 242. 

ENDINGS OF SONGS 





Numbers 


Per cent. 




Serial Nos. of songs 


On the tonic 


13 


65 


55, 56, 


60,61,62 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 77 


On the fifth 


6 


30 


54 57 


58 76 78 79 


On the third 


1 


5 


59 














Total 


20 



















TONE MATERIAL 





Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Second five-toned scale. . 


3 


15 


69 73 74 


Fourth five-toned scale 


g 


30 


58 59 70 76 77 79 


Octave complete 


2 


10 


54 71 


Octave complete except seventh 
Octave complete except seventh and second . 
Octave complete except sixth 


2 
1 
2 


10 
5 
10 


72,78 
62 
56 61 


Octave complete except sixth and fifth 
Octave complete except fifth and second 
Minor triad and fourth 


1 
1 
1 


5 
5 
5 


75 
75 
55 


Other combinations of tone 


1 


j 


60 










Total 


20 















182 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

ACCIDENTALS 



Songs containing no accidentals . 



Songs containing seventh raised a semitone. . 
Songs containing sixth raised a semitone 



Numbers 



Total. 



20 



Per cent. 



90 



Serial Nos. of son gs 



54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 70, 71, 72,73, 

74, 76, 77, 78, 79 
75 



STRUCTURE 



Numbers 



Percent. 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Harmonic None 

Purely melodic 17 85 54,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,69,70,71,72,73, 

74, 75, 78, 79 
Melodic with harmonic framework 3 15 55, 76, 77 

Total 20 

FIRST PROGRESSION 

Numbers Per cent. Serial Nos. of scngs 

Downward 12 60 54,55,58,60,62,69,71,73,76,77,78,79 

Upward 8 40 56,57,59,61,70,72,74,75 

Total 20 

RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 

PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 

Numbers Percent. Serial Nos. of songs 

On accented part 8 40 54,56,59,61,62,70,72,79 

On unaccented part 12 60 55,57,58,60,69,71,73,74,75,76,77,78 

Total 20 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 

Numbers Per cent. Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs beginning in 2-4 time 9 45 58, 59, 61, 62, 72, 73, 74, 78, 79 

Songs beginning in 3-4 time 6 . 30 54, 56, 57, 62, 70, 71 

Songs beginning in 5-4 time ; 4 20 55,75,76,77 

Songs beginning in 5-8 time 1 5 

Total... 20 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



183 



RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

CHANGE OF TIME 





Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing a change of time 


19 


'5 


54,5(5,57 58 59 60 61 62 69 70 71 72 7'i 


Songs containing no change of time 


1 


5 


74,75,76,77,78,79 
55 


Total 


20 















RHYTHMIC UNIT 





Numbers 


Percent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing a rhythmic unit 


10 


50 


54 58 60 62 70 72 75 76 78 79 


Songs containing two rhythmic units 


3 


15 


69 73 74 


Songs containing no rhythmic unit 




35 


55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 71, 77 


Total 


20 















COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 





Numbers 


Per cent. 


Serial Nos. of songs 




Metric unit of voice and drum the same 
Metric unit of voice and drum different 


7 
13 


3d 
65 


54,59,62,71,73,75,77 
55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 69, 70, 72, 74, 76 


, 78, 79 


Total 


20 



















SONGS OF THE LAC DU FLAMBEAU RESERVATION 

In the north-central part of Wisconsin, about 80 miles southeast 
of Ashland, is the Lac du Flambeau Chippewa Reservation, formerly 
under the La Pointe Agency, but now in charge of the school super- 
intendent. It is a beautiful region of pine forests and quiet lakes. 
A typical forest on the reservation is shown in plate 24. The prin- 
cipal Chippewa village (pi. 25) is several miles from the agency. The 
ceremonies of the Mide'wiwfri are held regularly and many other native 
customs are perpetuated. The gathering of wild rice forms an absorb- 
ing interest in autumn, followed by hunting expeditions. Deer are 
plentiful on the reservation and bears are not infrequent trophies of 
the chase. With these native avocations is mingled much that has 
been taught by the Government, many of the Indians cultivating 
little farms and even shipping potatoes with due regard to their 
market value. 

E'niwub'e ("sits farther along ") ; plate 26, the singer of many songs 
in the present series, is the owner of two houses, one in the Indian 
village, and one on his farm where he spends the s.ummer. This 
farm of 4 or 5 acres is cultivated to the best of his ability. His house 
in the Indian village is ready for occupancy at any time, but he 
spends the long cold winter at his son's home near the agency. His 
own team of horses furnishes conveyance for himself and family when 
there is a gathering of Indians on a distant part of the reservation. 
He has never complained of being cheated by the white man, for he 
has been able to take care of his own interests. In his contact with 
civilization he has conceded comparatively little and gained much, 
standing to-day as a type of native manhood respected by all who 
know him. 

Mec'kawiga'bau (" stands firmly"), plate 20, another singer, has a 
house and a few acres of cultivated land near the Indian village. The 
phonograph was taken to his house for recording many of his songs, 
which include those of the Drum-presentation Ceremony. His wife, 
Dji'sia'suio'kwe (" deceiving woman")? also sang two love songs, 
naively insisting that her husband depart while she recorded them, to 
be recalled when they were played on the phonograph. 

Seventy-five songs were recorded at Lac du Flambeau. The per- 
sonality of the other singers is described in connection with the 
analyses of the songs. 
184 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 24 




PINE FOREST, LAC DU FLAMBEAU RESERVATION, WIS. 



DBNSMORKl CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 185 

WAR SONGS 

No. 81. A Song of Indecision (Catalogue No. 393) 

Sung by 
VOICE J=96 
DRUM J-96 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 




Wi-na - wa - nin -da - ci-mi-gog wi - na - wa - nin - da - ci-mi-gog 

r~ ~n r 1 



wi - na - wa - nin - da - ci - mi-gog wi - na - wa - nin - da - ci - mi-gog 








b - si- na - si - wi-djig e wi -na-wa-nin - da - ci- mi-gog wi -na-wa - nin- 

.__ __ _____ , f _ 






da- ci- mi-gog wi-na -wa - nin- da - ci -mi-gog wi- na-wa-nin - da- ci-mi-gog 

WORDS 

Part 1 

[Free translation] 
winawa^inda^imigog 7 ...... they are talking about me 

saying "come with us " 



This song was sung by the father of E'niwub'e, a man said to be 
90 years of age, whose name is Mlde'wigi'jlg (" Grand Medicine sky"). 
He is almost blind but remarkably active, feeling his way about the 
reservation with a stout cane. His voice was strong and he showed 
no hesitation in singing the song, saying that he remembered when 
the war parties went out to fight the Sioux and had heard the song 
at the preliminary dances. The words concern a man who is urged 
by friends to join the warriors but is not fully decided to go (see song 
No. 14). After singing the song twice with the first set of words the 
singer repeated it with the second set. 

Part 2 

owin8n / dacnm / ............ is there anyone who 

ge / mawimld / ............... would weep for me? 

nindikwfinV' ................ my wife 

ge / mawimld / ............... would weep for me 



186 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. This melody is particularly simple in construction. 
The rhythmic unit comprises two measures and is repeated with only 
one interruption the triple measure containing the change of words. 
(See Nos. 1, 8, 12, 13, 30, 39, 40, 105.) A generally descending pro- 
gression carries the melody along the fourth five-toned scale, beginning 
on the ninth and ending on the tonic. 



No. 82. Song of the Sentry 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 
VOICE J 80 
DRUM J 88 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



(Catalogue No. 409) 



-^=^fl- 









Ga-ye - nin 



mi-stft-di-mong ba-ba mo - mi 




WORDS 



gaye'nin I also 

mistu'dimong l on my horse 

baba / momigoyan / carried around 

Around the camp of the warriors nightly rode the sentry, singing 
this song. It was said that the pony seemed to know the song and 
galloped in time to the music. The song indicates that the Wis- 
consin Chippewa had .horses when they were at war with the Sioux. 
Odjib'we stated (see p. 61) that when he first led war parties against 
the Sioux in Minnesota the Chippewa had no horses and that very 
few were used by the Sioux. 

Analy sis. This melody is broadly outlined by two descending 
intervals of a fourth, C sharp-G sharp, and F sharp-C sharp. A 
similar prominence of the interval of a fourth has been noted in other 
songs which contain the idea of motion, either of animals or of per- 
sons (see analysis of No. 22). No rhythmic unit occurs in the song, 
but a sixteenth note followed by a dotted eighth occurs frequently 

' Mist&'dim (cf. mistatim, in Lacombe, Dictionnaire de la Langue des Cris, Montreal, 1874,) is a Cree 
word meaning "horse"; ong is a Chippewa ending meaning, inter alia, "upon." See also pp. 72, 76, 108, 
190 ; 230. 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



187 



on the first count of the measure. The slow tempo suggests the 
leisurely gallop of the sentry's horse. There is no excitement in the 
idea of the song and none in the music. The phrase contained in the 
sixth and seventh measures is found also in the fourteenth, fifteenth, 
and sixteenth measures, one count being added, thus making the 
first part of the phrase in double instead of in triple time. Throe 
renditions were recorded, with one repetition of the latter half of the 
song. The first count of each measure was emphasized, but the time 
was not maintained with absolute regularity. 

No. 83. Song concerning Gwi'wiziins (Catalogue No. 406) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J-92 
DRUM J=92 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 






B "" G 




Gwi - wi- 







zans gi - to - ta - ma - go - nan i - ni - ni - wug 







WORDS 



Gwi'wizans Gwi'wizans (man's name meaning "boy") 

gigo / tama / gonaii / by his presence made them afraid 

inl'nlwug those men 

This song was composed concerning a great warrior named 
Gwi'wizans (Boy). It is said that when he led his men on the 
warpath he took his arrows, but did not fight; he stood still, watching 
his warriors. His will was so strong that he could make them win 
a fight without taking any part in it himself. His warriors were 
very proud of their leader. On the way home from a successful 
expedition they composed this song about him and sang it in the 
victory dance. The Chippewa words contain a play on the name 
of the leader. The word iftffrfwtty, "men," is frequently used to 
designate warriors (see p. 69). 



188 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. f>:i 



Analysis. This song is minor in tonality and contains the first, 
second, third, fifth, and sixth tones of the diatonic minor scale, tone 
material occurring in only three other songs of the series of 340 (see 
Nos. 178 and 184 in Bulletin 45, and No. 125 of the present series). 
This is of special interest, as the omitted tones are the same intervals 
as hi the fourth five-toned scale, which is major in tonality. The 
major third is a prominent progression in the opening phrases of this 
song (see Nos. 1, 9, 34, 94, 120), constituting 52 per cent of the 
entire number of progressions (31). (See also Nos. 29, 99.) The 
tempo was steadily maintained and the music admirably expresses the 
idea of the song. 

No. 84. " The Sioux Follow Me" (Catalogue No. 407) 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 
VOICE J = 96 
DRUM J 96 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 
-* f * 




Ma - gi - ja - go Ic - kwe - yan 



Si - si - ta - wan bi - a - 



1 1 r r9 1 - r iS> 1 

pi - si - ka - dog ic - kwe - yail 






ma / gija / go'. I think 

ickwe'yan behind me 

Sisi'tawan (see p. 70) the Sisseton Sioux 

biapi / sika / dog 1 is no doubt following 

Analysis. This song is based on the chord of D major and would 
be classified as harmonic except for the presence of E flat as an 
accented tone. The phrases are of irregular length and the song con- 
tains no rhythmic unit, yet, as a whole, it has a certain rhythmic 
unity and completeness. The only tones used are those of the major 
triad and second. 

The words of this and of the following song suggest that the songs 
were composed during dreams. 

1 The syllable dog affixed to a verb indicates lack of absolute knowledge, but confidence that the state- 
ment is correct. 



DEN SMOKE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 85. "Around the Sky" 

Sung by ) / NIWUB / E 



189 

(Catalogue No. 415) 



VOICE J 116 
DRUM J-120 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 



S 










mu-se-yan bi - n8 - si m - wi - dji- wa 







WORDS 



gi / jigung / in the sky 

bimu'seyan 7 . I am walking 

bm^si abird 

niwi / djiwa / I accompany 

Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song occurs five times in the 
opening measures and is followed by a six-measure phrase, which is 
repeated at the close of the song. In this phrase we find part 
of the unit with a change of accent, the dotted eighth note falling on 
an unaccented instead of on an accented count. The melody is 
broadly outlined by two intervals of a fourth, B flat-E flat, and E 
flat-A flat. (See analysis of No. 22.) The song is minor in tonality 
and contains the progression 8-7-8; this is particularly effective, 
showing the interval of a whole tone, which is found between seven 
and eight in the second five-toned scale (see Nos. 9, 50, 100, 119, 124). 
The drum is slightly faster than the voice and seems constantly 
hurry ing it forward. 



190 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 86. "If He is a Warrior" (Catalogue No. 419) 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 
VOICE J-126 
DRUM J-126 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 16 ) 

r 







- gl - tci-da-gwen na - wa ' - wi-na-kwe - 







WORDS 



ogi'tcida'gwSn l if he is a warrior 

nawi'nakwedag' he will answer me 

Analysis. This melody comprises the tones of the fourth five- 
toned scale. It will be readily seen that the progressions of the 
first six measures are outlined by the descending interval A-E, the 
principal tones being those of the triad, with the second as a passing 
tone. The next twelve measures are outlined by the descending 
interval E-B, which suggests in musical terminology the dominant 
chord in the key of A. We note, however, that G sharp, the third 
of that chord, does not appear and that F sharp is used as a passing 
tone, similar to B in the opening measures. Thus the framework of 
the melody consists of two descending intervals of the fifth E-A 
and B-E, in both of which the second is used as a passing tone, the 
third occurring only in the opening section. (Compare Nos. 23 and 
28, based on the interval of a fourth.) The rhythmic unit occurs 
three times. A triple followed by a double measure is found seven 
times in the song but the two unite to form a rhythmic unit only in 
the instances indicated by the bracket. 

iFrom Sioux aki'cita, "warrior," + Chippewa suffix -gwen, subjunctive mode (with kishpin, "if," 
understood). See pp. 72, 76, 108, 186, 230, 



DENSMOKE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC n 

No. 87. "In the South" 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 



191 

(Catalogue No. 426) 



VOICE J=112 
DRUM J-120 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 

.1. 




Ca - wun-ofig bi - ne - si - wug e 







WORDS 



ca'wunong 7 in the south 

bine^Iwug the birds 

ge^inonda^oziwa 7 are heard singing 

Analysis. A peculiarity of this song is indicated in the second 
measure, the singer striking a tone above the proper pitch and 
descending glissando, apparently as an embellishment of the melody. 
The transcription is from the first rendition, the others differing in 
some unimportant note-values but not in the rhythm or in the 
embellishments. The song would be classified as harmonic in struc- 
ture except for the accented E in next to the last measure. It is 
based on the fourth five-toned scale and contains no rhythmic unit. 



192 BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 88. War Song (Catalogue No. 411) 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 

VOICE J=rl20 

DRUM J=132 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 




S-fe-4-rJ 



Analysis. This song is particularly definite in tonality and force- 
ful in rhythm, seeming to retain some of the spirit of the warriors 
who sang it long ago. The song is characterized by syncopations, 
which are found but rarely in the songs under analysis (see No. 47 of 
the present book, and Nos. 123, 147, 152 in Bulletin 45). Attention 
is directed to the progressions above and below the tonic at the close 
of the song. 

No. 89. War Song (Catalogue No. 412) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J 112 
DRUM J 112 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 













Analysis. This song consists of eight three-measure phrases, the 
rhythmic unit being accurately repeated except in the third and the 
last phrase. So slight a change as the use of two eighth notes 
instead of one quarter note (ninth measure) swings the rhythm of 
the entire song clear of monotony and gives it character. Voice and 
drum have the same metric unit but the drum precedes the voice by 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



193 



a perceptible interval of time. The tonic chord is the evident frame- 
work of the melody. From two of the four renditions the last six 

measures are omitted. 

No. 90. War Song (Catalogue No. 416) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J = 116 
DRUM J 132 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 




Analysis. The first measure of this song comprises a rhythmic 
unit, which occurs only twice but forms the basis of the rhythm of 
the entire song. (See Nos. 94, 96, 103, 108, 109, 115, 123.) The 
second measure contains the same division of the counts but is a 
double instead of a triple measure and the rhythmic unit is unfin- 
ished. The fourth and opening of the fifth measure contain the same 
division of the counts but with a change of accent. Five complete 
renditions were recorded with seven repetitions of the latter half of 
the song, the singer seeming to have no preference whether he began 
at the first or at the middle phrase in giving the repetitions. This 
peculiarity is occasionally noted in the performances of Chippewa 



No. 91. War Song 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICB J-126 
DRUM J= 126 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 



(Catalogue No. 417) 








67996 Bull. 5313 13 



194 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. A strongly descending progression and a vigorous rhyth- 
mic unit characterize this song. A similarity between this and the 
next succeeding song (No. 92) suggests that they may have been com- 
posed by the same man, this being first in order of composition. It 
is a stirring melody, but lacks the smoothness and grace of No. 92. 
The rhythmic unit of the latter contains two measures instead of one, 
the division of the first measure being the same as that of the rhyth- 
mic unit of this song. 

No. 92. War Song (Catalogue No. 418) 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 
VOICE J-126 
DRUM J 126 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 







Analysis. This is a particularly inspiring melody. The rhythmic 
unit comprises two measures and occurs five times with two quarter 
notes in the second measure. A rhythm similar to that of the first 
measure occurs three times, but is followed by a measure containing 
time-values differing from those in the rhythmic unit. The melody 
tones are those of the second five- toned scale. This scale is usually 
associated with a plaintive melody, but the present example shows 
it to be adapted as well to a stirring war cry. The similarity between 
this and No. 91 has been noted in the analysis of the preceding song. 



DBNSMOKB] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



No. 93. War Song 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J 108 
DRUM J112 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



195 

(Catalogue No. 420) 


















Analysis. The effect of this song is rhythmic, yet we find no phrase 
repeated accurately enough to constitute it & unit of rhythm. The 
opening measure of the repeated part contains a succession of note- 
values in triple time, which is twice repeated in double time, and 
which forms an interesting example of freedom in rhythmic treatment. 
The song contains one accidental, which was sung distinctly in all 
the renditions. 

War Songs Lac du Flambeau Reservation 
MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Major 


10 


63 66 80 81, 84, 86, 87, 88, 91, 93 


Minor 


g 


64 65 82 83 85 89 90 92 








Total 


18 











NOTE. The following songs, included in this table, are found in the account of the Drum-presentation 
Ceremony (pp. 158-161, 179): Nos. 63, 64, 65, 66, 80. 



196 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 




Serial Nos. of songs 


On the twelfth 


8 


64,65, 


66, 80, 86, 87, 89, 93 


On the fifth . . 


2 


88,90 




On the tenth . 


2 


83,92 




On the ninth 


1 


81 






4 


63,82, 


84,85 


On the sixth 


1 


91 












Total 


18 















ENDINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


On the tonic 


14 


64 65 66 80 81 82 83 85 86 87 89 90 


On the fifth 


3 


92,93 

63, 84, 88 


On the third 


1 


91 








Total 


18 











TONE MATERIAL 





Number 
of songs 




Serial Nos. of songs 


Second five-toned scale 


3 


82 89, i 


12 


Fourth five-toned scale 




63, 66, 


(0, 81, 86, 87 


Major triad and second 




84 




Minor triad and fourth 




90 




Octave complete 




93 




Octave complete except seventh 




64, 65, i 


18, 91 


Octave complete except seventh and fourth 




83 




Octave complete except seventh and second 




85 












Total 


18 















ACCIDENTALS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing no accidentals 


17 


63, 64, 65, 66, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 


Songs containing the seventh lowered a semitone 


1 


88, 89, 90, 91, 92 
93 


Total 


18 














DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



197 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

STRUCTURE 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Harmonic 1 

Purely melodic 9 63, 81, 82, 84, 85, 88, 90, 91, 92 

Melodic with harmonic framework 8 64, 65, 66, 80, 86, 87, 89, 93 

Total 18 

FIRST PROGRESSION 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Downward 15 63, 64, 65, 66, 80, 81,82,84,85,86,87,88, 

91,93 
Upward 3 83.90,92 

Total 18 

RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 
PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 

*?! Serial Nos. of songs 

On accented part 12 63,64,80,81,82,84,87,88,89,90,92,93 

On unaccented part 6 65,66,83,85,86,91 

Total 18 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs beginning in 2-4 time 12 63,64,65,66,80,81,85,87,88,89,91,92 

Songs beginning in 3-4 time 6 82,83,84,86,90,93 



Total. 



is 



CHANGE OF TIME 



Songs containing a change of time. . 
Songs containing no change of time. 



Total. 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



it; 



is 



63, 64, 65, 66, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 

91,92,93 
80,89 



198 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

RHYTHMIC UNIT 



[BULL. 53 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing a rhythmic unit 


14 


63, 64, 65, 66, 80, 81, 83, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 


Songs containing no rhythmic unit. 


4 


91,92 
82, 84, 87, 93 








Total 


18 











COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Metric unit of voice and drum the same 


9 


64, 80, 81, 83, 84, 86, 89, 91, 92 


Metric unit of voice and drum different 


9 


63 65, 66, 82, 85 87, 88 90 93 








Total... 


18 





DREAM SONGS 

The folio whig is the dream song of a man who painted his face with 
charcoal and endured a fast of ten days. At the end of that time he 
dreamed that he saw clouds rising in the south. There were manido' 
in the clouds who spoke to him, saying, " Brother, come here with 
us." So the man went up into the clouds. There he saw the thunder- 
birds, who taught him this song which they were singing. 

No. 94. Song of the Thunderbirds (Catalogue No. 394) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE ^ 116 

DRUM J=116 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 
















DBNSMORB] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 199 

Analysis. This song is vigorous and clear in rhythm and tonality. 
The first 12 measures are based on the triad G-B flat-D, these tones 
occurring in descending progression in the third and eighth measures. 
The last five measures of the song are based on the descending chord 
G-D-B flat~G. The song is minor in tonality, yet the major third 
is the opening interval. (See Nos. 1, 9, 34, 83, 120.) The entire song 
is thus shown to be harmonic in framework. The song contains four 
phrases of five measures each. The first phrase comprises a rhythmic 
unit, which is repeated practically without change in the second 
phrase. The third phrase (measure 3) shows a reversal of the couplet 
and triplet division which occurs in the corresponding measure of the 
rhythmic unit, the two following measures being practically the same 
as in the unit. The variations in the final phrase are readily dis- 
cerned. The variation of a rhythmic phrase is a feature of special 
importance in the study of primitive musical development. (See 
Nos. 90, 96, 103, 108, 109, 115, 123.) 

Other songs supposed to be the musical expression of animals are 
Nos. 34, 41, 58, 68, 88, 119, and 197, in Bulletin 45, and Nos. 95, 96, 
97, 98, 99, 114, and 115 of the present work. 

The following song was heard by a man when he was fasting and 
seeking a dream. As he was walking around he heard voices which 
seemed to come from beyond a hill. Stealthily climbing this hill, he 
saw a herd of deer standing in a circle. One said, "Now we will 
dance. We always have a dance at this season, when the leaves have 
fallen from the trees." Ah 1 the deer pointed to a little buck whose 
pointed horns rose somewhat higher than his ears, saying he should 
be the one to sing; thereupon he sang this song. Thus the man 
learned it and afterward it became his dream song. He sang it when 
he hunted the deer. There were two parts to the song: First, the 
little deer sang about himself and then about the other deer. Only 
the first part is transcribed, as the second was not an interesting 
melody. Before singing this and the two next succeeding songs the 
singer " imitated the noise made by the deer." (See pp. 101, 203.) 



200 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

(Catalogue No. 398) 



No. 95. Song of the Beer (a; 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 
VOICE j=104 
DRUM J-104 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



5- 




Ki-we-wi-na - ko-wi - ne be - jig ai - ya - be 



ki-we - wi-na - 






ko-wi -n 



be-jigai-ya - be" 



ki-we - wi-na - ko - wi - ne 






be-jig ai-ya-bg 



kiwe / wina / kowine / straight-horned 

be'jig one 

aiya'bS buck 

Analysis. Although minor in tonality this song is bright and full 
of action. The descending interval of the fourth, which occurs fre- 
quently, has been noted in other songs concerning animals (see No. 
22). The rhythmic unit, which is clear and vigorous, is found three 
times in this song. 



No. 96. Song of the Deer (b) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J-100 
DRUM J=108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

t=t=t$ 



(Catalogue No. 402) 




Ki- 



we-wi-na-ko-wi-ne be - jig ai-ya-b 

Analysis. This song, like the preceding, was heard by the man in 
his dream of the deer. The words are 'the same as in the preceding 
song. The first two measures contain four descending tones similar 
to the successive tones of the scale, a progression rarely found in the 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



201 



songs under analysis. The interval of the fourth is prominent in the 
framework of this melody (see No. 22), the descending intervals D 
flat-A flat, A flat-E flat being similar to the intervals C sharp-G 
sharp, G sharp-D sharp in the preceding melody, yet this song is in 
the key of A flat and the preceding song is in the key of B, and the 
characteristics of the two melodies are entirely different. (See Nos. 
105, 106.) This song contains no rhythmic unit, but the treatment 
of its opening phrase is worthy of observation. It will be noted that 
the phrase contained in the first and second measures is repeated in 
the fifth measure and in the first part of the sixth measure, with a 
change of accent. (See Nos. 90, 94, 103, 108, 109.) The same phrase 
occurs with other changes in the third and fourth measures. 

Similar to the preceding are two songs by another singer. The 
narrative concerning the first song is as follows: 

Long ago an old man made a feast and invited all the men and women. He did not 
tell them why they were asked ; he only said there would be a dance. When they were 
all assembled the old man who had asked them sang this song, which had come to him 
in a dream, and another old man led the dance, acting like a deer. The men followed 
him, acting like the buck deer and the women acted like the doe. In old times the 

hunters had a dance like this in the evening and went out to hunt the deer the next 

i 



morning. 



No. 97. Song of the Deer Dancing (Catalogue No. 433) 



Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 
VOICE J 104 
DRUM J- 112 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 




Ti - bi-wn - da 



ba - no-gwe"n ai - ya 



ti - bi - wn-da 







ba-no-gw6n ai-ya - 



ai-ya - bS 



ai-ya - be 



WORDS 



ti / biwnda / banogwn / whence does he dawn? 2 

aiya'be" the buck? 

Analysis. The rhythm of this song is somewhat expressive of the 
dance and its pantomime. The interval of the fourth is prominent, 
as in many songs concerning animals. (See No. 22.) 

Compare the dance of the warriors before a fight, imitating the action of the buffalo (p. 101); also the 
Imitation of the plover, in the pipe dance (p. 295). 

8 This is an idiomatic phrase in common use among the Chippewa. It is not unlike the expression, 
"Where did he spring from?" 



202 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 98. "My Shining Horns" (Catalogue No. 434) 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J=108 
DRUM Jz=108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 







WSn-dji-we- a - sa-ko-nes-we-yan 

WORDS 
wSn'djiwea'sako'nesweyan' my shining horns 

Analysis. This song was said to represent the deer " walking 
alone, singing to himself, and proud of his shining horns." The 
melody is harmonic in structure and contains a short rhythmic unit. 
In general outline it presents a descending progression along the 
intervals of the tonic chord. It is minor in tonality and is based on 
the second five-toned scale. The six renditions recorded show no 
important variation. 

Like the two songs next preceding, this song had its origin in a 
dream. A man who was fasting is said to have heard the buffalo 
sing and to have learned their song. As he was wandering about he 
heard sounds which seemed to come from some gathering of Indians. 
On going to the place he saw a herd of buffalo walking in a circle, 
knee-deep in mud, with swaying heads and lashing tails; all were 
singing as they walked around. The Indian joined the herd and 
thereupon became a buffalo. For this reason they gave him the 
song which they were singing. 



DUNS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 99. Song of the Buffalo 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 



203 

(Catalogue No. 399) 



VOICE J=:96 

DRUM J 100 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 











we - ya - ka - ga - bu - wi - wa - djm 

I 1 




wa - do - ka - wa-gwa-um - 






e he wa ni e wa ni e 



wa - do - ka - wa - gwa-nm - e 






a hwi 



ci wi hi 



a hwi 



WORDS 



bi'jflci'wfig' the buffalo 

we / yaka / gabuwiwa / djln as they stand in a circle 

wa / doka / wagwa / nine I join with them 

Analysis. Except in the last nine measures, the principal tones of 
this melody are those of the triad of F sharp minor; the song is there- 
fore transcribed in that key, although the second and seventh of the 
key do not occur. This is an instance in which "key" can scarcely 
be said to exist, and the signature should be understood as indicating 
merely the pitch of certain tones. The formation of the melody is 
essentially that of successive intervals, in a descending progression: 
First, C sharp-A, second A-F sharp, and lastly F sharp-D. As an 
example of interval formation this offers an interesting contrast to 
songs based on the interval of the fourth (see No. 22). Although the 
song is minor in tonality, it is found that 50 per cent of the intervals 
are major thirds, the song containing 18 intervals and 9 minor thirds 
(see Nos. 29, 83). Before the recording of this song, and also before 
the final word, the singer " imitated the noise made by the buffalo." 
Several renditions were recorded, interspersed with these peculiar 
"noises." 



204 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



SONGS CONCERNING A BOY S FAST 

This and the song next following are associated with the old Indian 
custom requiring youths to hold fasting vigils in the wilderness. 
These are songs which E'niwubVs grandfather sang to him when he 
was a boy and were secured only after the latter 's confidence in the 
writer was fully established. The first song was sung when the boy 
had blackened his face and was ready to go forth alone from the camp. 
E'niwub'e said that he danced, and his grandfather sang the song. 
The meaning of the words is obscure. We can not understand what 
boyhood vision rose in the mind of the aged man as he asked a 
boon for the child whose vision was yet to come. 

No. 100. Song Before a Boy Goes Out to Fast 

(Catalogue No. 421) 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 
VOICE J 84 
DRUM J=:88 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




A - ni - nn-we-we a -ni - nen-we - we wa - zi-swun nim-bi - zm- 



, * "f " m "t . ,_*_*_ 



da -go -ne 



WORDS 



a / nin8n / wewe / '. the receding sound 

wa'ziswun' of the nest l 

nim / bizlnda / gone / I listen to it 

Analysis. The compass of this song is only four tones, comprising 
the first, second, third, and seventh of the minor scale; it begins on 
the third, descends to the second, and ends on the tonic. Eight 
renditions of the song were recorded; these are uniform in rhythm 
but uncertain in the intonation of the opening measures, the singer 
seeming to have difficulty in giving intervals so small, with dis- 
tinctness. (See Nos. 54, 55, 61, 64.) In contrast to this uncertainty- 
as to semitones and whole tones, we find the accidental in the third 
measure and A flat near the close of the song given firmly and unmis- 
takably. The whole tone between 7 and 8 is prominent in this song. 
(See Nos. 9, 50, 85, 119, 124.) The melody forms a good example 

1 This may refer to the "nest" which a man built in a tree, in which he waited, fasting, for a vision (see 
p. 84), though the use of the word "sound" in this connection is obscure. 



DEXSMOKE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



205 



of the entire song as a rhythmic unit, complete and homogeneous. 
The metric unit of both voice and drum is slow and the general effect 
of the song is different from that of the majority of songs under 
analysis. 

When the boy fi'niwub'e returned from his fasting vigil his grand- 
father insisted that he dance before tasting food; he also talked with 
him, asking long life for him and saying that he needed water to 
drink. Other boys returned at the same time from their fasts and 
fi'niwubVs grandfather talked to them all. Near his door there 
was a medicine pole (similar to those described on p. 248), around 
which the boys danced while E'niwub'e's grandfather sang the 
following song. There was a hole through the medicine pole just 
below the banner of deerskin. At the foot of the pole the old man 
placed a birchbark dish. As the boys danced and the old man sang 
a strange thing happened water flowed from the hole in the pole 
and fell into the dish. 1 When it was full fi'niwubVs grandfather 
stopped the dancers and gave them this water to drink. In this 
manner their fast was broken. Both these fasting songs by E'ni- 
wub'e's grandfather were " composed in his dreams/' and the medi- 
cine pole was made to correspond to that which he saw in one of his 
visions. (Compare Me 'dweya 'sun's medicine pole, p. 249.) 

No. 101. Song After a Boy Returns from Fasting 

(Catalogue No. 422) 
Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J 144 
DRUM J 80 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 








Ta - ki - ga - ml 



1 1 






a" 


t^f=*-- J 9J J |"f| | J 


1 * 


1 1" 1 


~ H 


v 


~T 






"** 9 1 , 


W ^ 






^ 








999 ^^ 9 9 9* 9 & & 

nin da-mln - a - 'ig ma- ni- do wa - wa - bu - mlt 



1 A similar practice is said to exist among the Assiniboin of Montana, a medicine-man tracing a zigzag 
line on the Sun-dance pole, drawing his feather fan down this line, and causing water to flow from the pole 
for the refreshment of those taking part in the Sun dance. 



206 BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

WORDS 

taki'gaml' * cool water 

iU J~ " " " ~ " me will give me to drink 

da'mlna'ig J 

manido' manido' 

wawa'bumit where he sees me 

Analysis. The voice tempo is much more rapid in this than in the 
preceding song, while the tempo of the drum remains about the same. 1 
(Compare Nos. 103, 104; 121, 122; also No. 168.) The first measure 
forms a rhythmic unit which occurs four times and clearly influences 
the rhythm of the entire song. The flatted sixth is found twice and 
was given in all of the six renditions of the song; it is not correct in 
intonation, being somewhat less than a semitone above C. The song 
is harmonic in structure and contains the tones of the fourth five- 
toned scale. Attention is directed to the very low note at the close 
of the song; this was sung softly but was clear and approximated 
accuracy of intonation. 

GAME SONGS 

It is the belief of the Chippewa that gambling was taught the 
Indians by a manido' in order to relieve their distress from hunger 
and ill fortune. Three games were taught them for this purpose 
the hand game (onln'jiwatage'wm), the moccasin game (makizm'ata'- 
diwm'), and the plate game (bugese'wm). Songs were sung during 
the first two games, but there was no music with the plate game, as 
the play was very brief and the computing of the score required con- 
siderable time. All these games are played by the Chippewa of the 
present day and are commonly regarded as mere pastimes, but it is 
said that "the older Indians who understand the origin of the games 
and songs still hold them in reverence as a gift from the Manido'." 

The following narrative concerning the origin of gambling was 
given by E'niwub'e (pi. 26): 

Long ago there was a Chippewa who had two wives, each of whom had two children. 
The man was a great hunter and could kill any animal that he desired. He once took 
his family and went on a hunting expedition. They went far away from all other 
Indians. Suddenly one of his children died and the next day another died. He and 
his wives buried them. The third day another child died and on the following day 
the last of his children died. The fourth day one of his wives died and on the follow- 
ing day his other wife died. He buried them both. Then he wondered what would 
become of him. Should he kill himself with his knife or with his arrow? He decided 
not to do so. A death as certain awaited him if he wandered about the country until 
worn out with exhaustion, and he decided on this course. Day after day he walked 
continuously. If he saw water he did not drink, for he was determined to die. He 
staggered on his way until at last he fell and could not rise. His clothing of skins had 

i In his description of Iroquois Music (in Archaeological Report of Ontario 1898, p. 145) Mr. A. T. Cringan 
states: "The rate of movement in the melody may be accelerated or retarded but that of the accompani- 
ment remains constant throughout." 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 




E'NIWUB'E 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 207 

been entirely torn from him. He had lost everything his family, his strength, his 
tattered raiment; at length life itself departed. 

As he lay dead he heard some one coming toward him, stamping heavily on the 
earth. With returning consciousness he saw a man standing before him. The 
stranger was dressed all in black, even to his mittens. The stranger (who was a manido') 
spoke, saying, "Brother, why do you lie here? " He who had been dead then rose to a 
sitting posture. The stranger said, "Brother, let us gamble." The man answered, 
"Very well," though he did not know what game was to be played. The stranger, 
seating himself opposite the man, took a skunk-skin bag from his hip pocket. In this 
were a piece of flint and a small screw-shaped piece of metal used in removing the wad 
from a gun. 1 The stranger tossed the flint to the man, saying, "You may use this; " 
he himself used the piece of metal. 

The stranger showed the man how to play the hand game. Laying his coat across 
his knees, he concealed his hands beneath it; in one hand was the metal object. He 
then passed his closed hands rapidly before his opponent. Skill in the game con- 
sisted in transferring this from one hand to the other while both were closely watched 
by the opponent, who attempted to guess in which hand the object was concealed. 
The man who had been dead won the game from the stranger, although it had just 
been taught him. 2 

The stranger, though defeated by the man who had been dead, asked him to try 
another kind of game. The stranger then took off his moccasins, and, laying them 
on the ground, taught the man to play the moccasin game exactly as it is played by 
the Chippewa at the present time. 3 At this, as well as at the first game, the man 
who had been dead was victorious. 

Then the stranger took from, his belt a small shallow wooden plate, which hung 
there by a cord, and from his tobacco bag some tiny figures made of bone. Placing 
these figures in the plate, he showed the man how to toss them in the air and note 
their positions as they fell. The former dead man was winner in this game also. 4 

After being defeated at the plate game the mysterious stranger rose and said to his 
opponent: "Brother, we will part now. Look, yonder is an Indian village. Go 
there and gamble as I have taught you. I will now tell you who I am. Watch 
me as I depart." 

The man looked up and saw a large black bear walking away from him. The 
bear turned and said, "Brother, do you know me?" and the man answered, "Yes, 
I know now who you are." 

The man then went to the Indian village and began to gamble. According to 
E'niwub'e "the man won back his dead that is, two women and four children 
were staked on the game, and he won; so he felt as though he had the same ones 
back again. " 

i These spiral pieces of metal, ending in a sharp point, called "gun worms," were secured from traders at 
an early day. 

8 The hand game is probably the oldest and most widely distributed of Indian games. Culin states 
(in Twenty-fourth Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 267) that the game has been found among 81 tribes, 
belonging to 28 linguistic stocks, adding : "This extensive distribution maybe partially accounted for 
by the fact that, as it was played entirely by gesture, the game could be carried on between individuals 
who had only the sign language in common." 

According to fi'niwub'e, the hand game, taught by the manido', soon came into general use among 
the Chippewa. The numerous players were seated in two long rows facing each other, while the pile of 
wagered articles, placed between them, was often so high that the opposing players could scarcely look 
over it. The spectators danced around the players, singing the hand game songs. 

3 Ibid., pp. 340-342. 

4 According to Culin, a game or games of this type exist "among 130 tribes, belonging to 30 linguistic 
stocks, and from no one tribe does it appear to have been absent. " (Ibid., p. 45.) The plate game among 
the Chippewa received attention from Schoolcraft (see Oneo'ta, or Characteristics of the Red Race of 
America, New York, 1845, p. 85), whose description of the game and its implements corresponds with 
observations made by the writer on the Leech Lake Reservation, in Minnesota, in 1910. 



,208 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



No. 102. Song of the Hand Game (Catalogue No. 395) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J=120 
DRUM J=120 
( Drum-rhy thin similar to No. 19 ) 










Analysis. This is said to be the identical song which was taught 
by the manido' to the man who had been dead. No words were 
recorded. Drum and voice have the same metric unit but the drum 
is constantly in advance of the voice, seeming to urge it forward. 
The rhythmic unit in the first phrase of the song is once repeated 
accurately, varied somewhat in the third phrase, and disappears 
entirely in the final phrase of the song. Only one tone other than 
those of the tonic triad occurs in the melody. The singer stated that 
when the players "make a guess" in the game it is customary for the 
song to stop at once and for the drum to beat rapidly while the score is 
counted. In illustration of this he interrupted the singing of the song 
with an exclamation and beat the drum very rapidly for several 
seconds; he then resumed the song, beginning at the first measure 
instead of at the measure where he made the pause. This appears in 
the phonographic record of the song. 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



209 



VOICE J-88 
DRUM J 104 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 



No. 103. Moccasin Game Song (a) (Catalogue No. 396) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 

b ' J- 











-^f|r:fa 1^?^ i-~t~[ ?l- 5 ^-^p-^-t-lt-^Zp 

E tt=^t 




=T5: 



^^i 



Analysis. This and the following moccasin game song were said 
to have been taught by the stranger (or manido') to the man who 
had been dead. The stranger taught him to sing these songs in order 
that he might play the game successfully. This song is in 5-4 time. 
The first measure constitutes a rhythmic unit, which is twice repeated 
accurately. The other measures show divisions which closely 
resemble those of the unit but are not complete repetitions. (See 
Nos. 90, 94, 96, 108, 109, 115, 123.) It is interesting to note these 
variations and also to observe the rhythmic effect of the song as a 
whole. The interval of the fourth is prominent in the formation of 
the melody. This is found in many songs concerning animals and it 
will be remembered that the manido' appeared to this man in the 
form of a bear. (See No. 22.) A slow tempo in songs of controlled 
excitement is noted also in Nos. 30, 51, 52, 161. 

07990 Bull. 5313 14 



210 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 104. Moccasin Game Song (b) (Catalogue No. 397) 
Sung by E / NIWUB / E 



VOICE J= 100 
DRUM J-104 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 



" (*s. 













Analysis. This song was said to be sung alternately with the one 
next preceding and was so recorded on the phonograph cylinder. 
The rhythm of the two songs forms a sequence, the first being agitated 
and irregular and the second confident and emphatic but closing 
with a rhythm resembling that of the first. This ending gives unity 
to the group. The drum has the same metric unit in the two songs, 
but the voice is faster in the second song. (See Nos. 100, 101; 121, 
122; also No. 168.) The structure of both songs is characterized 
by the compass of an octave and the interval of the fourth. (See 
No. 22.) 

TJie Moccasin Game 

This game is frequently played by the Chippewa at the present 
time, but has ceased to be a serious occupation and has become a 
mere diversion. The days are past when men sought success in 
dreams and lost or won fortunes in a day. Yet many of the charac- 
teristics of the game remain unchanged. In July, 1910, the writer 
saw a party of Chippewa from Bear Island playing the moccasin 
game with a party from the Leech Lake Agency. One side had won 
11 games and the other had not won a single game, yet from the faces 
of the players it was impossible to tell who had won and who had 
lost. Additional games were scored without change of countenance 
by the winners, while the losers met continued defeat with equal 
stoicism. 

The following incident indicates the manner in which the game 
was formerly regarded : 

It is said that one of the most successful players of the game at Leech Lake in the 
early days obtained the secret of his success from his wife, who returned to him in a, 
dream after death. He had been a gambler for many years before her death and had 
been fairly successful, but after she died he met with nothing but failure until finally 
he lost everything. In despair he went into the woods to fast and "dream." After a 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 27 




HIDING THE BULLETS 




GUESSING THE LOCATION OF THE MARKED BULLET 

MOCCASIN GAME AT WHITE EARTH, MINN. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 28 




HIDING THE BULLETS 




AFTER THE BULLETS ARE HIDDEN 

MOCCASIN GAME AT WHITE EARTH, MINN. 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 211 

time his wife appeared to him and told him that somewhere in the woods were hidden 
four bullets, which would bring him success in the moccasin game, and that he must 
let them lie in the water before using them. Then the man began his search for the 
bullets. He had no further clew to their whereabouts, but he searched constantly, 
wandering in the woods day after day. At last he found four bullets and, as he had 
been directed, placed them in the water at the edge of the lake. He then announced 
that in a certain number of days he would have a moccasin game . By using the bullets 
which had been in the water he won everything and thereafter was always successful. 

With this incident began the custom of soaking the bullets. Many 
players do so now, believing this procedure will bring them success in 
the game. 

It was stated that another successful player had a dream in which 
he saw a row of moccasins and that as he took them up, one after 
another, he found a piece of money under each. This dream gave him 
confidence in his playing of the game. 

Two men may play the game, but the contestants are usually four 
men, two playing as partners against the others. Each side in turn 
hides four bullets under as many moccasins laid in a row on a blanket 
(pis. 27, 28) ; one of the bullets is marked. Skill in the game consists 
in placing the marked bullet in such a manner that it can not be readily 
located by the opposing players. 

Other implements of the game are 20 counting-sticks, each about 
9 inches long, and one slender striking-stick, about 36 inches long. 
The writer has seen a set of moccasin game bullets made of solid 
steel, which were very heavy. Such a set is valued at one blanket. 
In addition to the bullets which are hidden, it is customary for the 
guessing side to use four bullets in indicating its guess, as explained 
below. The qualities required in playing the game are self-control 
and keenness of observation ; the prize is given to him who conceals, 
not to him who discovers. The side which hides the bullets is the 
side which scores. 

There are many involuntary signs which may indicate the placing 
of the marked bullet, and the mannerisms of various players are 
closely studied. Some affect many gesticulations and hide the 
bullets with great rapidity; with others a slight motion of the head, 
a change of facial expression, a slower or a more rapid motion of the 
right hand may accompany the hiding of the marked bullet. It is 
said that some players allow it to slip between the fingers when 
placing it beneath the moccasin. Ki'ose'wini'ni ( u good hunter"), a, 
successful player of the game, said that he always " watched the 
chest of the man who hid the bullets," as a player who could control 
every other muscle would often hold his breath for an instant when 
he placed the marked bullet. He said further that some players 
looked at the moccasin under which they had hidden the bullet, and 
that others as systematically looked at some other moccasin. Still 
others always hold the marked bullet in a certain part of the hand, 



212 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

and a close observer learns to look there for a betraying muscular 
movement. 

In preparation for a moccasin game a blanket is spread on the 
ground, beside which are placed the articles staked on the result of 
the game. A rifle is usually wagered on the result of six consecutive 
games, a blanket on three games, and a shirt .on one game, while a 
beaded bag is staked on two or three games, accordihg to its value. 

Before beginning the game a knife is tossed to decide which side 
shall be first to hide the bullets. On the side which is to hide the 
bullets one player holds a drum; the other lays four moccasins in a 
row on the blanket and takes in his hand the four bullets which he is 
to hide. On the side which is to guess, one player holds the striking- 
stick with which to toss aside the moccasins, and the other, seated at 
his left, holds in his left hand the four bullets with which he will 
indicate his guess. Beside these players are laid the 20 sticks with 
which the score is kept. 

When all is ready the drummer sings a moccasin game song and 
beats the drum while his partner lifts the toe of each moccasin with 
his left hand and slips a bullet under it with his right hand, his 
opponents watching closely to detect some change of manner or facial 
expression when the marked bullet is placed in position. (Pis. 27, 28.) 

If the guessing player who holds the striking-stick is sure that he 
knows under which moccasin the marked bullet is hidden and is 
willing to risk the score on his own judgment, he extends his right 
hand with two fingers spread. In this case his partner does not 
indicate his guess, and if the leading player's guess is correct the score 
is the same as for a " double crack." This course is seldom followed, 
however, usually each of the guessing players deciding where he thinks 
the marked bullet is hidden. 

The guesser holding the bullets slips the marked one into a position 
corresponding to the moccasin under which he thinks the other marked 
bullet is concealed. For instance, if the guesser thinks his opponent 
has hidden the marked bullet under the moccasin next to the right end 
of the row, he places the marked bullet in his own hand between the 
first and second fingers, the position corresponding to that moccasin 
when his open hand is extended toward his opponents. The man 
holding the bullets is allowed only one guess. The man with the 
striking-stick is allowed three guesses; if he tosses aside two mocca- 
sins without disclosing the marked bullet, he may turn another, on 
which the score is made. His partner then indicates his own guess; 
if correct, he opens his hand and shows the marked bullet in the 
right position; if incorrect, he extends his hand with the thumb 
down, meaning "I have guessed wrong " (pi. 29). 

A correct guess by both players is called a " double crack," which 
entitles them to an additional turn at hiding the bullets, provided 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 29 




SIGNAL "I GUESSED WRONG" 




ARRANGEMENT OF BULLETS INDICATING A "GUESS" 

MOCCASIN GAME AT WHITE EARTH, MINN. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



213 



their opponents do not make a " double crack" in the meantime to 
counterbalance the first. The " double crack" is mentioned in the 
words of song No. 175, Bulletin 45. One side continues to hide the 
bullets until the guessing side guesses correctly, after which the score 
is counted. The guesser who holds the striking-stick in his right 
hand holds in his left hand the counting-sticks, at first 20 in number. 
From these sticks each side receives the number to which it is entitled 
by the score. When the counting-sticks which remain are three or 
fewer in number the man holding the bullets does not guess, the 
game depending on the player who holds the striking-stick. If the 
marked bullet is under either moccasin at the end of the row and he 
guesses right, the game is his ; if it is under either of the middle moc- 
casins and he fails to locate it, the game is won by his opponents. 

The score is complicated, depending on the position of the moc- 
casin under which the marked bullet was hidden whether at the 
end or in the middle of the row, also on the number of guesses 
required by the man with the striking-stick in locating the marked 
bullet and on the agreement or disagreement of himself and his part- 
ner in their choice. For instance, if the bullet is under one of the 
middle moccasins and both guessers fail to locate it, the side which 
hid the bullet adds eight counting-sticks to its score. If the bullet 
is in the same location and only one guesser fails to locate it, the 
score is six. 

At the conclusion of each game a stick about 10 inches long is 
stuck into the ground at the edge of the blanket. The stakes are 
settled after the playing of a number of consecutive games agreed on 
in the beginning. 

Dream Songs Lac du Flambeau Reservation 
MELODIC ANALYSIS 



TONALITY 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Major 


2 


96 101 


Minor ,,.. 


9 


94 95 97 98 99 100 102 103 104 








Total 


11 











BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos 


of songs 


On the twelfth 


2 


94, 101 




On the fifth . . 


3 


95, 99, 102 




On the octave 


4 


97, 98, 103, 104 




On the fourth 


1 


96 




On the third 


1 


100 












Total 


11 















214 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

ENDINGS OF SONGS 



[BULL. 53 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



On the tonic 8 94,97,98,99, 100, 101, 103, 104 

Onthefifth 3 95,96,102 

Total 11 

TONE MATERIAL 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Second five-toned scale 1 97 

Fourth five-toned scale 2 98,101 

Minor triad and sixth 1 94 

Minor triad and fourth 3 95,102,104 

Octave complete except seventh 1 96 

Octave complete except seventh and second 1 99 

Octave complete except sixth 1 103 

Octave complete except sixth and fourth 1 100 

Total 11 

ACCIDENTALS 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs containing no accidentals 9 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 104 

Songs containing the seventh raised a semitone 1 100 

Songs containing the sixth lowered a semitone 1 101 

Total 11 

STRUCTURE 

WMI 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Harmonic 3 97, 98, 101 

Purely melodic 8 94, 95 r 96, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104 

Total 11 

FIRST PROGRESSIONS 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Downward 8 94, 95, 96, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104 

Upward 3 97,98, 101 

Total 11 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 
PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 



215 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



On accented part 11 94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104 

On unaccented part None 

Total 11 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs beginning in 2-4 time 7 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102, 104 

Songs beginning in 3-4 time 3 94,100,101 

Songs beginning in 5-4 time 1 103 

Total 11 

CHANGE OF TIME 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs containing a change .of time 11 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104 

Songs containing no change of time None 

Total 11 

RHYTHMIC UNIT 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs containing a rhythmic unit 9 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104 

Songs containing no rhythmic unit 2 96,100 

Total 11 

COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 

Number Serial Nos. of songs 

Metric unit of voice and drum the same 4 94, 95, 98, 102 

Metric unit of voice and drum different 7 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104 

Total... 11 



216 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

LOVE SONGS 1 
No. 105. "Go with Me" (Catalogue No. 400) 



Sung by E / NIWUB / E 



VOICE J-72 
Recorded without drum 




Ma - dja - ya - ni - ne ma 



dja - ya - ni - ne 



ma - 



C\ O (* 













dja - ya - ni - ne ma 



dja -ya-ni - ne ma 




dja - ya - ni - ne ma 



dja - ya- ni - ne ki - ga - mi-nin go- cu 







ga - bi - zi - ka-mun ma- dja - ya-ni - ne 



ina 



dja - ya-ni -ne 



WORDS 



madja / yanine / when I go 

ki'gami'nln I will give you 

gocu x surely 

gabi / zika / mun what you will wear 

wi'djiwiyun' if you go with me 

Analysis. This is the only love song in the present series that can 
be called a "courting song," unless the "Song of an ambitious 
mother" (No. 112) be included under this head. The last word was 
not sung, but was given by the singer as one of the words of the 
song. The progressions are characterized by the interval of the 
fourth, which has been noted in other songs concerning motion (see 
No. 22). In several instances the intervals were sung glissando, a 
feature which can be indicated only imperfectly in musical notation. 
The metric unit is slow and not rigidly maintained by the singer, all 
the Chippewa love songs being sung somewhat rubato. The rhythmic 
unit, which is clear, occurs three times; it comprises the entire song 
except the third section, in which a change of words is found. (See 
Nos. 1, 8, 12, 13, 30, 39, 40, 81.) The melody is distinctly major in 
tonality and contains an indefinable element of pleading. After 
singing the song as transcribed the singer repeated the various 

1 See p. 41. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



217 



phrases and sections in an irregular order, seeming to sing them as 
suggested by his fancy. 



VOICE J=72 
Kecorded without drum 

F-m - -+- 



No. 106. "Do not Weep" 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 



(Catalogue No. 401) 






Ca-i-gwu ni-ma - dja ca - i-gwu ni-ma - dja ca- i-gwu ni-ma- dja 




ca-'i - gwu ni-ma - dja ke- go- su ma-wi - kSn ke-go-su ma-wi- 




ken ca-'i - gwu ni-ma - dja 



ca - 1 - gwu. ni - ma 



WORDS 



caigwu 7 now 

nimadja / I go 

ke'gosu' do not 

ma'wiken 7 weep 

Analysis. This melody is transcribed in the key of C minor, 
although the third of that key occurs only next to the last note of the 
song. The descending fourths C-G, F-O mark the broad outlines of 
the melody, which has a compass of an octave. It will be noted that 
the same octave represents the compass of the preceding song, but 
the two melodies are in different keys. (See Nos. 95, 96.) As in 
the preceding song, the interval of the fourth is of frequent occurrence. 
(See No. 22.) The rhythmic unit, which occurs five times, is accu- 
rately repeated. The prominence of the subdominant is noted in 
this and in other songs of sadness. (See Nos. 109, 110, 170.) 



218 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 107. "You Desire Vainly" (Catalogue No. 430) 



VOICE J 92 
Recorded without drum 



Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 



- +. _CV : _)*_ . 



-^=^= 

3 d 




Gi - da - ga 



daft 



dji - mi ~ su - wi - no - 



-- -- -9- 

_L_(t_ r : JZ^^^a * 







gi-da-ga-wa - dan dji- ml - sti-wl-no-nan 




a - ui - ca 



gi - ci - me 



ba- on- dji - I - ka 



yan 



WORDS 



gi / daga / wadan / .................... you desire vainly 

djYmisuw^nonan 7 ................. that I seek you 

a / nica / ............................. the reason is 

gici x me ............................ I come 



to see your younger sister 

Analysis. The three recorded renditions of this song differ only in 
the length of the prolonged tone in the fifth and sixth measures, one 
rendition giving this tone the value of four instead of five quarter 
notes. The rhythm of the song is smooth and flowing, the irregular 
divisions blending in an effective whole. The song is distinctly 
minor in tonality and freely melodic in structure. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 108. "He is Gone" 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 



219 

(Catalogue No. 431) 



VOICE J 92 
Recorded without drum 



' 4*. ^.^- -*- *_ s N ' H5L -*--- ^^>. , 



Na - nin-a - nSn - da-wen-dum 

t 



na - nin-a - nSn - da-wen- 






3I3EEE EE: SEE 




dum nin - da 



ya nin - ga-cken-dum 



gi - nia-djad nin - 







i - mu - ce 



nanin'anen'dawen'dum 



WORDS 



nannr anen' aawen' aum > 

ninda' }l might grieve 

ninga / cken / dum. I am sad 

gr'niadjad 7 that he is gone 

nin / imu / ce my lover 

It was said that this song was sung by either a man or a woman 
whose lover was dead. 

Analysis. This song contains 29 measures and comprises five 
periods of irregular lengths. The rhythmic unit occurs only three 
times, but it is interesting to observe that the rhythm of the inter- 
vening parts of the song resembles the rhythm of this unit. For 
instance, in the phrase which includes measures 6 to 13 we note that 
the opening and the close of the phrase correspond to the beginning 
and the end of the unit, respectively, but the phrase contains eight 
measures while the unit contains only five. (See Nos. 90, 94, 96, 103, 
109, 115, 123.) Two consecutive syllables of the third word are 
equally accented. 



220 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 109. "I am Thinking of Her" (Catalogue No. 442) 

Sung by MEC / KWAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J=92 
Recorded without drum 







WORDS (FREE TRANSLATION) 

I sit here thinking of her 
I am sad as I think of her 

Analysis. This was said to be a particularly old song. It contains 
an unusual number of intervals of a whole tone 14 (58 per cent) of 
the 24 intervals in the song. Keference to Tables Nos. 11 and 12 
will show that only 42 per cent of the ascending, and 35 per cent 
of the descending, intervals in the 340 songs under analysis are 
intervals of a second, either a whole tone or a semitone. The promi- 
nence of the subdominant is noted in this, as in other songs of 
sadness. (See Nos. 106, 110, 170). The melody tones are those 
of the second five-toned scale. The rhythmic unit, although repeated 
only once, clearly influences the rhythm of the entire song. (See 
Nos. 90, 94, 96, 103, 108, 115, 123.) The interval of the fourth in the 
formation of a melody is considered in the analysis of No. 22. 

No. 110. "Weeping for My Love" (Catalogue No. 443) 

Sung by DJI / SIA / S!NO / KWE ("DECEIVING WOMAN ") 
VOICE J-92 
Recorded without drum 














DENS MOKE J 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



221 



WORDS (FREE TRANSLATION) 
I go around weeping for my love 

Analysis. The three recorded renditions of this song vary slightly 
in the length of the sustained tones. The transcription is from the 
second rendition. The rhythmic unit, which is long, occurs four 
times. The middle part of the song contains progressions similar to 
those of the unit, but having a different rhythm. All the tones of 
the octave are contained in the song, which is melodic 'in structure. 
The subdominant is given special prominence. (Compare Nos. 106, 
109, 170.) The interval of the fourth appears in the formation of the 
melody (see No. 22). 

No. 111. "Come, Let Us Sing" (Catalogue No. 444) 

Sung by DJI / SIA / SINO / KWE 
VOICE J 96 
Recorded without drum 











WORDS 



umbe'bma .................. come, I beseech you 

nagumo'da ................... let us sing 

wegonen'wfindji'da ........... why are you offended? 

Analysis. This song consists of three parts, the first two chiefly 
in double, and the last in triple, time. There is no rhythmic unit, 
and the rhythm of the song as a whole is smooth and graceful. The 
wide intervals suggest to the eye a certain awkwardness not present, 
however, in the rendition by the Indian singer, who sang the melody 
with sweetness and good intonation. The words, which were sung 
indistinctly, are not transcribed. The interval of the fourth occurs 
frequently in the middle part of the song (see No. 22). 



222 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



No. 112. Song of an Ambitious Mother 



VOICE J-176 
Recorded without drum 

I 



Sung by Mrs. GAUTHIER 1 



(Catalogue No. 445) 




j j E-l|=vHV "| \-^ =1 =1 Ej 

- & L- . i?e | i 9 9 * a 



-*- -*- * -*~ 

Nin nun - do - da - ma - ge - nun nin nun - do - da - ma - 




m 



^j=U-U_U=Jzr1;Ji 



ge - nun Bu - gac o - da - nun nin - gt - tct i - nin - a - kik 







iHfl 



nin - gl - tci nin - a - kik 



o - gl 



mi - gi - we - nun 



WORDS 



am asking for 
nundo'damage'nun J 

Bugac 7 Bugac/'s 

oda'nun daughter 

ningitci' my big 

inin'akik 2 brass kettle 

ogimi / giwe / nun he is giving 

The singer stated that this song was a memory of her earliest child- 
hood, when she heard her mother sing it. A brass kettle is said to 
have been one of the first manufactured articles secured by the Chip- 
pewa and was a highly valued possession. The words of the song 
suggest that the woman singer is bestowing her own property, yet 
the last line indicates that in doing so she is representing her son. 

Analysis. This song begins and ends on the same tone, a peculi- 
arity found in only II songs of the series of 340, namely, Nos. 132, 
142, 149, 150, 170, 174, 197 in Bulletin 45 and Nos. 53, 112, 125, 127 
of the present work, No. 1 27 being a duplicate of No. 1 49 in Bulletin 
45. All these songs begin and end on the tonic. This is one of the 
comparatively few songs composed by women (see Nos. 31, 39, 40, 
127, 151, 177, 178). The last measure of the rhythmic unit varies 
slightly in its repetitions, a measure being added in the second occur- 
rence of the unit. A peculiarity of this song is that it contains only 

1 Mrs. Benjamin Gauthier (see pi. 30), who sang this song, is known also by her Chippewa name 
Bl'tawagi'jlgo'kwe ("double sky woman"). She is a granddaughter of Ginlc'tano ("wind-bound"), who 
was chief of the Ma'nltowlc' and Bimidjlg'amag bands of Wisconsin Chippewa, and who several times 
visited Washington with tribal delegations. Mrs. Gauthier is a progressive member of the Lac du Flam- 
beau village, but retains her interest in tribal traditions and customs. 

2 Said to be a compound of the words inVnl ("man") and wa'blk ("metal"), the large brass kettles 
obtained from the traders in the early days being called "man-kettles." 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 30 




MRS. BENJAMIN GAUTHIER 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 31 




CHIPPEWA DRESS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 32 




SLEEVE (ABOVE) AND LEGGING-CHIPPEWA 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 53 PLATE 33 




CHIPPEWA SASH 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 53 PLATE 34 




CHIPPEWA HEADBAND 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 35 




CHIPPEWA MOCCASIN (PRESENT STYLE) 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 36 




CHIPPEWA MOCCASIN (OLD PATTERN) 



DENSMOBB] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 223 

the first, second, fifth, and sixth tones of the diatonic scale, the third 
being omitted. This is fully considered in the analysis of No. 53. 
The interval of the fourth is prominent and has been noted in other 
songs concerning motion (see No. 22). Thus we find in the analysis 
of this melody a peculiarity noted in other songs composed by women 
and in other songs concerning motion. 

At the time this song was used the Chippewa women were wearing 
the old, tribal style of dress. Mrs. Gauthier recalle'd her mother's 
description of this dress, and the costume she wears (pi. 30) was made 
under her own direction, no fewer than seven Chippewa women con- 
tributing their skill. The several parts of the costume (dress, sleeves, 
leggings, sash, headband, and moccasins) are shown in plates 31-35. 
Before securing broadcloth the Chippewa made a garment of similar 
design from a blanket. E'niwub'e offered to explain this to the 
writer and requested his wife to stand while he put a blanket 
around her, fastening it at the waist with a scarf and arranging long 
folds under each arm to dispose of the fullness. His wife merrily 
agreed that he remembered the dress she wore when they both were 
young. The surplus length of the blanket was folded over and allowed 
to hang loosely on the chest, the garment being held in place by 
shoulder bands. In the old days the only ornamentation was on this 
piece which hung over the chest, the depth of which depended on the 
height of the person. Later, when broadcloth was used for the gar- 
ment, this was replaced by a strip of that material, beaded, and still 
later by beaded velvet. The sash worn by Mrs. Gauthier is of yarn, 
woven in an ancient manner by the wife of E'niwub'e, the singer. 

A somewhat later type of Chippewa woman's dress is shown in plate 
16. This costume is decorated at the hem of the skirt, a style said to 
be comparatively recent, and the sleeves, instead of being separate, 
are joined together in the back to form a short jacket. The floral 
designs which form the decoration of Mrs. Gauthier's costume (pis. 
30, 32, 35) are typical of the designs in use among the Chippewa at 
the present time, which are frequently copied from natural leaves 
and flowers. Similar designs appear in plates 11, 20, and 39. A 
floral design said to be older than these may be seen on the sleeve 
pieces of the woman's costume in plate 16; these pieces were brought 
from Mille Lac many years ago. It is said that geometric designs 
preceded floral patterns among the Chippewa. Perhaps the simplest 
of the former was the "zigzag pattern," which is shown on the piece 
across the chest, in the woman's costume in plate 16 and also on the 
ma'kuk (pi. 37). The "star pattern" is said to have been originally 
a dream symbol (pi. 33). The decoration on Odjlb'we's war drum 
also was the outcome of a dream (see p. 62). 

Plate 35 shows the type of moccasin now in use among the Chip- 
pewa, and plate 36 the type from which some writers have believed 



224 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



that the tribe derived its name, many Indians holding the same 
opinion (see footnote *, p. 59). In figure 4 is shown a pattern, cut 
by the aged woman at Lac du Flambeau who made the moccasins. 
Speaking through an interpreter, she said that in the old days they 
had no shears and cut the deerskin with a knife. No pattern was 
used, as they " just made a covering for the feet and gathered it up." 
She said that she sewed the moccasin up the instep and " piped it 
to hold it firm," the shortest of the three strips being used for that 
purpose. She then moistened the moccasin on the inside and molded 
the outline with the back of a knife placed inside the moccasin. 
The gathered front also was moistened with tepid water and flattened 
by pressing it on her knee. The seam up the back was curved below 
the heel, leaving the small triangle of deerskin. She cut patterns for 
two strips to be used in fastening the moccasin, but one long strip was 
used in the pair illustrated, being passed through two little slits at the 
front of the instep and tied, leaving the long ends to be passed 




FIG. 4. Pattern of moccasins. 

around the ankle and tied at the back when the moccasin was worn. 
In the old days, when deerskin -was plentiful, the moccasins were 
cut in one piece; it is said that one deerskin would make only two 
pairs of moccasins. In the pair illustrated the flaps are separate from 
the feet. The sewing was done with sinew, according to the old 
custom. 

After much discussion and with no little hesitation on her part, a 
blind woman sang the following song, which was recorded by the 
phonograph. 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 113. Love Song 



225 

(Catalogue No. 446) 



Sung by O'GABEA'SINO'KWE ("WOMAN OF THE BREEZE THAT BLOWS TO THE END") 

VOICB Jr=160 

Recorded without drum 






Nin-ga - da - wi - ga - ga - no - 



nin- i -mu - ce 




> 

i-ga-da - wl-ga-ga-no - na bi - ji - go - kwe 






niii - ga - da - wi - ga - ga - no - na bi - jl - go - kwe 



fcfc 



I*I*=* 



*-& 



nin - i - mu - ce 



nin-ga-wl-ga - ga-no - na 






bi - jl - go - kwe 



- gi - a 



WORDS 



nin - i - mu - cc 



ningadawi / gagano / na I will go and talk with 

nin'imu'ce my sweetheart 

bi / jigo / kwe the widow 

sagiii 7 I love 

nin'imu'ce. : my sweetheart 

bi / jlgo / kwe the widow 

Analysis. The metric unit is more rapid in this than in most of the 
love songs, but this is compensated for by the frequent occurrence of 
prolonged tones. All the tones of the octave except the third occur 
in the song, which is freely melodic in structure. (See No. 53.) 
67996 Bull. 5313 15 



226 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Love Songs Lac du Flambeau Reservation 
MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 



[BULL. 53 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Major 3 105, 112, 113 

Minor 6 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111 

Total 

BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 

Serial Nos. 

On the octave. 4 106, 107, 109, 111 

On the seventh 1 113 

On the fifth 4 105, 108, 110,112 

Total 

ENDINGS OF SONGS 

Number 
of songs 

On the tonic 5 106, 107, 109, 110, 111 

On the fifth 4 105, 108, 112, 113 

Total 9 

TONE MATERIAL 

^ Serial Nos. of songs 

Second five-toned scale 2 108,109 

Octave complete 1 105 

Octave complete except seventh and sixth 2 106, 111 

Octave complete except fourth 1 no 

Octave complete except third 1 113 

Octave complete except second 1 107 

First, second, fifth, and sixth tones 1 112 

Total 

ACCIDENTALS 

Serial Nos. of songs 
Songs containing no accidentals , 9 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113 



DENSMOHE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



227 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

STRUCTURE 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Harmonic None 

Purely melodic 9 105,106,107,108, 109, 110, 111,112,113 

Total 9 

FIRST PROGRESSION 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Downward 4 106, 107, 108, 111 

Upward 5 105,109,110,112,113 

Total 9 

RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 

PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 

Number Serial Nos. of songs 

On accented part 4 106,108,112,113 

On unaccented part 5 105,107,109,110,111 

Total 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 

Serial Nos. of songs 

- O 

Songs beginning in 2-4 time 4 107,108,110,111 

Songs beginning in 3-4 time. 5 105, 106, 109, 112, 113 

Total 

CHANGE OF TIME 

Serial Nos. 

Songs containing a change of time 9 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113 

Songs containing no change of tune None 

Total... ... 9 



228 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

RHYTHMIC UNIT 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 




6 


105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 112 




3 


107, 111, 113 








Total 


9 











NOTE. No drum was used in connection with love songs. 

BEGGING DANCE SONGS 1 

The first of the following group of songs used in the begging dance 
is said to have come from the Assinniboin, or Rock Sioux, many 
years ago. The dance also was derived from the same tribe but has 
been practised among the Chippewa for so many generations that it 
may be regarded as one of their tribal dances. This song was said 
to be connected with the origin of the dance. 

E'niwub'e stated that it was the custom among the Sioux to lay a 
new-born baby boy on the ground about as far from the wigwam 
door as the dogs usually lie. A place was made comfortable for the 
child, who did not enter the wigwam until he could creep, when it 
was said that he "entered the wigwam as the dogs enter." While 
the child lay on the ground outside the door the dogs' formed a circle 
around him with their heads toward him, and their breath helped to 
keep him warm. It was said that the dogs gave this song to a boy 
during the time that he spent among them. E'niwub'e said that the 
dogs did not sing the song but willed the boy to know it and he did. 
When the latter reached manhood he went from camp to camp sing- 
ing this song, followed by the dogs. In his hand he carried a rattle 
of deer hoofs which he shook as he sang. When he finished the song 
he was given food and his dogs also were fed. This was the origin 
of the begging dance. In its later use it was considered a legitimate 
way for 'the needy members of the tribe to secure food and was also 
practised for pleasure. A begging dance could be started at any 
time, a leader and a small company going from one wigwam to 
another, dancing and singing. If the occupants of the wigwam were 
asleep the dancers entered and danced around their fire. The people 
then arose and gave them food, for those who danced the begging 

i See p. 171, Bulletin 45, and p. 47 of the present work. 



DBNSMORB] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



229 



dance were never refused. If the people had no cooked food, the 
visitors took such provisions as they had, placing them in a birch- 
bark bag which an old woman carried for the purpose. 



No. 114. Song of the Dogs 

Sung by E / NIWI)B / E 



(Catalogue No. 403) 



VOICE J-84 
DRUM J=92 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 







A - ni - mo-kan-ug nin-ga- wi - 






WORDS 



dji - wi- gog 



a'nimokan'ug the 

ningawi'djiwigog 7 will go with me 

Analysis. In structure this song is classified as melodic with har- 
monic framework. It contains no rhythmic unit and the tune was 
not steadily maintained. It is interesting to note that a variation in 
time occurs on corresponding measures in the four renditions of the 
song. 



230 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 115. "Here I Come Again" (Catalogue No. 438) 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J=84 
DRUM J 84 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. IP) 




Ca - i'- gwu mi - na- wa ni - ga- bi-dwe- we-dum o - gi - tci-da - dog 




dum 



o - gi - tci - da - dog e ca - 'i -gwu ml - na 




WORDS 



ca'igwu' here 

mlnawa 7 I come again 

ni'gabidwe'wediim howling as I come 

ogi'tcida'dog l you warriors 

Analysis. Those who take part, in the begging dance represent 
themselves as dogs, using the term (pgi'tMa'dog] which dogs are sup- 
posed to use toward their masters. 

The first two measures of this song comprise the rhythmic unit. 
These are followed by a triple measure containing the note-values of 
the rhythmic unit but showing a change of accent. (Compare Nos. 
90, 94, 96, 103, 108, 109, 123.) The ninth measure contains a 
peculiar rhythm which does not vary in the six renditions of the 
song; the first tone of the triplet is accented, and the note-values are 
steadily maintained. The song contains all the tones of the octave 
and is purely melodic in structure. 

i Ogl'tcida (from Sioux aki'tita, warrior) is a word which has come into common use among the Chip- 
pewa. The ending dog in the case of a noun is a vocative, having a different significance than when used 
with a verb (see No. 84). For other instances of words from Indian languages incorporated, with some 
modification, into Chippewa, see pp. 76, 186, 190. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 53 PLATE 37 





MA'KUK FOR MAPLE SUGAR 



DENS MORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 116. "Maple Sugar" 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE J 88 
DBUM J 88 
(Drum-rhythiu similar to No. 19) 

r 



5F=t^ 



231 

(Catalogue? No. 439) 



_,. -Jt .ML. +JL . '.- ,... f . ^_ ^ 

=t=qFS= FP FtJ -t= 



HI 













Sin - zi-ba-kwat e - ta me-no - ka - go-yan 






WORDS 

sm'ziba'kwat maple sugar 

e'ta , is the only thing 

me / noka / goyan / that satisfies me l 

Analysis, This song contains the tones* G, A, C, D, E. Although 
the song begins and ends on D, the tone acceptable to the ear as a 
keynote is G. The tone material thus comprises the tones of a major 
scale lacking the third and seventh, a sequence of tones designated 
by Helmholtz 2 as the first five-toned scale. Other songs lacking the 
third are considered in the analysis of No. 53. The influence of the 
rhythmic unit is evident throughout the song, though the variation 
of the phrases is less interesting than in the group of songs mentioned 
in connection with No. 90. 

The maple sap (sinziba'kwadwabo') is boiled into sirup (jiwagum'- 
izigtin) and then prepared in three forms, the most common being 
the grained sugar (nasa'igtin}, which is stored in ma'Tcfiks (pi. 37), 
varying in size from very small ones to large ones holding 20 pounds 
or more. With the covers sewed down the ma'Tctiks afford a con- 
venient method of storing the sugar. In the old days they were 

1 A pail or ma'k&k of maple sugar was a gift highly valued by those who joined in the begging dance. 

2 In Sensations of Tone, p. 260. 



232 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



sewed with spruce roots. The " molded sugar" (zi'gctigfai) was packed 
in cones of birch bark (fig. 5) fastened with tiny wooden pegs and 

hung by narrow strips 
of bark ; several of these 
cones were sometimes 
hung together. A 
duck's bill was fre- 
quently used to hold 
the " molded sugar." 
A third method of pre- 
paring the sugar was 
in the form of a sticky 
gum or " taffy" (Ugl- 
yuwl' ziguri) , which was 
placed in small folded 
packets of birch bark 
and tied with strips of 
the bark. At the close 
of the sugar-making 
the Chippewa went to 
their summer camps 
(pi. 38), which were usually situated on the shores of lakes. In the 
illustration a man is shown mending his canoe by holding a charred 
stick near the pitch which covers the seams; the heat softens the 
pitch so that it can be rubbed into the seams with the fingers, making 
them watertight. 




FIG. 5. Birch-bark cone filled with maple sugar. 



No. 117. "My Travels" 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 

VOICE J 88 
DRUM J - 88 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



(Catalogue No. 440) 









A - ga-wa - ni - gi-ken - dan be - ba - ma - di - zi-yan e a he 




UJ 



DENS MORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 233 

WORDS 

aga'wanigikendan' I can scarcely remember 

bebama / diziyan / my travels 

Analysis. The words of this song suggest that the singer is 
emphasizing his need of food by referring to the length of his journey. 
This song contains no rhythmic unit but is characterized by a six- 
teenth note at the beginning of the measure, followed by a dotted 
eighth. Double and triple measures alternate throughout the song. 
This succession of measure-lengths is uniform in the several renditions 
on the phonograph cylinder. The song is purely melodic in structure 
and contains the tones of the fourth five-toned scale. 

No. 118. Song of Thanks for Food (Catalogue No. 441) 
Sung by MEC/KAWIGA'BAU 

VOICE J 120 
DRUM J-138 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 




Analysis. This song marks the close of the begging dance at a 
house and is sung only once. The people have eaten the food given 
them and sing this before proceeding on their way. 

The rhythmic unit occurs in the opening measures and also at the 
close of the song. The fourth and fifth measures bear resemblance 
to the rhythmic unit, but show a change of time from double to triple. 
The song contains only the tones of the major triad and sixth, and 
would be classified as harmonic in structure except for the accented F 
in the fourth measure from the close. Eleven renditions of the song 
were recorded, which are identical in every respect. 



234 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

SOUTHERN DANCE SONGS * 

No. 119 (Catalogue No. 404) 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 



VOICE J=144 
DRUM J = 120 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 





Analysis. In this song the metric unit of the drum is slower than 
that of the voice. The melody contains all the tones of the octave, 
an unusual feature in songs of minor tonality. In one measure we 
find C sharp, which characterizes the key of D minor in musical 
usage. The other measures contain C natural, giving a whole- tone 
between 7 and 8 (see Nos. 9, 50, 85, 100, 124). The rhythmic unit 
consists of two parts, the first of .which contains four measures and is 
based on the descending fifth D-G, while the second part contains a 
short answering phrase on D in the lower octave. The melody is 
unusually pleasing and effective. 



i See pp. 45,129. 



PENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 120. "Invite Our Sweetheart" 

Sung by !/NiwftB / E 



235 

(Catalogue No. 405) 



VOICE ^=184 
DRUM J 116 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 






A-wi-nun-do-ma-keg a-wi-nun-do-ma - keg ki ni-mu - ce - nan o - 



gl - tci-min-wen - da go - cu o ca - wun -o - ka - zi - win o 




gi - tci-mm-wen - da go - cu o ca - wun - o - ka - zi - win 



WORDS 

a / winuii / doma / keg ............ go and invite 

ki ........................... our 

nin / imuce / nan .......... , ..... sweetheart 

ogftciminwei/da ............. she enjoys 

gocu 7 ........................ truly 

ca / wunoka / ziwlii ............. the dance called ca / wuno / ga 

Analysis. In this, as in the preceding song, the metric unit of the 
drum is slower than that of the voice. Five renditions of the song 
were recorded, the peculiar rhythm being steadily maintained. The 
song is harmonic in structure, the melody moving along the intervals 
of the chord of G minor. The first progression is a major third (see 
Nos. 1, 9, 34, 83, 94). There is no rhythmic unit after the fourth 
measure, yet the song as a whole has a rhythmic swing. 



236 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



No. 121. Southern Dance Song (Catalogue No; 413) 

Sung by E / NIWUB / E 
VOICE J 96 
DRUM J 96 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 
(1) 



n* 






EfcE 










Analysis. The singer stated that this and the following song were 
always sung together and at his request they were recorded consecu- 
tively on the phonograph cylinder. Throughout this song a double 
measure follows a triple measure, the accent being so clearly defined 
that the two can not be combined in a 5-4 measure. Two rhythmic 
units are contained in the song, the division of the last measure 
being somewhat similar in the two but each having a character of 
its own. It is said that "the Indians were so carried away with 
the ca'wuno'ga that frequently they danced all night." The songs 
of this dance contain a rhythm which would tend to produce this 
result. Each song was sung an indefinite number of times, with no 
interruption of the time. 



No. 122. Southern Dance Song 

Sung by E'NIWUB'E 
VOICE J^ 200 
DRUM J 96 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 

'1 



(Catalogue No. 414) 







DENS MORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 237 

Analysis. Between the recording of this and the preceding song 
the pause was sufficient only for the prolonged call with which an 
Indian frequently closes a song. It is impossible to transcribe this 
call, or ejaculation, which begins on a high tone and descends glis- 
sando, the syllables being yu-u-u, wa! Sometimes such a close is 
given with the syllables wa-a-a, W accompanied by a rapid beating 
of the drum. 

This song contains tne same drumbeat as the preceding; the voice- 
rhythm is more rapid than in the preceding song, and can be meas- 
ured only by an eighth note as the metric unit. (See Nos. 100, 101; 
103, 104; also No. 168.) Five renditions of the song were recorded 
and the metric unit was steadily maintained, the only difference in 
the renditions being that the last phrase was omitted from the first 
three. Comparison with the preceding song will show the rhythmic 
unit of each to consist of triple followed by double time, but in the 
first song there is one, and in the second there are two, double meas- 
ures. The dance seems to gather speed until it ends in a veritable 
whirlwind, but through it all the stolid drum retains its even, mod- 
erate beat. 

SONGS CONCERNING THE GIFT OF A PONY 

When the people at a dance hear the following song they know that 
a pony is to be given away. A man dances around the drum with a 
little stick in his hand with which he whips an imaginary pony ; then 
he presents this stick to a friend, the actual transfer of the pony 
taking place later. 

It sometimes happens that the people are slow in volunteering to 
part with their ponies. In that event the head drummer may start 
this song and one of the assembly may present a beaded suit to a 
man who owns a particularly desirable pony. The proper return for 
this gift is a pony and in this manner the presentation of one may be 
forced. All who have given away ponies join in the dance and if 
others dance at this time they are required to part with their ponies. 



238 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



No. 123. Song Accompanying the Gift of a Pony 

(Catalogue No. 435) 
Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 

VOICE J 96 

DRUM J-100 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 






liztedfci=p^p= 

35SEEE 



EEHS^ 



( f-Mi- 

Si 







Analysis. This song opens with a two-measure phrase, which is 
repeated. This is followed by a phrase of two measures, which reap- 
pears near the close of the song. The first phrase is not regarded as 
a rhythmic unit, as it is found only at the opening and does not 
influence the rhythm of the remainder of the song. The second 
phrase has an evident relation to the rhythm of the entire song, 
measures 7 and 11 containing a division of the count similar to that 
in the first part of the unit, and the third measure from the close 
containing the sixteenth followed by a dotted eighth note, which 
characterizes the latter part of the unit. (See Nos. 90, 94, 96, 
103, 108, 109, 115.) The song is minor in tonality and contains only 
the tones of the minor triad and fourth. 

The man who has received the pony-stick leads the dance as the 
following song is sung, carrying the stick in his hand. All who have 
ever given away ponies dance with him, many holding up fingers to in- 
dicate the total number of ponies thus presented at various dances. 






DENS MOKE j 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



239 



No. 124. Song of Thanks for the Gift of a Pony 

(Catalogue No. 436) 
Sung by MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 

VOICE J 96 

DRUM j = 100 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

















Analysis. This song is particularly rhythmic. The unit of rhythm 
is in double time and is repeated once, followed by a section in triple 
time in which is noted the triplet in the first count of the measure 
which characterized the rhythmic unit. The song is minor in tonality 
and contains a whole tone between 7 and 8 (see Nos. 9, 50, 85, 100, 
119). 

MOCCASIN GAME SONGS 



This and the following song are ordinary songs of the game, and 
no dream origin is attributed to them (compare Nos. 103, 104). 



240 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



No. 125. Moccasin Game Song (Catalogue No. 410) 
Sung by I/NIWUB'E 

VOICE J-84 
DRUM J = 92 

( See drum-rhythm below ) 

r 




Drum-rhythm 






Analysis. This song is minor in tonality and contains the first, 
second, third, fifth, and sixth tones of the diatonic minor scale, a 
tone material occurring in only three other songs of the series of 340 
(see Nos. 178 and 184 of Bulletin 45, and No. 83 of the present work). 
This is of special interest, as the omitted tones are the same intervals 
as in the fourth five-toned scale, which is major in tonality. The 
melody begins with an upward progression of an octave (see Nos. 170 
and 174 of Bulletin 45, and Nos. 9, 31, 53 of the present book); it 
also begins and ends on the same tone (see No. 53). The rhythmic 
unit is steadily repeated except in two measures in which the division 
of the last count is changed, this slight change giving character to a 
melody which otherwise would be monotonous. The entire song is 
in triple time. Four renditions were recorded, the repetitions usu- 
ally succeeding each other without a long closing tone. Such a tone 
is indicated in the transcription, but appears only once on the pho- 
nograph cylinder. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 39 





CHIPPEWA CRADLE-BOARDS 



DENS. MO RE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



No. 126. Moccasin Game Song 

Sung by MEC / KAWIGA / BAU 
VOICE Jrr96 
DRUM Jrrl04 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 125) 

... *..r7T~ 



241 

(Catalogue No. 427) 




Analysis. This song is based on the tones of the minor triad. 
The rhythmic unit occurs seven times, with a slight variation in the 
division of the first count. The speed of the phonograph was greatly 
reduced in order to test this variation, which was found to be clearly 
and uniformly given throughout the several renditions. The intona- 
tion on the sixteenth notes occurring at the close of the measures was 
uncertain, these being given with a "toss of the voice." 

SONG FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT OF CHILDREN * 

No. 127. Lullaby (Catalogue No. 447) 

Sung by O / GABEA / S!NO / KWE 

VOICE J 96 

Recorded without drum 




we we we we we 



we we we we we 



we we we 



Analysis. The only two songs which the Lac du Flambeau Chip- 
pewa were found to have in common with the White Earth Chippewa 
are the lullaby and the song accompanying the folk tale of We'nabo'jo 
and the ducks (Bulletin 45, No. 197). This lullaby was first recorded 
at White Earth, Minnesota (see ibid., p. 193). On comparing the 
two transcriptions it will be seen that the first four measures are 
identical and that the latter parts differ, though both renditions end 
on the same tone. This is one of the few songs composed by women 
(see Nos. 31, 39, 40, 112, 151, 177, 178). No words are used in this 
song, wewe 2 being continuously repeated. 

1 See also songs Nos. 51, 52, 53, 179, 180. 

2 Wewe -is a root, the meaning of which implies a swinging motion; thus, wewe'Uzun signifies a child's 
swing or hammock. The writer has frequently seen a Chippewa mother put her baby, still fastened In 
its cradle-board (attk'ana'gtin), plate 39, into a hammock crudely made of a blanket stretched open with 
a stick, which she swung back and forth until the baby fell asleep. Still more primitive is the method 
also shown in the same plate; here the woman is seated on the ground with feet extended in front and 
the cradle-board resting against them, enabling her to move the cradle-board slightly back and forth by a 
motion of the feet. 

67996 Bull. 5313 16 



242 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Unclassified Songs Lac du Flambeau Reservation 1 
MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Major 


8 


68, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 122, 127 


Minor - - 


8 


114, 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 171 


Beginning major, ending minor (same keynote) 


1 


67 


Total 


17 











BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 

' 


On twelfth 


2 


68, 115 


On fifth 


4 


116, 118, 120, 125 


On ninth 


2 


67, 117 


On octave 


5 


114, 119, 123, 124, 126 


On fourth 


2 


121, 122 


On third 


1 


171 


On tonic .... 


1 


127 








Total 


17 











ENDINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


On tonic 


12 


67^68, 114, 115, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 


On fifth 


4 


127, 171 
116,117,120,125 


On third 


1 


118 








Total 


17 











TONE MATERIAL 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


First five-toned scale 


1 


116 


Second five-toned scale 


1 


122 


Fourth five-toned scale 


3 


68, 117, 127 


Major triad and sixth 


1 


118 


Minor triad and fourth 


2 


120 123 


Octave complete 


1 


119 


Octave complete except seventh 


1 


115 


Octave complete except seventh and second 


1 


126 


Octave complete except sixth 


2 


114, 124 


Minor third and fourth 


1 


171 


First, second, and fifth tones 


1 


121 


Other combinations of tones . 


2 


67 125 








Total 


17 











1 The following songs included in this table are described in other chapters: Nos. 67 and 68 are divorce 
songs, found in the Drum-presentation Ceremony, while No. 171 is a song of the pipe dance. 



DENSMORK] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



243 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

ACCIDENTALS 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Songs containing no accidentals 16 67, 68, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122. 

123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 171 
Songs containing seventh raised a semitone 1 119 

Total 17 

STRUCTURE 

tut 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Harmonic 3 120, 123, 124 

Purely melodic 11 67, 68, 115, 116, 117, 119, 121, 122, 125, 127, 

171 
Melodic with harmonic framework 3 114, 118, 126 

Total 17 

FIRST PROGRESSION 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Downward ' 10 68,114,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,126 

Upward 7 67,115,116,124,125,127,171 

Total 17 

RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 

PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 

Serial Nos. of songs 

On accented part 12 68, 115, 116, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124, 

125, 126, 171 
On unaccented part 5 67, 114, 119, 120, 127 

Total 17 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs beginning in 2-4 time 12 67, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 123, 124, 

127, 171 

Songs beginning in 3^ time 4 68,121,125,126 

Songs beginning in 3-8 time 1 122 

Total... 17 



244 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

CHANGE OF TIME 



[BULL. 53 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing change of time 


14 


67, 68, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 




3 


122, 123, 124, 171 
125, 126, 127 








Total 


17 











RHYTHMIC UNIT 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing rhythmic unit 


14 


67, 68, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 


Songs containing two rhythmic units 


1 


125, 126, 127, 171 
121 


Songs containing no rhythmic units 


2 


114, 117 








Total 


17 











COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Metric unit of voice and drum the same 
Metric unit of voice and drum different 


5 
11 


115, 116, 117, 121, 122 
67, 68, 114, 118, 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 


Recorded without drum 


1 


171 
127 








Total 


17 











COMBINED ANALYSES OF WAR, DREAM, LOVE, AND UNCLASSIFIED 
SONGS * LAC DU FLAMBEAU RESERVATION 

MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 





War 

songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Major 


10 


2 


3 


3 


23 


42 


Minor 


g 


9 


g 


g 


31 


56 


Beginning major, ending minor (same key- 
note) 








1 


1 


2 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















i Given separately on pages 195, 213, 226, 242. 



DBNBMOra] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



245 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





War 
songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


On the twelfth 


g 


2 




2 


12 




On the fifth 


2 


3 


4 


4 


13 


/ 


On the tenth 


2 








2 


/ 


On the third 




1 




1 


2 




On the ninth 


1 






2 


3 


f 


On the octave 


4 


4 


4 


5 


17 


Of) 


On the seventh .... 






1 




1 


g 


On the sixth 


j 








1 


2 


On the fourth . 




1 




2 


3 


g 


On the tonic 








1 




g 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















ENDINGS OF SONGS 





War 
songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Percent. 


On the tonic 


14 


8 


5 


*12 


40 


72 


On the fifth 


3 


3 


4 


4 


13 


gi 


Onthethird 


1 






1 


2 


> 
















Total 


18 


11 


g 


17 


55 



















TONE MATERIAL 





War 
songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Percent. 


First five-toned scale 








1 


1 


I 


Second five-toned scale 


3 


1 


2 


1 




IS 


Fourth five-toned scale 


6 


2 




3 


11 


20 


Major triad and sixth 








1 


1 


2 


Major triad and second 


1 








1 


g 


Minor triad and sixth 




j 






1 


2 


Minor triad and fourth . 


1 


3 




2 


g 


10 


Ontavft flnmplfltfi 






1 


1 


3 


5 


Octave complete except seventh 
Octave complete except seventh and sixth. 


4 


1 


2 


1 


6 
2 


. 10 
4 


Octave complete except seventh and fourth 


1 








1 


2 


O ctave complete except seventh and second . 


1 


1 




1 


3 


5 


Octave complete except sixth 




1 




2 


3 


5 


Octave complete except sixth and fourth 




1 








2 


Octave complete except fourth 






1 






g 


Octave complete except third . 






1 






g 


Octave complete except second 






1 






2 


Minor third and fourth 








j 




g 


First, second, and fifth tones 








1 




g 


First, second, fifth, and sixth tones... 






j 






g 


Other combinations of tones. 








2 


2 


t 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















246 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

ACCIDENTALS 





War 
songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Songs containing no accidentals 


17 


9 


9 


16 


51 


92 






1 






1 


S 


Songs containing seventh lowered a semi- 
tone 


1 






1 


2 


4 


Songs containing sixth, lowered a semitone 




1 






1 


g 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















STRUCTURE 





War 

songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Harmonic 


1 


3 




3 


7 


13 


Purely melodic 


9 


8 


9 


11 


37 


67 


Melodic with harmonic framework 


8 






3 


11 


20 
















Total . . . 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 




















FIRST PROGRESSION 





War 
songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Downward 


15 


8 


4 


10 


37 


67 


Upward 


3 


3 


5 


7 


18 


33 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 
PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 





War . 

songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


On accented part. .. 


12 


11 


4 


12 


39 


71 


On unaccented part 


6 




5 


5 


16 


29 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



247 



RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 





War 

songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 

songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Songs beginning in 2-4 time . . 


12 


7 


4 


12 


35 


6S 




6 


3 


5 


4 


18 


SS 


Songs beginning in 5-4 time 




1 








g 


Songs beginning in 3 8 time 








1 


1 


| 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















CHANGE OF TIME 





War 

songs 


Dream 

songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Songs containing change of time 
Songs containing no change of time 


16 
2 


11 


9 


14 
3 


1 1 


91 
9 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















RHYTHMIC UNIT 





War 

songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Songs containing rhythmic unit 
Songs containing two rhythmic units 


14 


9 


6 


14 
1 


43 


78 



Songs containing no rhythmic unit 


4 


2 


3 


2 


11 


go 


Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 





War 
songs 


Dream 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Unclassi- 
fied songs 


Total 


Per cent. 




9 


4 




5 


18 


S3 


Metric unit of voice and drum different 


9 


7 




11 


27 


49 


Recorded without drum 






9 


1 


10 


18 
















Total 


18 


11 


9 


17 


55 



















THE SYMBOLS OF SONGS WHICH NEVER WERE SUNG 

In passing through the Chippewa village at Lac du Flambeau tall 
poles may be seen standing beside many of the houses. Surmount- 
ing each pole is a cloth-covered frame which resembles a small flag 
and is so fastened as to permit it to swing with the wind. On 
gray weather-beaten poles only part of the frame and a few tatters of 



248 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

cloth remain (pi. 40), but from the newer ones fly banners bearing 
strange figures outlined in red and blue. Symbols of the sun, moon, 
and stars are easily recognized and there are also crude drawings 
of birds. High up on many of the poles are tied bundles .of faded 
rags that flutter in the breeze and suggest mystery. 

Inquiry as to the significance of the poles will probably be met 
with evasive answers. The writer heard a white person ask an 
Indian whether the fluttering rags were ' l supposed to frighten away 
evil spirits." One who had lived in the vicinity many years said, 
"The Indians put up a new pole when anyone dies; there is always 
a new pole after a death at the village." Such is the superficial 
impression regarding the medicine poles, showing how well the Indian 
has guarded the things which concern his deeper nature. 

If the entire story of one of these medicine poles could be written, 
it would be the history of a man's life his boyhood dream, his failure 
to fulfill that dream, and his struggle against sickness and death. 

It is said that the custom, of erecting a medicine pole beside a house 
had its origin many generations ago, and was as follows: A young 
man blackened his face and went away to fast, according to the cus- 
tom of the tribe (see pp. 83, 204). He dreamed a dream, in which he 
saw the thunderbirds and the tall tree on which they lived. Return- 
ing to his home, he cut down a tall straight tree and trimmed off the 
branches, making a pole, which he placed in the ground at his door. 
He pictured on a deerskin the birds he had seen in his dream. This 
he stretched on a frame and fastened at the top of the pole, complet- 
ing the representation of his dream. The later custom differed, in 
that the young man did .not erect the medicine pole as soon as he 
returned from his fasting vigil, but waited to see whether his dream 
would come true. The dream usually concerned war and promised 
success on the warpath. If he went to war and "fulfilled his dream," 
he did not erect a pole, but while on the warpath he sang for the first 
time the song which came to him in his dream (see p. 71). The 
words had reference to the birds, the sun, or the stars which he saw 
in his dream. If he lacked the opportunity to go to war, he pictured 
these objects on a deerskin or a cloth, but the song was never sung. 
Such a man was supposed to have special power to cure the sick. 
To one who understands its symbolism the pole beside a house says : 
"Here lives a man who dreamed a dream and the mysterious strength 
of his vision is in him. He never used it against human foe, but 
more than other men he has power against that greater enemy 
death." 

In the springtime the owner of a pole frequently takes it down, 
lays it on the ground, and makes a feast. He asks his friends to 
come and "preaches about the pole." If some one "wishes to secure 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 41 





CHIPPEWA MEDICINE POLES 



DENSMORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 249 

long life/' he brings one of his garments with tobacco folded in it 
and ties the garment around the pole. In the autumn a similar 
feast is often held, but the frozen state of the ground makes it impos- 
sible to take- down the pole. 

When the friends of a sick person are anxious about his condition, 
they put tobacco in one of his garments, which they fasten high on 
one of these poles. Sometimes they scrape a weatherworn pole so 
that it is white and smooth, or even replace it with a new pole, on 
which they tie a garment belonging to the sick person. 

The writer saw a pole which appeared to have been recently 
erected; it was painted with bands of red and blue and the figures on 
the banner were clearly outlined in blue. (PL 41.) On inquiry the 
information was given that it was not a new pole but one which had 
been scraped a few months previously, when Me'dweya'sun ("the 
sound of the wind"), the chief or " speaker" of the village, was very 
ill. The pole belonged to one of his relatives. It had been freshened 
and redecorated, the cloth of the banner renewed, and an offering 
fastened on the pole. But Me'dweya'sun did not recover; he had 
lived the full measure of allotted years and died of old age. 

At another house the writer saw the peculiar medicine pole which 
Me'dweya'sun himself erected; on this too were fluttering strips of 
cloth, portions of garments he had worn, placed there by his friends 
in the effort to prolong his life. This medicine pole consisted of an 
uprooted tree placed horizontally between two forked poles as braces 
at a height of about 5J feet from the ground. (PI. 41.) In his youth 
Me'dweya'sun dreamed of war; he dreamed that he was leader of a 
war party, that he conquered the enemy, and in pursuing them 
leaped over a fallen tree. Years passed. The call to battle did not 
come, the tribes were at peace, and there were no war parties for him 
to lead. At length he put up this tree as his medicine pole, placing 
it at the same height as the fallen tree over which he leaped in his 
dream. 1 He felt obliged to do this because he "had not fulfilled his 
dream," but the song which should have inspired his warriors was 
buried in his heart. 

Kl'tciodja'nimwewegi'jfg ( u sky in terrible commotion ") told the 
writer that when he was a boy he fasted and dreamed of a bird. 
As he never went to war, he later erected a medicine pole beside 

i See description preceding No. 101. 



250 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BriLL. 53 



his dwelling, drawing on the cloth banner a picture of the bird he 
saw in his dream. Although the cloth was torn and the drawing 
almost effaced by sun and storm, he drew again the outline of the 
bird (fig. 6), that the story, of his dream and his ihedicine pole 















r 






FIG. 6. Design on cloth attached to medicine pole (native drawing). 

might be known to his white brethren far away. His is the monoto- 
nous life of a reservation Indian who can not fully adapt himself to 
the white man's way, yet beneath it is the memory of a dream and 
above it is the symbol of the song that never was sung. 



SONGS OF THE CHIPPEWA AT WABA'ClNG VIL- 
LAGE, RED LAKE RESERVATION 

The songs comprised in this group were recorded at the Chippewa 
village on Red Lake, in northern Minnesota, called by the Indians 
Waba'clng ("where the wind blows from both sides"), and known 
among the white people as " Cross Lake Settlement," a convenient 
designation, as the village lies across the lake from the Agency. The 
Indian title is derived from the location of the village on a point of 
land which divides the upper and lower sections of Red Lake. (PL 42.) 
This point is narrow and several miles in length, so the village is fully 
exposed to the winds. Twelve miles of open water separate it from 
Red Lake Agency in summer and the means of transportation are 
limited. In winter the village is somewhat more accessible, as the 
ice forms a highway. 

These songs were recorded during a gathering of Indians for the 
celebration of the Fourth of July, 1910. (PL 43.) All the singers 
live near the village of Waba'cmg, except one, a Canadian Chippewa 
from the Rainy River country, who was camping on the upper lake 
and came to attend the celebration. These Indians seldom hear the 
music of the white race and may be considered comparatively free 
from its influence, a feature which adds interest to the analysis of the 
songs. 

The Indians at Waba'cing are estimated at about 350 in number. 
They are acknowledged to be above the average in character and 
intelligence. Most of them are full-blood Chippewa. The first 
encroachment of civilization occurred in 1901 when the Government 
established a day school at the settlement. The Indians opposed this 
to the full extent of their power. To-day they are tractable and con- 
tented and are interested in keeping their children at school. Some 
of the younger men work in the logging camps during the winter. 

Most of the Indians at Waba'clfig are members of the MXde'wrwm, 
and its rites are closely observed. The writer saw two women 
tending a fire at the head of a newly made grave. According to the 
teaching of the Mlde', this fire must be kept burning four nights. 
Near this was the grave of a little child, with only the embers of the 
fire remaining. On the grave was a crude rattle which the little one 
had loved, and beside it was a paper bag containing food. 

The dancing of the Waba'clng Chippewa was characterized by 
freedom and individuality, the best dancers using the muscles of the 

251 



252 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

entire body. With some the motion seemed to begin in the shoulders 
and progress with sinuous grace to the feet, while in others shrugging 
and twisting of the shoulders were seen. (Pis. 44, 45.) 

The drum used, which was of native manufacture, was about 24 
inches in diameter and 12 inches in height; it was covered with 
untanned hide. The drum was suspended between four crotched 
sticks driven firmly into the ground (see p. 147). The singers at the 
drum usually numbered six or eight. In beginning the leaders sang 
a few bars alone, after which the others took up the song. 

During the dancing food consisting of slices of beef boiled without 
salt, triangular pieces of bread cooked in skillets beside the campfire, 
and bits of bread dough fried in hot fat, considered a special delicacy, 
was distributed. The older Waba'cmg Indians have not yet acquired 
a liking for salt, which was unknown to them until a few years ago 
(see No. 168). 

According to the Canadian Indian Awun'akum'igfckun' ("fog 
covering the earth"), his people have rarely heard a piano, organ, or 
any other tuned instrument. He has always lived with the same 
group of Chippewa, drifting with them from one camp to another. 
He was a man about 30 years old, who appeared to be a full-blood 
Chippewa. He spoke no English. He said that when he was a little 
boy he "sat with the old men," listening to their singing and learning 
their songs, but that now he sang the songs which the men of his 
village "made up in their dreams." He sang in falsetto voice with a 
peculiar throaty vibrato. He said that he discovered his ability to 
do this when he was a boy and had cultivated it ever since. 

The other singers were A'jide'gijlg ("crossing sky"), an old man 
who seldom leaves Waba'cmg and who wears his hair in long braids; 
Ki'miwun ("rainy"), a man of middle age who is prominent in the 
tribal councils; Ki'miwuna'nakwad ("rain cloud"), who had a par- 
ticularly good voice, and Gegwe'djibi'tun ("sitting near it"), who 
sang only one song. 

Reproduction of these songs by the phonograph afforded the 
Indians much pleasure. The phonograph was placed in the door of 
the little carpenter shop in which the songs had been recorded. The 
Indians were grouped outside and the sunset light rested on their 
eager, intent faces. Beyond were the wigwams and the shining lake. 
It was a picture long to be remembered. 

DREAM SONGS * 

Forty songs were recorded at Waba'cing, 26 of which were said to 
have been composed in dreams. It is probable that most of the 
Chippewa dream songs were used in war. This is not difficult to 
understand. The young man who had a dream in his fasting vigil 

1 See p. 37. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 53 PLATE 45 




WAR DANCE 




WOMAN'S DANCE 

DANCES OF WABA'CING CHIPPEWA 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



253 



was usually an individual of character and strength of purpose. 
War was the principal career which offered itself in the old days and 
the man of the dream had the qualifications which made for success. 
After he had sung his dream song on the warpath he sang it at the 
dances preparatory to war, and in time it became the common property 
of the tribe. 

The dream songs recorded at Waba'cffig are arranged according to 
the uses indicated by the singers. The first four were said to have 
been used in war dances; these are followed by five songs used in the 
woman's dance; by six songs used by the Chippewa doctor, whose 
songs were always received in dreams, and one song of the moccasin 
game, by which some successful player secured his advantage in the 
old days. The uses of the remaining songs were not designated but 
many such are undoubtedly the dream songs of forgotten warriors. 

No. 128. A Song of Spring (Catalogue No. 289) 

Sung by A'JIDE'GIJIG ("CROSSING SKY") 
VOICE J=108 
DRUM J-108 
( Drum-rhythin similar to No. 2 ) 




(M) 



e 



*^ *- 









Wa-pa-ba i-na-bi - yan mfic-ko-de 
(1st) 




non-go-mi-go-dji-ni - bin 

; (2d) 



254 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 



WORDS 



wa'paba' as my eyes 

ina'biyan' search 

muc'kode' the prairie 

nongo'migod jini'bm I feel the summer in the spring 

Analysis. This song consists of nine phrases, seven of which con- 
tain three measures each. From the beginning of the song to the 
close of the eighth measure the melody contains only the tones of 
the minor triad F sharp A-C sharp. In the ninth measure F descends 
to E, introducing the chord of A major, which forms the basis of the 
next two phrases. The second section of the song opens with the 
minor triad, changing after two phrases to the major triad, with 
which the song closes. (Compare No. 33.) The song contains two 
rhythmic units, one being used in the minor measures and (with a 
slight change) in what might be termed the transitional measures, 
and the other in the measures which contain only the tones of the 
major triad. Upward progressions are more strongly marked in the 
second unit than in the first, whose general progression is downward. 
It is interesting to note the two eighth notes in the last measure of 
the rhythmic unit, second section, which take the place of the unequal 
division of the corresponding count in the first section, the song 
seeming to grow more steady as it draws to a close. In the ca'wuno'ga 
songs Nos. 121 and 122 it was noted that the songs gained in excite- 
ment as they proceeded. The melody is marked by simplicity and 
well reflects the mood of one who discerns the first signs of spring on 
the f amiliar prairie. 






DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



255 



No. 129. Dream Song (Catalogue No. 315) 

Sung by Ki'MiwftNA'NAKWAD ("RAIN CLOUD") 

VOICE J 116 
DRUM J 116 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 















SlrHS 







Analysis. The tones comprised in this song are those of the 
fourth five-toned scale, the melody being based on the tonic triad 
and the other tones being used as passing tones. The rhythm of the 
entire song constitutes a unit, On its first occurrence the lower tone 
of the minor third was slightly flatted but during the remainder of 
the song was given with correct intonation. (See analyses of Nos. 54, 
133, 146, 



256 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



, No. 130. Dream Song (Catalogue No. 321) 

Sung by AwuN'AKUM'ioicKUN' ("FOG COVERING THE EARTH") 

VOICE j=164 
DRUM / - 152 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



\Ji 9 ~W~i 9 








Analysis. The metric unit of this song was difficult to recognize 
in the tempo at which the song was sung. By greatly reducing the 
speed of the phonograph it was possible to detect this unit, and the 
relative note-values were thus transcribed. The metric unit is 
/ = 184, which is unusually rapid. The tempo of the original rendi- 
tion was determined in the usual manner, that is, by adjusting the 
speed of the phonograph at 160 revolutions per minute, so that the 
tone C' as registered on the cylinder corresponded to the same tone 
as given by the pitch pipe. The metric unit was steadily maintained 
throughout the two renditions of the song, which were identical in 
every respect. The song is melodic in structure and has a compass of 
twelve tones, beginning on the twelfth and ending on the tonic. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC 1 

No. 131. Dream Song 

Sung by 



257 

(Catalogue No. 324) 



VOICE J^69 
DRUM J-80 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




I 


^ 


x 

-f- 


^ 


* 






Ml 


w^ 


jy4s=fet 



Analysis. This song was said to have been used in the victory 
dances which followed a successful war expedition, but never in the 
dances preparatory to war. The rhythm of the song is forceful and 
triumphant. Four renditions were recorded. The melody tones are 
those of the fourth five-toned scale, the melody being based on the 
tonic triad, and the second and sixth used as passing tones. 



No. 132. Dream Song c 

Sung by AWUN / AKUM / IGICKUN / 
VOICE J-108 
DRUM J 88 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



(Catalogue No. 327) 







Analysis. This melody contains the tones of the fourth five- toned 
scale, beginning on the twelfth and ending on the tonic, the tones 
being grouped around the intervals of the tonic triad. The opening 
measures were not included in the repetitions of the song. 

This and the following four dream songs are said to have been used 
hi the woman's dance. 

67996 Bull. 5313 17 



258 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 133. Dream Song (Catalogue No. 337) 

Sung by 



VOICE =104 
DRUM J=108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 

I 










-99 



at* 








Analysis. The first two renditions of this song were faulty in 
intonation, being sung a tone lower than the transcription; after a 
pause the singer gave the song as transcribed, with more correct 
intonation. (See Nos. 54, 129, 146, 164.) This is interesting, as the 
singer stated that he was not accustomed to hearing- tuned instru- 
ments. The song is harmonic in structure, contains only the tones of 
the tonic triad and sixth, and has a compass of eleven tones. The 
submediant, or third below the tonic, is frequently used in connection 
with the tonic triad, producing a minor triad with minor seventh 
added, a group of tones occurring also in Nos. 147, 151, 152, 153, 154, 

163. 

No. 134. Dream Song &L (Catalogue No. 320) 

Sung by AWUN^KUM^GICKUN^ 
VOICE J-120 
DRUM J=120 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 

- 5 [ i r~ i i i r 

tsst 






-99 






DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



259 



Analysis. Three renditions of this song were recorded, the first 
three and a half measures being omitted in the repetitions. The range 
of the song is unusually high and the first two tones were slightly 
flatted. The short repeated tones were individualized by a muscular 
action of the throat. The melody is strongly harmonic in character, 
but the presence of accented E and A cause it to be classified as 
melodic with harmonic framework. The rhythmic unit is short and 
the rhythm of the song as a whole is distinctive and clearly marked. 



No. 135. Dream Song 

Sung by 

VOICE j=100 
DRUM J=100 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 



(Catalogue No. 323) 



r~jjhj>~~ i J~~\ H zzrmzz IIP "I -; 

~ --. ^iT7 -J- -- y 







Analysis. This song is a particularly good example of a melody 
based on the second five-toned scale. The first measure contains 
the rhythmic unit of the song, which occurs five times. The first 
part of the melody is based on the chord of C minor and the latter 
part suggests the chord of E flat, though the tone E flat does not 
appear. In the absence of this tone, which would be the tonic of the 
major chord, the song is considered to be minor in tonality; this is, 
however, an instance in which what we term "key" can not be said 
to be established. The relation of the tones is an interval-relation 
rather than a key-relation (see pp. 7, 8). 



260 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 136. Dream Song Cx (Catalogue No. 325) 

Sung by 

VOICE J=112 
DRUM J-112 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



~VQ ^ 1 I j^- 1 N--9- ^ | f|- P^ ( IN-Il 










I ! I- 







1 






Analysis. The intervals of progression in this melody are unusu- 
ally large and would present some difficulties to a singer of the white 
race. It is, however, a bright and attractive melody, lively in 
tempo, and strongly rhythmic in character. The tones are those of 
the tonic triad and sixth. The first measures were not included in 
the repetitions of the song. 

No. 137. Dream Song d (Catalogue No. 326) 
Sung by 

VOICE J=;112 
DRUM Jzizll2 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No, 19 ) 





















E 






DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



261 



Analysis. In this song the signature of the transcription should 
be regarded as indicating the pitch of certain tones and not as imply- 
ing an established key. The transcription merely represents the 
tones sung by the Indian singer. 

The framework of this melody is characterized by the interval of 
the third. The first seven measures are based on the descending 
third F sharp-D sharp, with G sharp as a tone of approach (see analy- 
sis of No. 53). This is followed by the descending thirds B-G sharp; 
D sharp-B; B-G sharp, with a return to the third F sharp-D sharp, 
with G sharp as a tone of approach. The second section of the song 
has essentially the same framework. 

This song and the following five dream songs are said to have been 
used by a Chippewa doctor during his treatment of the sick. (See 
Bulletin 45, pp. 119, 120.) 

No. 138. "My Body Lies in the East'y (Catalogue No. 308) 

Sung by KI'MIWUN ("RAINY") 
VOICE J 88 
DRUM J 112 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

-9- -----*- ^ .-+--- -*- -9~ 

=E 






-r V 





L- ^_ _^ 



Wa-bun-ofig a - te ni - au e 



9*+r 
















WORDS 



wabunoiig / in the east 

ate x lies 

ni-au x my body 



262 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. The two renditions of this strange melody secured are 
identical. The song is based on the minor triad, the fourth and 
sixth being used as passing tones. The tempo is slow, with long 
swinging cadence. The rhythm is characterized by the triplet, 
which occurs frequently on the last count of the measure. The song 
contains no rhythmic unit, but the rhythm of the entire song consti- 
tutes a homogeneous whole. In this group of six " doctor's songs" 
it is noted that vowel syllables distinctly enunciated are used on the 
tones not supplied with words, resembling the Mlde' songs, and 
differing from the majority of Chippcwa songs, in which the separa- 
tion of tones is produced by muscular action of the throat (see 
No. 134). 

No. 139. "Sitting with the Turtle" ^(Catalogue No. 309) 
Sung by KI'MIWUN 

VOICE J-96 

DRUM J=rll2 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




Mi- kin- ak ni - wi - ta - bi - mti 




3 



WORDS 

mikinak / turtle 

niw^tabimu 7 I am sitting with him 

Analysis. Five renditions of this song were recorded. In the 
first and fourth renditions no words were used; in the second and 
fifth the words occurred as transcribed, and in the third the words 
were used in the seventh and eighth measures instead of at the open- 
ing of the song. The first rendition begins on D flat instead of E 
flat, a fact which suggests that D flat is felt to be the principal tone, 
E flat being used as an approach to that tone. (See analysis of No 
53.) 



DBM8MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



263 



No. 140. "Carried Around the Sky", (Catalogue No. 310) 
Sung by KI'MIWUN 



VOICE J 116 
DRUM t 116 



( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



ESTtE 



Ki-wi- ta - ci-yan gi - jig - ufig ki-wi - ta - ci-yan gi - jig - 



ufig ki-wi - ta - ci-yan gi -jig - uiig ki-wi - ta - ci 




yan gi - jig - ung ki-wi - ta - ci-yan gi -jig - ufig ki-wi 




j ig- ufig 



kiwita'yaciyan' 1 . .- as the wind is carrying me 

gi'jigung' around the sky 

Analysis. This is an example of a song showing an interval forma- 
tion and containing what would be called in musical terms "the 
tonic of the key" only in the middle part of the song. Chippewa 
songs with this characteristic have been noted only among those col- 
lected at Waba'cffig; these are Nos. 135, 137, 139, 141, 142, 165. If 
we depend on the musical ear in determining the key of a song, we 
place this song in the key of G major, yet 85 per cent of the intervals 
are minor. The song contains 13 intervals, of which 9 (70 per cent) 
are minor thirds and 2 (15 per cent) are minor seconds, the other 
intervals being a major third and a major second. (See Nos. 141, 
151, 161, 163.) The rhythmic unit contains three measures and 
occurs seven times, being accurately and continuously repeated. The 
accidental tone (A sharp) was given with correct intonation. No 
differences appear in the four renditions of the song. 

This and the two following songs are said to be sung after the y 
"doctor" has "swallowed" the bones and during the treatment of A 

1 One syllable of this word was omitted by the singer. 



264 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



the sick person. After the second rendition of the song there is 
recorded on the phonograph cylinder a sharp hissing sound which the 
doctor makes as he breathes, or "blows," on the person receiving 
treatment; after the third rendition there is recorded a shrill whistle, 
which he is said to make as the bones issue from his mouth. It is 
said that in the old days the "doctor" did not take the bones in 
his hand before swallowing them, but drew them directly into his 
mouth from a shallow dish of water. The writer has been informed 
by more than one eyewitness that when the medicine-men were in 
possession of their former powers the bones, many of which were 
much larger than those used in recent years, were actually swallowed 
by them. 

No. 141. "The Approach of the Thunderbirds" 

(Catalogue No. 311) 

Sung by KI'MIWUN 
VOICE J-88 
DRUM J^138 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 



4 






Ka - bi - de - bwe - we - da - mo- wad bi - u5 - si - wfrg 










WORDS 



kabide'bwewe'damowad' the sound approaches 

bing'slwug the (thunder) birds draw near 

Analysis. This song contains a short rhythmic unit, which occurs 
only twice. The song is major in tonality, but is characterized by 
the frequent occurrence of the interval of the minor third, 67 per cent 
of the intervals being minor thirds. (See Nos. 140, 151, 161, 163.) 
Harmonic in structure, the melody contains only the tones of the 
tonic triad and sixth. Attention is directed to the rapid drumbeat 
in this and the following two songs. The approach to the harmonic 
tone by the tone above is discussed in the analysis of No. 53. 



DENSMOUE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



265 



No. 142. "White-haired Raven" (Catalogue No. 312) 
Sung by KI'MIW^N 

VOICE J=160 
DRUM J-120 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 







Kwe wa - bi-kwe - ka - ga - gi kwe ba - ba-mac nin - de - go kwe 






wa - bi - kwe - ka - ga - gi kwe ba - ba- mac niu - de - go kwe 






wa - bi-kwe - ka - ga - gi kwe ba - ba - mac nin - de - go 



kwe 




wa - bi - kwe - ka - ga - gi kwe ba - ba- mac nin - de - go 

WORDS 

wa / bikwe / kaga / gi " white-haired raven 

babamac 7 flying around the sky" 

nin 7 dego 7 1 am called 

Analysis. The four recorded renditions of this song are identical 
in all respects except that in one instance D instead of B was sung 
on the last count of the first measure. This is unimportant except 
that it is the only variation. At the close of the second rendition 
is recorded the peculiar whistle described in connection with the pre- 
ceding song. There is no perceptible secondary accent in the meas- 
ures marked, respectively, 7-4 and 5-4. The rhythmic unit com- 
prises three measures and occurs four times. The measures in 3-4 
time were sung with a slightly slower metric unit than those in 7-4 
time. The melody is particularly striking and forceful. 



266 



BUREAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 143. Dream Song Cx (Catalogue No. 313) 

Sung by KI'MIWUN 



VOICE J 144 
DRUM J=120 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 













Analysis. Four renditions of this song were recorded; the second 
and third renditions were followed by the peculiar whistle and hiss 
already described. The song contains the tones of the tonic triad 
and sixth and is harmonic in structure. The rhythmic unit contains 
four measures, its repetitions comprising the entire song. 

The following is a song of the moccasin game. It is unusual to find 
a moccasin game song which is said to have had its origin in a dream. 
Long ago the players sought skill by means of fasts and dreams, but 
at present the game is regarded less seriously. This song was recorded 
by a member of a Canadian band of Chippewa, among whom the 
moccasin game may have retained its original status (see p. 206) . 



No. 144. Dream Song 

Sung by 

VOICE J-72 
DRUM J 104 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



(Catalogue No. 319) 



DEXSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



267 



Analysis. The entire trend of the melody is downward, along the 
intervals of the tonic triad. The metric unit of the voice is slow and 
that of the drum is rapid, a peculiarity found in most of the moccasin - 
game songs and suggesting the mingled control and excitement of the 
game. A song closely resembling this but in a different rhythm was 
recorded on the White Earth Reservation (compare No. 176). 

The singers did not state on what occasions the remaining songs of 
this group were sung, but it is probable that they were used in the 
dances preparatory to war. The words are of interest, in many 
instances suggesting the confidence which makes for leadership in 
any undertaking and becomes the more inspiring when it is believed 
to be of supernatural origin. 

No. 145. "Into the Several Heavens" ^.(Catalogue No. 288) 

Sung by A'JIDE'GIJIG 
VOICE J 104 
DRUM J 104 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 









O-gi-ma gi - jig - ufig en - ga - ba - bi - ni-go 




o'gima the chief 

gi'jlgung' into the heavens 

engaba'binigo' will take me 

Analysis. This song contains a peculiarity which occurs frequently 
in songs recorded at Waba'clng, namely, the approach to a harmonic 
tone by means of the tone above it. For instance, this melody is 
based on the triad of E flat major, yet the first tone is an accented C. 
This is discussed in the analysis of No. 53 and is found also in Nos. 
29, 45, 51, 53, 65, 137, 139. The sixth was sung slightly sharp when 
reached by an ascending progression, this feature being uniform 
throughout the two renditions of the song. Faulty intonation on the 



268 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



interval of a second is noted in Nos. 54, 55, 61, 64, 100, 145, 166. 
The closing tone was sung with good intonation, representing an 
unusually low range of voice. 

(Catalogue No. 290) 






No. 146. "Two Foxes Face Each Other 

Sung by A'JIDE'GIJIG 



VOICE J 112 
DRUM J-112 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 




















bw 

W6 -on-da-sfi-ma-bi - wad wa-guc-ug mi - ma-dji-a - bi - yan 




WORDS 



weonda'suma'biwad' they face each other 

wagucftg' two foxes 

mima'djia'biyan' I will sit between them 

Analysis. This song contains no rhythmic unit, though a dotted 
eighth followed by a sixteenth note occurs with frequency. It 
should be noted that the lower tone of the minor third was slightly 
flatted on its first occurrence in each octave, though sung afterward 
with correct intonation. (See Nos. 54, 129, 133, 164.) The tonic 
chord forms the framework of the melody, with the second and sixth 
as unaccented passing tones. 



DENS MORE J 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC n 269 

No. 147. "One Bird" -< (Catalogue No. 291) 

Sung by A'JIDE'GIJIG 



VOICE J 108 
DRUM J- 108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

r 



-& 







Be - jig bl-ng - si ni-wi-djl - wa 










WORDS 



be x jig one 

blne x si bird 

niwi / djlwa / I am going with him 

Analysis. The rhythmic unit of this song contains six measures 
and occurs five times; its repetitions constitute the entire song. 
The first section of the song is outlined by the interval of the 
fourth, representing the descent from the tonic to the dominant; 
the second section is based on the descending interval of the fifth 
and contains the tones of the tonic triad ; and the third contains the 
descent in the lower octave from the tonic to the dominant. The 
outline of the second and third sections is repeated, and the dominant 
is the closing tone of the song. Thus the melody, in its broad outline, 
is seen to have a definite relation to the tonic chord, yet within this 
outline we find another characteristic. The tone D flat appears with 
prominence, and in its connection with the tonic triad forms a group 
of the minor triad and minor seventh, which has been noted in songs 
of the Chippewa and also in the music of other primitive people. 
(See footnote, p. 130, Bulletin 45.) This group is noted also in Nos. 
133, 151, 152, 153, 154, and 163 of the present work. 



270 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 148. "The Sky Will Resound"/^ (Catalogue No. 296) 
Sung by KI'MIWUN 



VOICE J-100 
DRUM J-100 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



+ . *. JZ. -JL. JjL 

p f tr r f " p f 


-f 


- ; 

T: ... -f- p ? <? 
-1 J- [ 


25 


S 3 


B 






-u^ 1 





n 



1 



: 



P 

s 



?- 



Ta - mm - we - we gi - jig a 



tci 



bi - no - wa - 






da -go - si - nan 







WORDS 

ta / minwe / we it will resound finely 

gi x jig the sky 

tcr'binonda^osinan 7 when I come making a noise 

Analysis. This song is harmonic in structure and is based on the 
chord of B flat major. The rhythmic unit is not strongly marked, 
yet the song as a whole has a rhythmic effect which is particularly 
pleasing. The metric unit was maintained with absolute regularity 
by the singer. 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



271 



No. 149. "One Wind" (Catalogue No. 298) 

Sung by KI'MIW(JN 
VOICE J 100 
DRUM J 104 

mi-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 

m 







/. t_-F--tvj 
fl n 1 I 



Be -jig no-din nin-ga - na 







wn - dan 



WORDS 



be'jig one 

no'dln wind 

iiinga'nawendan' I am master of it 

Analysis. Three renditions of this song were recorded. The time 
was not steadily maintained, and it is noted that variations from 
exact time occur in corresponding measures in the several renditions. 
The song contains the tones of the fourth five- toned scale, is harmonic 
in structure, and is based on the tonic triad, the second and sixth 
appearing only as passing tones. No rhythmic unit occurs in the 
song, although the rhythm of the song as a whole is strongly marked. 



272 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



No. 150. "An Overhanging Cloud" ' (Catalogue No. 299) 

Sung by KI'MIWUN 
VOICE J = 120 
DRUM Jrrl20 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



_ ^-^-P-t. 















Ka- bi -ba-bam-a - go - deg a - na-kwad tci-ba-ba - mi-no - ta - 






gwun 

WORDS 

ka'bibabam'agodeg 7 an overhanging 

a'nakwad cloud 

tcibaba'minota'gwun repeats my words with pleasing sound 

Analysis. This melody consists of two sections, the first comprising 
six measures and the second comprising eight measures. The melody- 
tones are those of the fourth five-toned scale, and the song is harmonic 
in structure. The rhythm is so decided that one looks for a rhythmic 
unit or some regularity in the succession of double and triple measures, 
but neither is present. 

No. 151. "Heaps of Clouds" C (Catalogue No. 314) 
Sung by KI'MIWUNA'NAKWAD ("RAIN CLOUD") 
VOICE J-112 
DRUM J 112 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19) 









^ I J-= 

- bi-kwa-go - dear a - 



Ka - bi-ba - bi-kwa-go - deg a - na - kwad a pa - 'i - na-bi - yan 



DENSMORKJ 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



273 



WORDS 

ka'bibabi'kwagodeg' great heaps 

a'nakwad of clouds 

pa'ina'biyan' in the direction I am looking 

Analysis. This song is said to have been composed by a woman. 
(See Nos. 31, 39, 40, 112, 127, 177, 178.) The melody contains only 
three descending progressions larger than a minor third; these are 
major thirds, occurring between the lower tone of one minor third 
(F-A flat) and the upper tone of another minor third (B flat-D flat). 
The song is major in tonality, yet 13 of the intervals (36 per cent) 
are intervals of the minor third, 9 descending and 4 ascending. (See 
Nos. 140, 141, 161, 163.) The last four measures of the song consist 
of the tones of the major triad on D flat, yet observation of the first 
part of the song shows the prominence of the outline A flat-F-D 
flat-B flat, which forms a minor triad with minor seventh added. 
This is a chord of strong barbaric color, which has been found in the 
music of many primitive peoples; it is noted in Bulletin 45 (footnote, 
p. 130), also in Nos. 133, 147, 152, 153, 154, 163 of the present series. 
In the song under analysis this chord resolves into the tonic chord 
by the progression of B flat to A flat in the seventh measure from the 
close. The song is harmonic in structure, the only tones accented 
being the tones of the tonic triad. The melody tones are those of 
the fourth five-toned scale. The intonation of the singer was most 
nearly accurate on the tonic and fifth and most uncertain on the 

third of the key. 

No. 152. "Around the Sky" (Catalogue No. 318) 

Sung by AWUN'AKUM'IGICKUN' 
VOICE J 80 
DRUM J=rl04 
( Druin-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 







Ki-wi-ta- gi-jlg e ka-bi-de- 



^MJWJi 




bwe-wi-da - mon 
67996 Bull. 5313 18 



274 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



WORDS 

ki'witagi'jlg ................. around the sky 

ka / bidebwe / widamon / ....... I come to you with my sound 

Analysis. This is a particularly graceful melody and was sung 
with regularity of rhythm and good intonation. The downward pro- 
gressions E-C sharp-A-F sharp form the minor triad with minor 
seventh added, which resolves into the tonic chord by the tone E in 
the eighth and eighteenth measures (compare Nos. 133, 147, 151, 152 ; 
154, 163). At the opening of the seventh measure occurs a peculiar 
division of the count, which is found also in Nos. 153, 157, 159, 161, 

163. 

No. 153. "The Thunderbirds" 



(Catalogue No. 322) 



Sung by AWUN / AKUM / IGICKUN / 
VOICE J_^72 

DRUM J-144 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

rr -fri r 



i r 



4 




fe 



BI - n6 - si - wug ni - koc - ko - 




^-^^^.rf 






i - a - gog 







J] 



WORDS 



bine^IwQg. . . 
nikoc / koigog / . 



the (thunder) birds 
startle me 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



275 



Analysis. The first three measures of this song contain the down- 
ward progression G-E-C-A, comprising the minor triad with minor 
seventh added (see Nos. 133, 147, 151, 152), the tonic chord of C 
major being established in the ninth measure. The remainder of 
the song is based on the tonic triad, the sixth occurring only as a 
passing tone. The rhythm is characterized by a peculiar division of 
the first count of the measure. This occurs in the opening of the 
rhythmic unit and has been noted also in Nos. 152, 157, 159, 161, 163. 

Dream Songs Waba'cing Village, Red Lake Reservation 
MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 





Number 
of songs 




Serial Nos. of songs 




Major 


25 


128, lx 


9, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 130, 


137 






138, 


139, 140, 141, 142 143, 144, 145, 


1 It. 


Minor 


1 


147, 
135 


148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153 














Total 


26 




- 















BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


On thirteenth 


1 


145 




5 


137, 139, 141, 147, 152 


On twelfth 


11 


129, 130, 132, 138, 143, 144, 146, 148, 150, 


On fifth 


4 


151, 153 
133, 140, 142, 149 


On tenth - - 


3 


128, 134, 136 


On third 


2 


131. 135 








Total 


26 











ENDINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 




On tonic 


14 


128, 129, 130, 132, 136, 138, 143, 144, 


145, 


On tonic fifth - - - 


2 


146, 148, 150, 151, 153 
131, 134 




On tonic third 


10 


133, 135, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 147, 


149, 






152 




Total 


26 















276 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

TONE MATERIAL 



[BULL. 53 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Fourth five-toned scale 15 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 135, 140, 142, 146, 

147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153 
Major triad 1 144 

Major triad and sixth 9 133, 134, 136, 137, 139, 141, 143, 145, 152 

Minor triad, sixth and fourth 1 138 

Total 26 

ACCIDENTALS 

ofTng'J Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs containing ho accidentals 24 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 

137, 138, 139, 141, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 

148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153 
Songs containing second raised a semitone 2 140, 142 

Total 

STRUCTURE 

i^ 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Harmonic.. 14 129, 133, 134, 138,140,141,143, 144,146, 

148, 149, 150, 151, 152 

Purely melodic 4 132, 142, 135,137 

Melodic with harmonic framework 8 128, 130, 131, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139 

Total 26 

FIRST PROGRESSION 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Downward 21 128, 129, 130, 132, 134; 135,136, 137, 139, 

140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 
150, 152, 153 

Upward 5 131,133,138,147,151 

Total... 26 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



277 



RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 

PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



On accented part 17 128, 129, 130, 133, 135, 136, 137, 139,141, 

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152 
On unaccented part 9 131, 132, 134, 138, 140, 142, 143, 151, 153 

Total 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 

Serial Nos. 

Songs beginning in 2-4 time 13 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 137, 138, 139, 140, 

141, 147, 150, 152 

Songs beginning in 3-4 time 10 128, 133, 136, 144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 151, 

153 

Songs beginning in 4-4 time 1 143 

Songs beginning in 7-4 time 1 142 

Songs beginning in 3-8 time 1 130 

Total 26 

RHYTHMIC UNIT 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs containing rhythmic unit 9 131, 134, 135, 140, 141, 142, 143, 147, 163 

Songs containing two rhythmic units 1 128 

Songs containing no rhythmic unit 16 129, 130, 132, 133, 136, 137, 138, 139, 144, 

145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152 

Total 26 

COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Metric unit of voice and drum the same 13 128, 129, 134, 135, 136, 137, 140, 145, 146, 

147, 148, 150, 151 

Metric unit of voice and drum different 13 130, 131, 132, 133, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 

144, 149, 152, 153 

Total... 26 



278 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

CHANGE OF TIME 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing change of time 


26 


128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133 134 135 136 






137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 
140, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153 


Total 


20 











MIDE' SONGS 

This and the following song were said to form part of a ceremony 
which is held soon after the death of a member of the MMe'wiwm 
(Grand Medicine Society), and which has for one of its objects the 
direction of the spirit on its journey. (See Bulletin 45, p. 54.) 

No. 154. "The Noise of the Village" (Catalogue No. 306) 

Sung by KI'MIWUN 
VOICE & 56 

DRUM j 112 

(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 



1 -- 


=f 




-^==zr 


^=^'~ 



A - ni - na - ni - ba - yu - se - yan 



a - ni - 



i r 



:jz 




r 


.... 


r"' m'" r- 




I-zr 


T 


r 


r r 


X .,{? 


=t 


I 


-4 


\ if - J 




3E 


-J 


-^ 


3 h 



na - ni - ba - yu - se - yan e a - ni - na - ni - ba - yu 



3^3 ^E+l 




8e - yan a bu de - bwe - we o - de - na a - ni - 



na - ni - ba - yu - se- yan e a - ni - na - ni - ba -yu - se - yan 




a / nina / nibawiyan / ..... > ...... whenever I pause 

oVbwewe 7 ................... the noise 

ode'na .................. ..... of the village 



DENS MORE I 



CH1PPEWA MUSIC II 



279 



Analysis. The tempo of this song is very slow, the metric unit 
being a half note. The rhythmic unit occurs five times, as indicated. 
The melody comprises the tones of the fourth five-toned scale, yet 
the progressions are grouped about the minor triad with minor seventh 
added. (See Nos. 133, 147, 151, 152, 153.) The several renditions 
recorded show the rhythm unchanged but the intonation varying, a 
glissando being frequently introduced. 



No. 155. MIde 7 Song 

Sung by KI'MIW^N 

VOICE J = 72 
DRUM J-112 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 



(Catalogue No. 304) 




[^y-jf ^ -f-p- 


--j f p^i 


j 


hi T^f 2 


I LJ : 


* " 1* 

r- 


-"^ 










1 V 


i ^ a * * L ^ i i FV 


j 1 i r^. 


1 


K 




! 


h^#-f-ff-- 


^33=. 


i 


ESE 


hn-i 





Analysis. Three renditions of this song were recorded at Waba'cmg. 
A few weeks later the phonograph record was played for a member of 
the MMe'wiwm on the White Earth Reservation, who said that the 
melody was correct, but that the words were not. As he was a 
particularly good authority, the words are omitted in the transcrip- 
tion. The melody is simple, containing only the tonic triad and 
sixth and moving along harmonic lines. Attention is directed to the 
slow metric unit of the voice and the rapid unit of the drum. The 
rhythmic unit is unusually long and its repetitions embrace the 
entire song. 



280 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 156. "Be Kindly" (Catalogue No. 307) 

Sung by Ki 'MIWUN 
Outline of melody-progressions 

* 









WORDS 

wewe'mi be kindly 

nimanido' my manido' 

nikan' my Hide' brother 

Analysis. This song is transcribed in outline, quarter notes with- 
out stems being used to indicate the trend of the melody, but not 
the length of the tones. The first interval of the descending fourth 
is somewhat unusual. The flatted sixth, which was accurately sung, 
gives an effect of sadness to the close of the song. The words are 
broken by interpolated syllables and the rhythm contains little of 

interest. 

LOVE SONGS 

No. 157. "I Have Lost My Sweetheart" (Catalogue No. 300) 
I 

Sung by KI'MIWUN 
VOICE J 66 
Recorded without drum 

(1st) (1st) (1st) (1st) 




!l 



! 1 



(2d) 




(2d) 


(2d) 


' ^ r i* ' 


r\tt r 




i 1 1 


/y tt J" 1 ^~ 


h- 


-T-JH i-n=l 


~3- i =i f 


TT" 9 


~^~ 


-* 9 -*- -^ - 1 



Ke - a - bi - go 



ni - wa - ui - a 



nm - 1 - mu - ce 




WORDS 

kea / bigo / and still 

niwa x nia I have lost 

nin'imu'ce my sweetheart 

Analysis. This song contains three rhythmic units, and its melodic 
formation shows the triads of B minor and G major. The first sec- 
tion comprises three phrases on the triad of B minor and one on the 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC 



281 



triad of G major, the first rhythmic unit being steadily maintained. 
In the second section we note two phrases in B minor and one in G 
major, the second rhythmic unit being used ; this is folio wed by the third 
section, on the chord of B minor without the third, the song closing 
with two phrases in B minor, using the second and third rhythmic 
units. The second rhythmic unit opens with a division of the count, 
which occurs also in Nos. 151, 152, 159, 161, 163. 



No. 158. "I Will Not Drink" 

Sung by KI'MIW^N 



(Catalogue No. 301) 



VOICE j 66 
Recorded without drum 




Ka - win - ga - na-ge nin - ga - mi - na-kwe - si 




f f f f 



WORDS 



kawln'ganage 7 I will not 

ninga / minakwe / sl drink at all 

Analysis. This song was given with much freedom of tempo. It 
begins with an upward progression to an accidental, an opening which 
is unusual. The song is minor in tonality, melodic in structure, and 
contains all the tones of the octave except the second. 



No. 159. Love Song 

Sung by KI'MIW^N 



(Catalogue No. 302) 



VOICE J=63 
Recorded without drum 



) '4 



282 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. This song is unusually regular in form. It has 16 
measures and 4 periods, the first, second, and last periods con- 
taining the rhythmic unit. In the third period the phrases of the 
rhythmic unit are found in a reversed order. The metric unit was 
not steadily maintained, but the rhythmic unit shows no variation in 
the five renditions of the song. The division of the last count of the 
third measure is noted also in Nos. 152, 153, 157, 161, 163. 



No. 160. Love Song 

Sung by KI'MIWUN 



(Catalogue No. 303) 



VOICE J-96 
Recorded without drum 

I 





H^j^ 





Analysis. This song consists of five sections, each of which con- 
tains four measures. Each section is designated as a rhythmic unit 
although the measure-divisions differ somewhat in the latter part of 
the song. The accidentals were sung with correct intonation and the 
effect of the song is pleading and plaintive. 



VOICE J 63 

DRUM J 112 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 125 ) 



MOCCASIN GAME SONGS 
No. 161 

Sung by A / JIDE / GIJIG 



(Catalogue No. 292) 



i 



DENSlVfORK] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



283 



Analysis. This song lias the slow voice-rhythm which character- 
izes the moccasin game songs and which is noted also in Nos. 30, 51, 52, 
103. The melody comprises the tones of the fourth five- toned scale 
and is harmonic in structure. Although the song is major in tonality 
a large majority of the intervals are minor thirds. The song contains 
24 melodic progressions, 17 (71 per cent) of which are minor thirds, 
7 being ascending and 10 descending intervals (see Nos. 140, 141, 
151, 163). There is no rhythmic unit, but the division of the first 
count of the measure recurs with frequency (see Nos. 152, 153, 157, 
159, 163). 

No. 162. "The Sound of His Footsteps" (Catalogue No. 293) 

Sung by A' 
VOICE JL 192 

DRUM J-112 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 125 ) 



' 



I 



H 



si 



sa 



=t 



T~J"" 



as 



Pe-dwe-we- cln ne-ta-mi-co - dufi 



1 

-)T-t?-f F 


p 

? U r r 


i 

~i 2P ril fl r <* 


PT^ 


-w t-^v 


--^=-4=0 


-^-b-b-F fc 

pe'dwewe 
neta / mico 


1 gl 

x cln 


-^-LJ-H-H-t-]^ 

WORDS 

the soun 


d of his approaching footsteps 
iys hits the mark 


diln^. 


. who alwi 



Analysis. The tempo of this song is so rapid that it was necessary 
to reduce the speed of the phonograph in order to detect the metric 
unit and indicate the note-values. The rhythm was given uniformly 
in the two renditions of the song, showing that it was clear in the mind 
of the singer. The fourth is the principal interval of progression 
(see No. 22). 



284 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 163. Moccasin Game Song (Catalogue No. 305) 
Sung by KI'MIWUN 



VOICB J 96 
DRUM J-108 
(Drum-rhythm similar to No. 125) 




Analysis. This song contains only the tones of the tonic triad and 
sixth, the melody moving freely along harmonic lines. It has been 
noted that in some songs containing these tones the sixth is used as 
a passing tone, the melody being based on the tonic triad, while in 
other instances the sequence of the tones is such as to produce the 
minor triad with minor seventh as an integral part of the melodic 
framework. This song belongs to the latter group, the sixth being 
accented in the fourth measure and appearing again in the sixth 
measure, after which it is used only as a passing tone. (See Nos. 133, 
147, 151, 152, 153, 154.) The song is major in tonality, yet 12 of the 
intervals (55 per cent) are intervals of a minor third. (See Nos. 140, 
141, 151, 161.) The song contains no rhythmic unit. The division 
of the first count of the third measure is also noted in Nos. 152, 153, 
157, 159, 161. Three renditions of the song were recorded, which 
are identical in every respect. In this, as in most of the moccasin 
game songs, the metric unit of the drum is faster than that of the 
voice. 

DANCE SONGS 

The woman's dance is a feature of every gathering of the Minnesota 
Chippewa, but has never been introduced on the Lac du Flambeau 
Reservation in Wisconsin. This dance is said to have been acquired 
from the Sioux (see pp. 45, 46; also Bulletin 45, p. 192). The 
dancers face the drum, moving clockwise, in a circle. In plate 45 
are shown the Waba'cing Chippewa in a woman's dance. A shade 
of branches has been erected over the drummers, but the women 
wear their plaid woolen shawls. In this instance the men and women 
are dancing by themselves. A more common arrangement, when 
gifts are being freely exchanged, is for a man and a woman to dance 
together, the men and women alternating around the circle. 



DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



No. 164. Woman's Dance Song 

i 

Sung by A'J 

VOICE J=108 
DRUM J-108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 



285 

(Catalogue No. 295) 






n in J 



J 



Analysis. This song is strongly rhythmic in character but contains 
no rhythmic unit. It comprises the tones of the second five-toned 
scale and is definitely minor in tonality. The accented tones in the 
last seven measures correspond to the descending intervals of the 
tonic chord. The faulty intonation in the first measure was corrected 
in the second measure. (See Nos. 54, 129, 133, 146.) 



No. 165. "He Killed a Man' 

Sung by A'JIDE'GIJIG 



(Catalogue No. 294) 



VOICE J-168 
DRUM J-100 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

r 




Ca - mau-ga-nic a gi - nlc - i - wed i - 




na gi - nlc - i - wed 



WORDS 



camau'ganic a soldier 

gini'ciwed'. killed a man in war 



o 

Analysis. This very old song was sung by the women who went to 
meet a war party on its return to the village (see p. 118). The same 



286 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



song was recorded at White Earth (see Bulletin 45. p. 143), the two 
records being identical except that the former record includes the shrill 
falsetto cry given by the women. The structure of the melody is 
interesting. In the first six measures the rhythmic unit is repeated 
with regularity and the first note of that unit (which is also the first 
note of the measure) follows the descending intervals of the fourth 
five-toned scale. The remainder of the song is harmonic in outline, 
comprising first the chord on the sixth and then the third D sharp- 
F sharp, suggesting the chord of B major. Attention is directed to 
the interesting rhythm of the part of the song containing the words. 

No. 166. "I Carry It Away" (Catalogue No. 316) 

Sung by GEGWE'DJIBI'TUN (''SITTING NEAR IT") 

VOICE J-100 
DRUM J-100 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2) 

=, 







i 






Nin-da-ma-dj i-don 



-4- 



nin / dama / djidon / . 



WORDS 

I carry it away 



Analysis. This is a song of the ca'wuno'ga (southern dance) 
(see p. 129). The song was recorded on the White Earth ^Reservation 
also and the records were found to be identical. The^ rhythmic unit 
is not continuous but gives character to the song. The melody tones 
are those of the fourth five-toned scale and the effect of the song is 
that usually associated with this scale. Faulty intonation on the in- 
terval of the second is noted also in Nos. 54, 55, 61, 64. 100, 145, 166. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 
No. 167. "The Entire World" 

Sung by KI'MIWN 



287 

(Catalogue No. 297) 



VOICE J - 100 
DRUM J- 100 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 







*=t 




K - ng - go-kwag a - ki ni-ma- 




wi - mi - gun 



Spi 



@^ 



I II 



WORDS 



e / n6gokwag / the entire 

aki' world 

nima / wimigun / weeps for me 

Analysis. This was said to be the music of a dance much older 
than the ca r wuno r ga. The three renditions of the song recorded are 
identical except that the tone before the words is prolonged in the 
first rendition. The song is characterized by a vigorous rhythm, 
with a distinct unit which occurs three times in entirety and parts 
of which are found throughout the song. The melody is minor in 
tonality and contains only the tones of the tonic triad and sixth. 



288 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



COMBINED ANALYSES OF DREAM, MIDE'/LOVE, MOCCASIN GAME, AND 
DANCE SONGS WABA'CING VILLAGE, RED LAKE RESERVATION 



MELODIC ANALYSIS 

TONALITY 





Dream 
songs 


MIde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Major 


25 


3 


1 


3 


2 


34 


85 




1 




3 




2 


6 


15 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





Dream 
songs 


MIde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


On thirteenth ' 


1 










1 


2.5 


On sixth 


5 










5 


12 5 


On twelfth 


11 


1 


4 


2 


2 


20 


50 


On fifth 


4 


2 








6 


15 


On tenth 


3 










3 


7 5 


On third 


2 








1 


3 


7.5 


On tonic.... 








1 


1 


2 


5 


















Total * 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















ENDINGS OF SONGS 





Dream 

songs 


MIde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


On tonic 


14 


2 


4 


2 


2 


24 


60 


On fifth 


2 


1 




1 




4 


10 


On third . . . 


10 








2 


12 


30 


















Total... . 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















TONE MATERIAL 





Dream 
songs 


MIde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 

songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Second five-toned scale 










1 


1 


2.5 


Fourth five-toned scale 
Major triad 


15 
1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


22 
1 


55 
2 5 


Major triad and sixth 


9 


1 




1 




11 


27 5 


Minor triad and sixth 






1 




1 


2 


5 


Minor triad sixth and fourth... 


1 










1 


2.5 


Minor triad and fourth 






1 






1 


2 5' 


Octave complete except second. . 






1 






1 


2 5 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 




40 





















DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



289 



MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

ACCIDENTALS 





Dream 
songs 


MIde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Songs containing no accidentals. 
Songs containing sixth raised a 
semitone 


24 


2 


2 
1 


3 


3 


34 
I 


85 

g g 


Songs containing second raised 
a semitone 


2 








1 


3 


7 6 


Songs containing second raised 
a semitone and sixth lowered 
a semitone 






1 






1 


t.6 


Songs containing sixth lowered 
a semitone 












1 


t.S 


















Total 


26 


8 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















STRUCTURE 





Dream 
songs 


MIde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Harmonic 


14 


1 


1 


2 


2 


20 


60 


Purely melodic 


4 


2 


3 


1 


2 


12 


SO 


Melodic with harmonic frame- 
work ' 


g 










8 


to 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















FIRST PROGRESSION 





Dream 
songs 


MIde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Downward 


21 


3 


3 


3 


2 


32 


80 




5 




1 




2 


8 


to 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 

PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 





Dream 
songs 


MIde' 
songs 


1-ove 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Beginning on accented part of 
measure 


17 


1 


3 


3 


3 


27 


67 


Beginning on unaccented part 
of measure 


9 


2 


1 




1 


13 


SS 


















Totel 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















67996 Bull. 5313 19 



290 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS continued 

RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 





Dream 
songs 


Mlde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Beginning in 2-4 time 


15 


2 


2 


1 


1 


21 


52.5 


Beginning in 3-4 time 


9 




1 


2 


2 


14 


35 




1 










1 


2 5 


Beginning in 5-4 time 






1 




1 


2 


5 




1 










1 


2 5 


Transcribed in outline 




1 








1 


2.5 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















CHANGE OF TIME 





Dream 
songs 


Mlde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Songs containing change of time. 
Songs containing no change of 
time 


26 


1 
1 


3 
1 


3 


4 


37 
2 


9$. 5 
5 


Transcribed in outline 




1 








1 


2.5 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















RHYTHMIC UNIT 





Dream 
songs 


Mlde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


, 
Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Songs containing rhythmic unit. 
Songs containing two rhythmic 
units 


9 
1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


16 
1 


40 
g 


Songs containing three rhyth- 
mic units 






1 






1 


2 


Songs containing no rhythmic 
unit 


16 




1 


2 


2 


21 


S3 


Transcribed in outline 




j 








1 


2 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 





Dream 
songs 


Mlde' 
songs 


Love 
songs 


Moccasin 
game 
songs 


Dance 
songs 


Total 


Per cent. 


Metric unit of voice and drum 
the same 


13 








3 


16 


40 


Metric unit of voice and drum 
different 


13 


2 




3 


I 


19 


LI 5 


Transcribed in outline 




1 








1 


f 5 


Recorded without drum 






4 






4 


10 


















Total 


26 


3 


4 


3 


4 


40 





















SONGS OF WHITE EARTH RESERVATION 

This group contains songs of several classes, comprising all the 
material in this work collected on White Earth Reservation, Minn., 
except songs connected with war (pp. 59-141). 



No. 168. "We Have Salt" 

Sung by HENRY SELKIRK 



(Catalogue No. 268) 



VOICE J 160 
DRUM J-104 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 




Ma - no 
VOICB J 126 



ma- no ki - ga-dan -a - wen - i -mi - go - mln ji-wi 



ta - gun gi - da - ya - mm a - ja - wa - kwa gi - da- 




ya - mln 



WORDS 



ma'no let 

kigadean'awen'imlgo'min them despise us 

ji'wita'gun salt 

gi'dayamln' we have 

a / jawa / kwa here, beyond the belt of timber 

gi'dayamln' we live 

In the early days the Minnesota Chippewa had no salt, and some 
of the older Indians have not yet acquired a taste for it. In a treaty 
known as the "Salt Treaty," l concluded at Leech Lake, August 21, 
1847, with the Pillager Band of Chippewa, there was a stipulation 
that the Indians should receive 5 barrels of salt annually for five 
years. 

1 A compilation of all the treaties between the United States and the Indian tribes now in force as laws, 
Washington, 1873, p. 212. 

291 



292 



BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



Analysis. Four renditions of this song were recorded. In all 
these the drumbeat was steadily maintained but the voice tempo 
changed as indicated. (See the following groups, each comprising 
two songs: Nos. 100, 101; 103, 104; 121, 122.) The melody contains 
the tones of the major triad and sixth and would be classified as 
harmonic in structure except for the accented F in the fourth measure 
from the last. Meaningless syllables were used in the closing measures 

of the song. 

No. 169. "If I Were a Son-in-law" 

(Catalogue No. 269) 
Sung by HENRY SELKIRK 

VOICE J-184 
DRUM J=108 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 




Ko zi - gwa - ko-mi-nug 



niu-da - na - po - 





1 








*-= 


i 


i 


r- 1 g i -i 


H M* 


1 " I/ 

] 


L 
d - 




u< 


18 






na - i 


in - gub-i - yan e 


1 1 1 


1 C\' h 








1 


> 






N 1 


/ '*^~P' V 1 1 


*~j 5 i 


> 









i 


> 




00 


f? I -gy 


^ 6 K i 








L 








-2 


i r 11 



WORDS 

kozigwa / kominug / June berries 

ninda'nawapo'kinug 1 I would take to eat on my journey 

naangub'iyan' 2 . if I were a son-in-law 

June berries, which are abundant in the Chippewa country, con- 
stitute the simplest possible form of refreshment. "Take some June 
berries with you," is a common saying among the Chippewa. These 
berries grow on tall bushes; they are small and red, have firm white 
meat and very little juice, and are sweetish in taste. 

Analysis. This song contains the major triad and fourth, tone 
material found in only one other song of the series of 340. It is 
rhythmic in character but contains no unit of rhythm. The voice 
tempo is rapid and the song has a marked individuality. 

1 One syllable of this word was omitted by the singer. 

2 Two consecutive syllables of this word are accented. The Chippewa word meaning " son-in-law " is 
nadng'ic. The word occurring in the song contains also the root #&, meaning " to sit, " and would be lit- 
erally translated, "if I were sitting as a son-in-law." In the old days each member of a Chippewa family 
had his or her seat in the wigwam, and the son-in-law, coming into the home of his wife, had a seat assigned 
him, and was referred to as "sitting." This indicated that he had been received as a member of the 
family. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 170. "Work Steadily" 

Sung by MAIN'GANS 



293 

(Catalogue No. 270) 



VOICE J 60 
Recorded without drum 



ii 



-t-^- 



A - yafl-gwa-mi - sin tci - a - no - ki - yun 



,^ u ri f p * ^ , 

-R-H?-fc-u2 i 






-m. 

} 


f2 


f-1 

P * ' 






-i- 


v- 


\ 






=J= 





ga - ma - ka - mi - go iii - au e 



BH^tt^f 



WORDS 



be very careful 

teiano / kiyun / to work steadily 

gegama / kamigo / "I I am afraid they will take you away from 

. ./ me 



mau. 



Many of the Chippewa love songs can be sung by either a man or a 
woman, but this is a woman's song. 

Analysis. This song is slow in tempo and mournful in character. 
The tonality is minor, and the melody contains all the tones of the 
octave except the second. The subdominant is especially prominent 
and the song has a pleading quality. This peculiarity is noted in 
other love songs also (see Nos. 106, 109, 110). The time was not 
rigidly maintained on the eighth notes, which occur on the unaccented 
parts of the measure. 

PIPE DANCE SONGS 

The pipe dance was said to be the principal "good time dance" of 
the early Chippewa. It is very old and, like all other dances, is 
believed to have come from^ffiF""mianido / . In this dance a man 
carried a pipestem and his body was supposed to represent a pipe. 
The dancer never rose erect, but took a crouching or squatting posture, 
trying to assume the form of a pipe as nearly as possible. Many 
contortions of the body were used, and the antics of the dancers were 
considered very amusing. Only one man danced at a time. When 
he had finished dancing he presented the pipestem to another, who 
was obliged to accept it and dance; he transferred also the rattle 
which he carried. This procedure was continued until all the men 
had danced. Some were awkward, and their frantic efforts to 



294 



BUBEAU OF AMEBICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



imitate a pipe produced great merriment. It was considered a test 
of courage for a man to brave the ridicule of the assembly and seat 
himself where he would be asked to dance the pipe dance. In the 
early days the men who danced this wore no clothing except the 
moccasins, which were necessary to protect the feet. 

A characteristic of the music of this dance is that a sharp, short 
beat of the drum is frequently given, followed by an instant of silence. 
When this drumbeat is heard the dancer pauses in whatever attitude 
he may chance to be and remains motionless until the drumbeat is 
resumed. This is indicated in the transcription of the first pipe 
dance song. The drumbeat is very rapid, and the dancer is expected 
to keep in perfect time with it. 



No. 171. "O'gima" 1 

, Sung by E'NIWUB'E 

VOICE J-208 
DRUM J=138 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 2 ) 

r 



(Catalogue No. 408) 



i I 



-t)T-)>-t- 


r-2 f 

^4\ 





P 








T=R 


9 


nn 


11 


m 



Ha ni wa ya hi ne ha ha ni wa ya hi ne ha 



C\* u . 




o ' i *> 




2fgSntf 


i if 


1 V j* F ; 1 ^ ^- 


\ ' 


* b 






_ 


Wa - ba 


- ca o - gi - ma ya ho na 


Wa - ba - 


O* b u 




1-3 9 * ^ f 


-y ^ H 


-^/ tK t? ft ^ 




^fi- *\ 


^~ H 


^ t> 1 


\ 


9 


^ u 


ca 


o - gi - ma ya ho 


na 



WORDS 



Waba x ca Waba^a, name of a Sioux chief 

o x gima chief 

Analysis. In the several renditions of this song E'niwub'e intro- 
duced the names of four chiefs, belonging to three different tribes: 
Waba'ca, a Sioux; Na'ogade', a Winnebago; and Kaga'giwayan 7 
and Wasi'kwade', of the Chippewa. 2 The mention of these names 
does not signify that the chiefs were actually present at the dance, 
but that the Chippewa remembered them on an occasion of pleasure. 

i This song is analyzed with Unclassified Lac du Flambeau Songs, p. 242. 
* Compare repetition of names in Song of the Peace Pact (No. 44). 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



295 



The melody is simple in structure and contains only the tonic with 
the third and fourth. This tone material (minor third and fourth) is 
found in only two songs of the series of 340 (see No. 157 in Bulletin 
45, and No. 11 of the present work). Attention is directed to the 
.rapid tempo of both voice and drum, also to the pauses following the 
explosive tones. 

No. 172. "Little Plover" (Catalogue No. 281) 

Sung by ODJ!B / WE 
VOICE Jr=160 
DRUM J 96 
( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 




yo we ni 



kai yo we ni 
WORDS 



kai 



yo we ni 



djitcis / kiwen / little plover, it is said 

gi'bimuse' 1 has walked by 

Analysis. The singer stated that in this dance the men frequently 
imitated the motions of the plover, when singing this song. 2 The 
melody, which is short, consists of two distinct parts, the first in 
double, the second in triple, time ; the former contains five measures 
and the latter four measures. Each part of the song has its own 
rhythm and tone material, the first containing the descending fifth 
from the dominant to the tonic, and the second the descending fourth 
from the tonic to the dominant to the lower octave. It is interesting 
to note in connection with the statement of Gardiner (quoted on p. 7) 
that the note of the plover is a descending minor third, that 38 per 
cent of the intervals are descending minor thirds. 

The song contains only two upward progressions; two other songs 
having similar characteristics are Nos. 6 and 38 in Bulletin 45. The 
nine renditions of this song recorded show no variation. 

1 The second syllable of this word was omitted by the singer. 

2 See pp. 101,201,203. 



296 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 173. "Why?" (Catalogue No. 282) 

Sung by ODjis'wE 

VOICE J=192 

DRUM J 96 

( Drum-rhythm similar to No. 19 ) 




We - go - nen nin - dan - gwe 



wen - djl - ni - mi - yuiig 






ga wen - dji - ni - mi-yufig ga 

WORDS 



wen - dji - ni - mi - yufig 



wegonen / .................... why 

nindan x gwe ................. my (female) friend 

do we dance? 



Analysis. Six renditions of this song were recorded. In a major- 
ity of these the last tone of the transcription was omitted, the singer 
returning to the first measure with no interruption of the time (see 
No. 125). It will be noted that the next to the last measure of the 
song is abrupt and unfinished, but the singer found no difficulty in 
beginning the repetition of the song on the proper pitch. The song 
is characterized by the emphatic syllable ga, given with a prolonged 
tone on the descending intervals of the tonic triad. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC H 

MIDE' SONGS 



No. 174. Mlde' Burial Song (a) 

Sung by NA'WAJI'BIOO'KWE 
VOICE J=rl52 
Recorded without drum 

I 

| 



297 



(Catalogue No. 283) 






Gi-ga-ma - dja ya gi-ga-ma - dja ya gl-ga-ma- 






m 



ya gl-ga-ina - dja gi-ga-ma -dja 







gi-ga-ma -dja ya gi-ga-ma - dja 



yd gi-ga-ma - 






I 






dja a o- de - naftg gi-di-no - se sa gl-dl-no - 




gl-dl-no - se 



gi-ga-ma - dja 



WORDS 



gi'gamadja 7 you shall depart 

ode x nang^ to the village 

gl / dlnose / you take your steps 

This and the song next following were recorded by a prominent 
member of the Mlde'wlwm on the White Earth Reservation ; they were 



298 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



said to be used during the burial of a member of that society. There 
is a peculiar gentleness in both these melodies. They are cheerful, 
yet plaintive, and are worthy of attention as features of the cere- 
monies connected with what is commonly designated "a heathen 
burial." 

Analysis. A persistent rhythmic unit characterizes this song. The 
second measure of this unit is given in triple time and then in 
double time. As in most MMe' songs, the words are continuous, but 
this song contains none of the ejaculations used in songs intended to 
produce definite results by means of " spirit power" (see Bulletin 
45, p. 43). The melody is interesting, though simple in structure, 
and is characterized by the interval of the fourth, as noted in many 
songs which contain the idea of motion. (See No. 22.) 



No. 175. MIde' Burial Song (b) 

Sung by NA'WAJI'BIGO'KWE 



(Catalogue No. 284) 



TOICE J 160 
Recorded without drum 



i _ & _ J -^ -fS- +-+-+\ 

SIB flu o ^ ^ 1 L_ Li 


Tf- 


Tl ' s - 


-^ 


-f- 


fp^- 


f i 


^ftf-rf =| 


-U 


-H " 








- 1 




i 




1 


NS - ni - wa ha ni- ba-wi 


- da 


ha N6 


- ni- 


wa 


Aa 


, JL m p m^ 1 1 p^ 


(3 


/2 _ 


O 






~1 










' i fl 







(? \ 


^~^$ fe ^""^ *ti~ - - ^j~ 




] 1 


-LJ- 


-tf 




1 


-\ 


ft 
ni-ba- wi - da Aa Ne - ni - 


wa 


ha ni-ba-wi - da 
*- ^A^.. 


1 J 
ha 

f? 


r T 


1 


_J-|JL p E 1 ( (22 -^ ^ P^ 


- F f 






dS 




N8 - ni - wa ha ni-ba-wi - da 


Ng 


i 
- ni - wa 


ni-ba- wi - 


da 


\JLJL a -xs 

u. to f 3 * -1 


p ' P 


| 




"^'5 tftt 1 ^ h L^ 


r 




f 




a? 






-T^ 


i== 






m 


-\ 



ha Ne - ni - wa he gi-ga-wa- ban-dan ni - au e he 

- -^ 

^r^ 






N6 - ni - wa ha e -n6n- da-man e he N6 - ni - wa ha 




ni-ba-wi - da ha NS - ni - wa ha ni-ba-wi - da 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



299 



WORDS 

NSniwa' (name of a man) 

ni'bawida' let us stand 

gi'gawa'bandan 7 and you shall see 

niau my body 

SneVdaman' as I desire 

Analysis. This song is in the same key as the preceding and has 
the same peculiar ending. The rhythmic unit shows a slight varia- 
tion in the middle of the song, but clearly influences the entire rhythm. 
The song contains only the tones of the minor triad and fourth. 



MOCCASIN GAME SONG 
No. 176 

Sung by WILLIAM POTTER 



(Catalogue No. 285) 



VOICE zrlOS 
DRUM J=108 
( Dram-rhythm similar to No. 125 ) 



a 







i 








Analysis. This song is harmonic in structure, major in tonality, 
and contains only the tones of the tonic triad and sixth. The rhythm 
was steadily maintained throughout the six renditions. At Waba'- 
chig a song rendered by a member of a Canadian band of Chippewa, 
temporarily residing there, was recorded, which resembles this so 
closely that it may be considered the same song, although it is in 3-4 
instead of 2-4 time. (See No. 144.) That singer said it was a 
dream song, by means of which success in the moccasin game was 
secured. In his rendition the metric unit of the voice was slow and 
that of the drum rapid. In the rendition by the White Earth singer, 
a man accustomed to the ways of civilization, voice and drum were 
in the same tempo. The comparison is of interest, as the singers 
were widely separated in locality and in genera] development. 

LOVE SONGS 

The two songs next following were sung by Mrs. Julia Warren 
Spears, sister of Hon. William Warren, author of the History of the 
Ojibway, and sister of Mrs. Mary Warren English (see p. v). 
Both Mrs. Spears and her sister are women of marked ability; they 



300 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



are lineal descendants of Richard Warren who came over in the 
Mayflower. Mrs. Spears is mother of Mrs. Charles Mee, who has 
greatly assisted the writer in securing material on the White Earth 
Reservation. 

The following description of the songs was given by the singer, 
Mrs. Spears, who also translated the words: 

When I was a girl 15 years old, living on Madeline Island in Lake Superior, I had a 
friend and playmate, a very pretty Indian maiden. She was the daughter of a chief, 
an only child, and she was always singing these songs. I learned them from her 
and have never forgotten them. The first is sung when the maiden sees the young 
Indian brave for the first time and they fall in love with each other. In her happiness 
she sings that song. The other is when her lover leaves her to travel a long distance, 
and being very lonely she sings the sad little song. 

Mrs. Spears learned these songs more than 60 years before they 
were recorded by the phonograph. The writer heard them sung by 
Mrs. Spears at intervals during a period of several years and the rendi- 
tions never varied in any respect. 

(Catalogue No. 286) 
No. 177. "I Have Found My Lover" 

Sung by MRS. JULIA WARREN SPEARS 

VOICE J-108 

Recorded without drum 











Ma nin-di - ne"n - dtim nia nin-dl-nen -dum 



ka-wi - 




a -nin 



nin - i-mu - cen sa 



nin-di-ngn - dum 



WORDS 



nia 1 Oh 

nin'dineVdum I am thinking 

nia Oh 

nin'dinSn'dum I am thinking 

me / kawia / nin I have found 

nin'imucSn' : my lover 

nia. Oh 

nin'dinen'dum .1 think it is so 



Analysis. This song is purely melodic in structure, the melody 
moving freely along the tones of the tonic triad. Other songs com- 
posed or sung by women are Nos. 31, 39, 40, 112, 127, 151, 178. The 
rhythm of the first six measures is somewhat changed in the second 
section of the song. The range of the melody is of interest in con- 



1 A woman's exclamation of surprise. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC H 



301 



nection with the fact that it was sung correctly and with pleasing 
tone by a woman more than 70 years of age. 



No. 178. "He Is Going Away" 

Sung by MRS. JULIA WARREN SPEARS 
VOICE J 54 
Recorded without drum 



(Catalogue No. 287) 





Wa - sa - we - ka - mi - kafig 



wa 



I - ja - cl nin - i - 




mu - ce wa - i' - ba wa 



I - ba wi - ta -gwic - In - sa 



WORDS 



wa'sawe'kami'kang to a very distant land 

waljVci he is going 

nin'imu'ce my lover 

wa'iba soon 

witagwic'insa he will come again 

Analysis. In structure this song differs widely from the one next 
preceding. Instead of beginning on the twelfth and ending on the 
tonic, it begins on the dominant above the tonic and ends on the 
dominant below the tonic; it is melodic instead of harmonic; it begins 
in double, instead of in triple, time; and instead of the simple tones 
of the tonic triad we find a tone-material which has been but rarely 
noted. The melody contains only the first, second, fifth, and sixth 
tones of the major key. This tone-material is found in only five other 
songs of the entire series (see No. 53). Other songs said to have 
been composed or sung by women are Nos. 31, 39, 40, 112, 127, 151, 
177. 



302 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

SONGS FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT OF CHILDREN 
No. 179. Song of the Game of Silence 

(Catalogue No. 448) 



VOICE J-192 
Recorded without drum 



Sung by JOHN W. CARL 



f t- + 

H>2 E I I ^ 



A - go- djin a - go - djin e - kwa - teg ko - koc - ne - wa - ba - mti na 



r 



2 



*rl-Vr 



bo - zi - de me - ma - gi - ci - a - si - wa - ge he we - mi - ti 



& 



go - ji - wtig - e ^ie ma - mi - ga - di - wug - e Ac ma - mis-kwe 1 

JfL JL. JL V2. ^_ 



-* ^_ 






wa - pi - ni - ni - di - wug - e Tie du - m e he. du - ni c 




dti- ril e he he da- gi - tcT- gam - e - we - na he da - gi- 



tci-gam-i - we - na ic- kwe - a-cin-ge he en - di - ji - dji - tci- 




gwa - kwen-dji - ge - yan e he bi - ji - we - ku- wi - a 



bl - ji - we - ku - wi - a na - ma - ha - na - na - ga - na na - ma 










ha - na - na - ga - na kwa-kwac-k wan-da-mo kwa-kwac-k wan-da-mo 



DENS MORE] CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 303 

WORDS 

ago'djln it is hanging 

ekwateg / in the edge of the sunshine 

kokoc'newa'bamft' it is a pig, I see 

na / bozide / with its double (cloven) hoofs 

mema'gidM'adisiwage' 1 it is a very fat pig 

we'mltigo'jlwftge' The people who live in a hollow tree 2 

ma / miga / diwuge / are fighting 

ma'miskwSwa'pina'diwuge' they are fighting bloodily 

dunl' he is rich 

da'gltclgam'ewena' he will carry a pack toward the great water 

(The rabbit speaks) 3 

Ic'kweaclnge' at the end of the point of land 

en'dljidji'tcigwakwen'djigeyan' I eat the bark off the tree 

bljiwe'kuwia' I see the track of a lynx 

nama / nahaninda / nagana' I don't care, I can get away from him 

kwa / kwackwandamo / it is a jumping trail (referring to a rabbit 

trail by which the singer will travel to 

safety) 

s6p! (an interjection without mean- 
ing) 

This song was recorded by Mr. John W. Carl (see pp. 83, 130), a 
graduate of Haskell Institute. Mr. Carl's mother, a Chippewa, sang 
two of the MIde' songs contained in Bulletin 45 (serial Nos. 78, 79). 
Until he was 10 years of age Mr. Carl lived the typical life of a Chip- 
pewa child in a tribal camp. He stated that he had a distinct recol- 
lection of this game. 

The "game of silence," which consisted in keeping still as long as 
possible, was played by the children at the suggestion of the older 
members of the family. It is said to have been called frequently 
into requisition when the adults wished to discuss matters of impor- 
tance. A pile of presents was placed in the center of the wigwam 
beaded moccasins, belts, and arrows of attractive design. These 
were to be the reward of keeping perfectly still for an indefinite 
period of time. The game was usually played in the evening, and 
if the children fell asleep before the spell was broken it was cus- 
tomary to renew the contest as soon as morning came and the family 
were waking. The child who first spoke or laughed was regarded as 
ingloriously defeated, while he who held out the longest received the 
spoils. 

When the game was started this song was sung by some one with 
an active imagination. The indicated words are not arbitrary. 
Still more startling situations might be invented and the narrative 
continued still longer. The words of the song as rendered are in four 
distinct sections with no apparent connection between them. To the 

1 This word and the next to the last word are slightly changed to conform to the music. 
This term probably refers to the French, who lived in log cabins. 
3 This refers to a familiar folk-tale in which the rabbit defied the lynx. 



304 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

child mind is first presented the vision of a pig a very fat pig- 
hanging in a tree. Next is shown the Frenchmen in gory conflict, 
followed instantly by the rich man, who carries a pack toward the 
great water. Where can he be going and why does he travel alone ? 
But with another lightning transition we are on familiar ground. 
The rabbit is speaking. We all know how he jeered the lynx from his 
place of safety on the point of land, extending far into the water. 
He nibbled the bark off the tree and said he was not afraid, because 
he knew of a rabbit track that led from that tree right away through 
the brush. It was a jumping trail. We know that kind of trail. 
S&p! The singer has stopped. What child laughed? The story 
ended so suddenly! It was a very funny story. We watch the fire 
with blinking eyes. "A pig in a tree." Yes, yes! It is warm in 
the wigwam. The little dogs snuggle cosily. "The fighting French- 
men." We saw a Frenchman once. It is fair to yawn if you do not 
make any noise. Let us have part of that blanket. There is a bow 
that goes with the red arrows in the pile of presents. Perhaps we 
will get it. But we wish wish we might have really seen the 
very fat pig in the tree. 

Curled in the blanket with their little dogs the Indian children are 
asleep. 

Analysis. The tonic triad forms the framework of this melody, 
part of which is above the tonic and part below it. All the tones of 
the octave except the seventh occur in the melody. The rhythm is 
lively and well-sustained though the song contains no rhythmic unit. 

The next song accompanies one of the folk-tales (a'dizo'lce) told 
to the children. The Chippewa have other folk-tales which belong 
more especially to the older people; these are the stories of We'nabo'jo 
(see Bulletin 45, pp. 92, 206). There are also stories of giants, or 
cannibals, called win'dfyo. All these stories are of indefinite length, 
it even being said" that the full narration of the doings of We'nabo'jo 
requires an entire winter, the story being begun each evening where 
it was left the previous evening. In contrast to these are stories 
similar to the one under consideration, which are brief and concise. 
On the Red Lake Reservation the writer was told stories which were 
said to be native but which were in reality a Chippewa version of 
such well-known Hans Andersen stories as " Little Claus and Big 
Claus." The story of Cinderella also was related with slight adapta- 
tion. It is probable that these stories were introduced many years 
ago by the wives of traders who came from Canada. It is said that 
many of these were women of culture and that they often told stories 
to the Indian children. These stories were found on no other reser- 
vation. Several of the stories told to children have been given to the 
writer on three reservations in Minnesota and also on the Lac du 
Flambeau Reservation in Wisconsin, the versions differing in detail 



DEXSMORE'] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 



305 



but retaining the same outline. Many of these stories contain one 
or more songs, which are always said to be sung by the characters of 
the story. These songs are therefore a form of musical expression 
ascribed to animals, the actors in the stories almost without exception 
being animals indigenous to the region. Among the most persistent 
stories is that of the Coon and the Crawfish, which follows: 

There was once a coon who lived in the country of the crawfish and made them a 
great deal of trouble. At last the crawfish started to make war on the coon. They 
said they were going to kill him . An old female crawfish warned them against this and 
said that the coon was so cunning he would surely kill them. She showed them her 
fingers, which the coon had bitten, and said that he had destroyed whole villages of 
crawfish. But they would not listen to her. They still said they were going to make 
war on the coon, so the old "woman " went into the water and stood there to see what 
would happen. 

The coon was lying beside the road when the crawfish came along, singing their war 
song. He seemed to be asleep. Gathering around him and still singing their song, 
the crawfish pinched him with their claws; sometimes he winced as they did so, 
pleasing the crawfish very much. But the song was interrupted. The coon suddenly 
jumped up, crying, "Why are you disturbing my nap?" Then he ate all the craw- 
fish every one of them. 

The old " woman" standing up to her neck in the water saw it all; she was 
safe and the coon could not get her. She laughed to see that what she said had come 
true. 

The song as recorded contains the words "e'stbtin is dead." In 
that version of the story the coon is represented as feigning death. 
Another singer sang the song using the words "e'stbttn cringes," in 
which version the coon pretended to be asleep. 



No. 180. Song of the Crawfish 

Sung by ODJIB'WE 
VOICE J 108 
Recorded without drum 



(Catalogue No. 449) 




E 



si - bun ni - bo 




WORDS 

e'slbun coon 

ni'bo... . dead 



Analysis. This song contains only the first, second, fifth, and 
sixth tones of the minor key (see No. 53). The interval of the fourth 
is prominent in the formation of the melody; this has been noted also 
in other songs concerning animals (see No. 22). 



.67996 Bull. 5313- 



-20 



306 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Songs White Earth Reservation 



[BULL. 53 



This group contains 2 social songs (Nos. 168, 169) ; 3 love songs 
(Nos. 170, 177, 178); 2 pipe dance songs (Nos. 172, 173); 2 MXde' 
songs (Nos. 174, 175); 1 moccasin game song (No. 176); and 5 songs 
for the entertainment of children (Nos. 51, 52, 53, 179, 180). 



MELODIC ANALYSIS 
TONALITY 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Major 


9 


53, 168, 169, 172, 173, 176 177 178 179 


Minor 


6 


51, 52, 170, 174, 175, 180 








Total 


15 











BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


On twelfth 


3 


168 166 176 


On fifth ... 


4 


172, 174, 178, 179 


On eleventh 


1 


51 


On tenth . ... 


1 


52 


On third 


1 


173 


On octave 


2 


169 170 


On second . .... 




180 


On tonic 


2 


53 175 








Total 


15 











ENDINGS OF SONGS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


On tonic 


10 


51 52 53 168 169 170 172 173 176 177 


On tonic fifth 


5 


174 175 178 179 180 








Total 


15 











DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 
MELODIC ANALYSIS continued 

TONE MATERIAL 



307 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Fifth five-toned scale 


2 


51 52 


Major triad 


1 


177 


Major triad and seventh 


1 


173 


Major triad and sixth 


3 


168 172 176 


Major triad and fourth 


1 


169 


Minor triad and fourth 


i 


175 


Octave complete except seventh 


j 


179 


Octave complete except seventh and sixth 


1 


174 


Octave complete except second 


I 


170 


First, second, fourth, and fifth tones 


I 


53 


First, second, fifth, and sixth tones 


2 


178 180 








Total 


15 











ACCIDENTALS 





Number 
of songs 


Serial Nos. of songs 


Songs containing no accidentals 


15 


51 52 53 168 169 170 172 173 174 175 






176, 177, 178, 179, 180 


Total 


15 











STRUCTURE 



Harmonic 

Purely melodic 

Melodic with harmonic framework. 

Total... 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



l.l 



172, 176, 177 

51, 52, 53, 170, 173, 174, 175, 178, 179, 180 

168, 169 



FIRST PROGRESSION 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



Downward. 
Upward.... 



51, 52, 170, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 179, 180 
53, 168, 169, 175, 178 



Total. 



308 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 53 



RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS 

PART OF MEASURE ON WHICH SONG BEGINS 



Number 
of songs 



Serial Nos. of songs 



I 

On accented part 11 51, 53, 168, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 

178, 180 
On unaccented part - 4 52, 169, 170, 179 

Total ' 15 



RHYTHM OF FIRST MEASURE 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs beginning in 2-4 time 11 51, 52, 168, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 179, 

180 
Songs beginning in 3-4 time 4 53,169,170,177 

Total - 15 

CHANGE OF TIME 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs containing change of time 14 51, 52, 53, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 

177,178,179,180 
Songs containing no change of time 1 176 

Total : 15 

RHYTHMIC UNIT 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Songs containing rhythmic unit .6 168, 172, 173, 174, 175, 180 

Songs containing no rhythmic unit 9 51, 52, 53, 169, 170, 176, 177, 178, 179 

Total i 15 

COMPARISON OF METRIC UNIT OF VOICE AND DRUM 

Serial Nos. of songs 

Metric unit of voice and drum the same 2 51, 176 

Metric unit of voice and drum different 4 168, 169, 172, 173 

Recorded without drum 9 53^ 159, 170, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180 

Total 15 



RHYTHMIC UNITS OF CHIPPEWA SONGS 

The purpose of the following section is to place the rhythmic units 
of the several classes of songs in convenient form for observation. 
The analyses on pages 51-58 note some melodic and rhythmic resem- 
blances between song-groups which have an underlying idea in com- 
mon. The study of resemblances can be carried still further by com- 
paring the rhythmic units of songs of related groups. 

RHYTHMIC UNITS OF MIDE' SONGS 1 



No. 1 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 189) 



r> -0- + +- 



l 



a 



-ff-*- 



No. 2 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 238) 



1 C\' 








j ! 






10 f 


1 " i *f -^ 


1 


1 


-^-P 




H 1 


&= 



No. 3 (Bull. 45) 






No, 5 (Bull. 45) 




No. 6 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 239) 



(Catalogue No. 240) 



(Catalogue No. 241) 




No. 7 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 54) 



rrr^x- 



i See pp. 34, 51. 



310 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 8 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 55) 









No. 10 (Bull. 45) 

^..rw 



(Catalogue No. 237) 



No. 11 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 61) 





1 1 


-1 1 ! 1_ 






No. 12 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 62) 
^T~^ 1 



No. 13 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 63) 




No. 14 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 65) 



S 



No. 15 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 66) 



E ^ 



No. 17 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 123) 



g 



No. 39 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 30) 






DENS MORE] 



OHIPPEWA MUSIC - II 
No. 61 (Bull. 45) 






(Catalogue No. 69) 




(Catalogue No. 70) 



No. 63 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 254) 






No. 64 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 67) 






f=f- 



i-4 f? f ~f~n 
-&- i ill 



No. 65 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 56) 




No. 68 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 59) 






No. 69 (Bull. 45) 






(Catalogue No. 60) 

n 



No. 70 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 64) 




312 




BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 71 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 73) 






No. 76 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 53) 






No. 77 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 78) 




** 



No. 78 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 79). 



^ 



No. 79 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 71) 




No. 80 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 14) 









-- -m-P- 



No. 81 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 191) 






No. 82 (Bull. 45) 

r 






No. 83 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 192) 



(Catalogue No. 193) 






DENSMORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 84 (Bull. 45) 



313 

(Catalogue No. 194) 




No. 85 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 195) 






No. 86 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 197) 






No. 87 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 199) 



No. 88 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 200) 






No. 89 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 236) 



No. 90 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 248) 






No. 91 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 253) 



tf 



No. 92 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 255) 






314 



BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY IBULL. 53 

No. 93 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 256) 



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No. 154 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 306) 

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No. 155 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 304) 






No. 174 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 283) 




No. 175 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 284) 






RHYTHMIC UNITS OF DKEAM SONGS J 

No. 109 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 245) 



No. 110 (Bull. 45) 

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(Catalogue No. 246) 






No. Ill (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 213) 






See pp. 37, 52. 



DENS MORE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 112 (Bull. 45) 



No. 115 (Bull. 45) 





No. 94 (Bull. 53) 



315 
(Catalogue No. 206) 



(Catalogue No. 209) 



No. 116 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 210) 




No. 118 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 212) 




No. 121 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 261) 



(Catalogue No. 394) 




No. 95 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 398) 




No. 97 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 433) 






316 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 5.'i 

No. 98 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 434) 



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No. 99 (Bull. 53) 

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(Catalogue No. 399) 




No. 101 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 422) 






No. 102 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 395) 







No. 103 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 396) 



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No. 104 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 397) 






No. 128 (Bull. 53) 



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(Catalogue No. 289) 

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No. 131 (Bull. 53) 

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CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 134 (Bull. 53) 



317 

(Catalogue No. 320) 






No. 135 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 323) 






No. 140 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 310) 



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No. 141 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 311) 



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No. 142 (Bull. 53; 



(Catalogue No. 312) 



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No. 143 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 313) 






No. 147 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 291) 
1 




No. 153 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 322) 




318 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

RHYTHMIC UNITS OF WAR SONGS l 

No. 125 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 215) 







No. 127 (Bull. 45) 



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(Catalogue No. 230) 



No. 128 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 271) 



No. 129 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 276) 



(Catalogue No. 277) 



(Catalogue No. 114) 



No. 132 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 116) 



No. 155 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 140) 



1 See pp. 40, 53. 



UENSMOBE] 



CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 161 (Bull. 45) 



319 

(Catalogue No. 167) 



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No. 1 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 392) 



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No. 2 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 371) 

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No. 3 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 340) 




No. 4 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 387) 




No. 5 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 391) 






No. 6 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 384) 




No. 8 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 338) 



320 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULT, 53 

No. 11 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 358) 

-StL 



No. 12 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 359) 



No. 13 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No, 13) 






No. 15 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 360) 






No. 16 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 361) 



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No. 17 (Bull. 53) 
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(Catalogue No. 362) 




No. 18 (Bull. 53) 




( Catalogue No. 343) 

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No. 19 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 333) 



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No. 20 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 332) 

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CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 321 

No. 21 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 370) 



No. 22 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 372) 

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No. 23 (Bull. 53) 






(Catalogue No. 382) 






No. 24 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 373) 







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No. 25 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 26 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 27 (Bull. 53) 




(Catalogue No. 376) 



No. 28 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 369) 









No. 29 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 341) 






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322 



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No. 37 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 389) 

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(Catalogue No. 348) 



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No. 44 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 46 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 47 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 354) 



(Catalogue No. 355) 






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No. 63 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 423) 



324 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 64 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 424) 






No. 65 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 425) 

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No. 66 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 432) 



No. 80 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 83 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 85 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 415) 




No. 86 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 88 (Bull.. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 411) 



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CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 325 

No. 89 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 412) 



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No. 92 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 418) 



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RHYTHMIC UNITS OF LOVE SONGS J 

No. 134 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 99) 




No. 135 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 101) 




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No. 136 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 104) 

71 



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No. 138 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 107) 






See pp. 41, 53. 



326 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 139 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 110) 



No. 140 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 262) 






No. 163 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 161) 



No. 164 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 155) 



No. 105 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 108 (Bull. 53) 



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No. 109 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 442) 






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CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 

No. 110 (Bull. 53) 



327 

(Catalogue No. 443) 

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No. 112 (Bull. 53) 



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(Catalogue No. 445) 

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(Catalogue No. 302) 



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No. 160 (Bull. 53) 



( Catalogue No. 303) 



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RHYTHMIC UNITS OF MOCCASIN GAME SONGS l 

No. 142 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 112) 



No. 172 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 171) 



No. 174 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 150) 




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328 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 125 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 410) 



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No: 126 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 427) 






No. 162 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 293) 



RHYTHMIC UNITS OF WOMAN'S DANCE SONGS 



No. 177 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 132) 




No. 180 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 141) 




No. 181 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 153) 



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No. 184 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 177) 



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DENSMORKj CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 329 

RHYTHMIC UNITS OF BEGGING DANCE SONGS l 

No. 115 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 438) 



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No. 116 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 439) 




No. 118 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 441) 



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RHYTHMIC UNITS OF PIPE DANCE SONGS 2 

No. 171 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 408) 



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No. 173 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 282) 






RHYTHMIC UNITS OF SONGS CONNECTED WITH GIFTS 3 

No. 152 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 92) 



No. 153 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 93) 















1 See pp. 47, 56. 



2 See pp. 48, 56. 



See pp. 49, 57. 



330 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [ BULL. 53 

No. 189 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 168) 










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No. 123 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 435) 

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No. 124 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 436) 



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RHYTHMIC UNITS OF SONGS FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT OF CHILDREN 1 

No. 197 (Bull. 45) (Catalogue No. 272) 






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No. 127 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 447) 






No. 180 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 449) 



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RHYTHMIC UNITS OF UNCLASSIFIED SONGS 2 

No. 146 (Bull. 45) * (Catalogue No. 105) 



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2 See p. 50. 



DENS MORE] 






CHIPPEWA MUSIC II 
No. 147 (Bull. 45) 



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(Catalogue No. 109) 



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No. 192 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 160) 



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No. 194 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 163) 






No. 195 (Bull. 45) 



(Catalogue No. 164) 



No. 67 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 428) 



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No. 68 (Bull. 53) 
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(Catalogue No. 429) 



No. 119 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 404) 



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No. 120 (Bull. 53) 



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332 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN" ETHNOLOGY [BULL. 53 

No. 121 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 413) 



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No. 165 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 294) 






No. 166 (Bull. 53) 



(Catalogue No. 316) 



No. 167 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 297) 




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No. 168 (Bull. 53) (Catalogue No. 268) 






AUTHORITIES CITED 

BAIRD, S. F., BREWER, T. M., AND RIDQWAY, R. North American birds. Boston, 

1874. 

BAKER, THEODOR. Uber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden. Leipzig, 1882. 
BARAGA, FREDERIC. Dictionary of the Otchipwe language, pt. n. Montreal, 1880. 
BARRETT, S. A. Dream dance of the Chippewa and Menominee Indians of northern 

Wisconsin; in Bull. Pub. Mus. Milwaukee, vol. i, art. 4. Milwaukee, 1911. 
BOAS, FRANZ. Chinook songs; in Jour. Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. I. Boston and New 

York, 1888. 

BREWER, T. M. See BAIRD, BREWER, AND RIDGWAY. 
BROWER, J. V., AND BUSHNELL, D. I., jr. Mille Lac. St. Paul, 1900. 
BUSHNELL, D. I., jr. See BROWER AND BUSHNELL. 
CHURCH, GEORGE EARL. Aborigines of South America. London, 1912. 
CRINGAN, A. T. Description of Iroquois music; in Archaeological Report, App. Rep. 

Min. Education Ontario. Toronto, 1898. 

CULIN, STEWART. Indian games; in 24th Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. Washington, 1907. 
DAY, CHARLES R. Chapter on musical instruments, in Mockler- Ferry man, Up the 

Niger. London, 1892. 

DORSEY, J. OWEN. Siouan sociology; in 15th Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn. Washing- 
ton, 1897. 

ELLIS, ALEX. J. See HELMHOLTZ. 
FILLMORE, JOHN COMFORT. Primitive scales and rhythms; in Mem. Int. Cong. 

Anthr. Chicago, 1894. See FLETCHER. 
FLETCHER, ALICE C., aided by FRANCIS LA FLESCHE. A study of Omaha Indian 

music. With a report on the structural peculiarities of the music by JOHN 

COMFORT FILLMORE, A. M. Arch, and Ethn. Papers Peabody Mus., Har- 
vard Univ., vol. i, No. 5. Cambridge, 1893. 

FOLWELL, W. W. Minnesota, the North Star State. Boston, 1908. 
GARDINER, WILLIAM. The music of nature. Boston, 1838. 
GILMAN, BENJAMIN IVES. Hopi songs. Boston, 1908. 
GRAM, WILLIAM. See STONE. 
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN INDIANS NORTH OF MEXICO. Bull. 30, pts. 1 and 2, Bur. 

Amer. Ethn. Washington, 1907 (pt. 1); 1910 (pt. 2). 
HELMHOLTZ, H. L. F. The sensations of tone (translated by Alex. J. Ellis). London, 

1885. 
HEWITT, J. N. B. Orenda and a definition of religion; in Amer. Anthr., N. s., vol. 

iv, No. 1, 1902. 
HOFFMAN, WALTER JAMES, M. D. The Menomini Indians; in 14th Rep. Bur. Amer. 

Ethn. Washington, 1896. 

. The Mide'wiwin or "Grand Medicine Society" of the Ojibwa; in 7th Rep. 

Bur. Amer. Ethn. Washington, 1891. 
HORNBOSTEL, ERICH M. VON. Uber die Musik der Kubu; aus dem Phonogramm- 

archiv der psychologischen Institute der Universitat Berlin. Frankfurt am Mam, 

1908. 
HRDLIKA, ALES. Physiological and medical observations among the 

southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Bull. 34, Bur. Amer. 

Washington, 1908. 



334 AUTHORITIES CITED 

INDIAN TREATIES. A compilation of all the treaties between the United States and 

the Indian tribes now in force as laws. Washington, 1873. 
INDIAN TREATIES AND LAWS AND REGULATIONS relating to Indian affairs, compiled 

and published under orders of the Department of War. Washington, 1826. 
JACKSON, W. H. Descriptive catalogue of the photographs of the United States 

Geological Survey of the Territories for the years 1869 to 1873, inclusive. Wash- 
ington, 1874. 
KEATING, WM. H. Narrative of an expedition to the source of St. Peter's River, 

vols. i-n. Philadelphia, 1824. 

LACOMBE, ALBERT. Dictionnaire de la langue des Cris. Montreal, 1874. 
LA FLESCHE, FRANCIS. See FLETCHER. 

MARSDEN, WILLIAM. The history of Sumatra. London, 1811. 
MOCKLER-FERRYMAN. See DAY. 
MYERS, CHARLES S., M. A., M. D. In Reps. Camb. Anthr. Exped. Torres Straits, 

vol. iv. Cambridge, 1912. 
. The ethnological study of music; in Anthropological essays presented to 

Edward Burnett Tylor, etc. Oxford, 1907. 
RAMSEY, Gov. ALEXANDER; in U. S. Ind. Affs. Rep. for 1850. 
RICHET, CH. (EDITOR). Dictionnaire de physiologic. Paris, 1895-1909. 
RIDGWAY, R. See BAIRD, BREWER, AND RIDGWAY. 
RIGGS, S. R. Grammar and dictionary of the Dakota language; in Smithson. Contrs., 

vol. iv. Washington, 1852. 

ROYCE, C. C. Indian land cessions; in 18th Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethn., pt. 2. Washing- 
ton, 1899. 
SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. Oneo'ta, or characteristics of the Red Race of America. 

New York, 1845. 
SPECK, F. G. Ceremonial songs of the Creek and Yuchi Indians. Anthr. Pub. Mus. 

Univ. Penn., vol. I, No. 2, 1911. 

STONE, WITMER, AND GRAM, WILLIAM. American animals. New York, 1902. 
TORRANCE, G. W. Music of the Australian aborigines; in Jour. Anthr. Inst. Great 

Britain and Ireland. London, 1887. 

WARREN, WILLIAM W. History of the Ojibways. St. Paul, 1885. 
WEAD, CHARLES KASSON. Contribution to the history of musical scales; in Rep. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. 1900. Washington, 1902. 
ZOLLNER, HEINRICH. Eiiiiges uber sudanesische Musik; in Musikalisches Wochen- 

blatt. Leipzig, 1885. 



INDEX 



[NOTE. In instances in which only a few songs of a certain kind arc found in Bulletin 45, or in which 
these are of special importance, the numbers of such songs are given below, each preceded by an (*). 

For a list of the songs contained in this volume, see pages xi-xix, and of the authorities cited, pages 



333-334.] 



Page 
15 



ACCENTS, character of 

ACCIDENTALS 

containing sixth lowered a semitone, 
songs Nos. 7, 8, 19, 22, 41, 101, 156, 160. 

occurrence of 6 

tabular analysis 23 

A'JiDE'GulG, reference to 252 

A'KIWfiN'ZI 

. on the war badge 86 

reference to 60 

ANIMALS 

as features of dreams 199, 201 , 202, 203 

form of bear assumed by manido' 207 

songs connected with 16, 100, 101 

songs Nos. *1, 8, 23, *34, *41, *58, *60, 
*66, *67, *68, *69, 82, *85, *88, *89, 94, 
95, 96, *96, 97, 98, 99, *109, 114, 115, 
*1]9, 123, 124, 139, 146, 179, 180, *196, 
*197. 
ASABA, songs of the 7 

ASSINIBOIN 

begging dance songs derived from 228 

reference to 205 

AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES, songs of 7 

AwON'AKOM'lGlCKON', sketch of 252 

BAD RIVER CHIPPEWA 

on origin of drum 144 

reference to 143 

BAKER, DR. THEODOR, analysis of Indian 

songs by 5 

BANNER, use in warfare 91. 107 

BARAGA, on term manido' 143 

BARRETT, S. A., cited as an authority 142 

BARTH AND ROGER, on rhythm of adult heart 10 

BEAU, on rhythm of adult heart 10 

BEAULIEU, REV. C. H. 

acknowledgment to v 

reference to 42 

BEE MARTEN. See Kingbird. 
BEGGING DANCE SONGS 

description 47-48 

Lac du Flambeau Reservation 228-233 

resemblances to other song groups 56 

rhythmic units 329 

BEGINNINGS OF SONGS 

beginning and ending on same tone- 
on fifth song No. 112. 

on tonic, .songs Nos. 53, 125, 127, *132, 
*142, *149, *150, *170, *174, *197. 



BEGINNINGS OF SONGS Continued. 

beginning major, ending minor songs 

Nos. 67, *1 89. 

beginning minor, ending major song 

No. *192. 

by parts of measures 28 

with upward progressions of an octave. . . 

songs Nos. 9,31, 53, 125, *170, *174. 

BELLABELLA SONG, reference to ' 12 

BIcA'GANAB, story of 131 

BI'JIKNS 

in Drum-presentation Ceremony 166, 

168,170,171 

reference to 145 

BiMinjlG'AMAG BAND of Chippewa, reference 

to 222 

BI'Nlc6NS', reference to 127 

BIRDS 

connected with medicine poles 249-250 

imitated in dance 295 

songs connected with 16-17 

songs Nos. *3, 6, 20, 28, 85, 87, *8S, 94, 
*96, *119, *121, *128, *135, 141, 142, 
147, 153. 

BI'TAWAGi'.iiGo'KWE. See Gauthier. 
BOAS, FRANZ, cited as authority on Kwakiutl 

music 9 

BOY, CHIPPEWA WARRIOR. See (Jwi'wizans. 

BREATH, control of 15 

BO'GONEGi'jIo. See Hole-in-the-day. 
BUTTERFLY, reference to 179 

CA'GOBNS, reference to 127 

CARL, JOHN W. 

incident related by 130-131 

references to S3.303 

CA'WCNO'GA DANCE, descript ion of 129 

See also Southern dance songs. 
CHIPPEWA AND Sioux MUSIC, rhythmic cor- 
respondence of.. 11 

CHIPPEWA LANGUAGE, words incorporated 

With 76,186,190,230 

CHIPPEWA SONGS 

analysis of 340 songs- 
group analysis 18-33 

tabular analysis 34-^58 

connection between idea and musical 

form 50 

general nature 17 

manner of rendition 13-15 

335 



336 



INDEX 



CHIPPEWA SONGS Continued. Page 

material 2 - 13 

mostly major in tonality 17 

origin 15 ~ 17 

CHIPPEWA, useof term 59 

CHIPPEWA, warfare with Sioux . . 60-61, 70-71, 72-73 

See also Warfare. 
CHUBCH, GEORGE EARL, on use of rattle 

among Pampas Indians 94 

CLOUDS 

songs connected with 16 

songs Nos. 42, *131, 150, 151. 
COMPASS OF SONG, number of tones compos- 
ing 21 

COON AND CRAWFISH, story of 

COSTUME, WOMAN'S, description of 223-224 

CRAWFISH. See Coon and Crawfish. 

CREEK MUSIC, work on 

CRINGAN, A. T., on rate of movement in melo- 
dy and accompaniment 206 

CROSS LAKE SETTLEMENT, MINN. See Wa- 

ba'clfig. 
CULIN, STEWART, on Indian games 207 

DAKOTA, rtference to 70 

DANCING at Waba'cffig village.... 251-252,284-290 
DAY, CHARLES R., on songs of the Asaba 7 
DE'KUM, references to 121,122 

DIVISION OF A COUNT 

in Chippewa songs Nos. *6, 21, *108, 

*110, 117, 119, 131, 152, 153, 157, 159, 
161, 163. 

in Sioux songs Nos. 54, 62. 

DIVORCE, CEREMONY OF 

description ,---- 162-163 

reference to 149 

DJINGWA'KOMIGO'KWE, reference to 122 

DJi'siA'slNO'KWE, reference to 184 

DOG FEAST 

description of 68,91 

feature of Drum-presentation Ceremony. . 150, 

173-180 

DORSEY, JAMES OWEN, on the Dakota. . . 70 

DREAM DANCE. See Drum-presentation Cere- 
_mony. 

I DREAMS, connection with songs 16 

DREAM SONGS 

as war songs 40 

close relationships of 34 

description. 37-39 

Lac du Flambeau Reservation 198- 

203,244-247 

reference to 10 

resemblances to other song groups 52 

rhythmic units 314-317 

Waba'clfig village, Red Lake Reserva- 
tion 252-278 , 288-290 

DRUM 

as an accompaniment 15 

for moccasin game songs 44 

independent of voice 12-13 

in use at Waba'clng village 252 

metric unit 32, 33 

origin 143-144 

rhythm 10, 29, 41 

used in war songs 40 

See also Drum-presentation Ceremony. 



DRUM-PRESENTATION CEREMONY Page 

analysis of songs 181-183 

Ceremony of Divorce 162-163 

departure of Menominee 180 

dog feast 150,173-180 

drum party .* 147-148 

drums presented in 144-147 

" drum religion" 142-144 

journey of Menominee 163-165 

presentation of the drum 168-173 

reception of Menominee 164-168 

Restoring the Mourners 153-162 

songs on first day of dancing 150 



EJACULATIONS, characteristic of certain songs 103 

ENGLISH, MRS. MARY WARREN 

acknowledgment to V 

on use of scalps 126 

reference to 299 

E'NIWCB'E 

account of 184 

in Ceremony of Restoring the Mourners.. 153 

on origin of gambling 206-207 

on Sioux custom 228 

references to 204 , 205, 223, 294 

ENTERTAINMENT OF CHILDREN, songs for the . 

description 49-50 

Lac du Flambeau Reservation 241 

resemblances to other song groups 57-58 

rhythmic units 330 

White Earth Reservation 302-305 

FAST, BOY'S, songs concerning 204-206 

FASTING essential to certain musical compo- 
sition 37 

FIFTH OF THE SCALE 

absent from songs Nos. 51, 52. 

occurrence of 5 

FILLMORE, JOHN COMFORT 

cited as authority on Omaha music 9 

on Bellabella Indian song 12 

on construction of Indian songs 11 

FIRST NOTE OF SONG, relation to keynote. . . 18-19 

FLAG, use in warfare 91, 107 

FLETCHER, ALICE C., cited as authority on 

Omaha music 7 9 

FLUTE, description of 42 

FOLK-TALES, reference to 304-305 

FORM OF SONG, connection with motive of 

song 34 

FOURTH 

occurrence of 5 

prominence in. songs Nos. 106, 109, 110, 170 

GAGA'GINS, references to 123, 127 

GAGA'GlwtGWUN', reference to 91 

GAMBLING, account of 206-213 

GAME OF SILENCE, description of 303-304 

GAMES OF WAR, children's, description of. . 137-141 
GARDINER, WILLIAM, on call of plover and 

beetle 7 

GAUTHIER, MRS. BENJAMIN 

on women's dress 223 

sketch of 222 

GA'WITAYAC', death of 80 

GEGWE'DJIBI'TCN, reference to 252 

GE'MIWUNAC', reference to 74 

GIFT OF PONY, songs concerning 237-239 



INDEX 



337 



GIFTS, songs connected with Page 

description 4. 

resemblances to other song groups 5 

rhythmic units 329-33( 

GILFILLAN, REV. J. A. 

acknowledgment to 

on name Meja'kigi'jlg 83 

on term manido' 

OILMAN, BENJAMIN IVES, cited as an author- 
ity on Hopi music 

GINIC'TANO, reference to 222 

GOKAY, FRANK, as an interpreter 143, 165 

GRADATION OF TONE, discussion of 14-15 

GRAM. See Stone and Gram. 

GRAND MEDICINE SONGS. See MIde' songs. 

GWI'WIZANS, reference to is 1 

HAND GAME, description of 206. 207 

HARMONIC IN STRUCTURE, applicable to few 

songs 6 

HARMONIC TONE, approach to by tone above 
songs Nos. 29, 45, 51, 53, 65, 137, 139, 141. 

HARMONIC UPPER PARTIAL TONES, reference 
to 4 

HEAD FLIER, reference to 105 

HELMHOLTZ 

cited as an authority 231 

on overtones and pentatonic scales 4-5 

on scales in European notation 14 

HEWITT, J. N. B., cited as an authority 03 

HOFFMAN, WALTER JAMES, M. D., cited as an 
authority 66, 142 

HOLE-IN-THE-DAY 

references to 61, 71, 119, 127 

song composed by 123 

HOPI MUSIC, work on 9 

HORNBOSTEL, DR. ERICH M. VON, on rhythm 

of voice and drum 13 

HORSES, use of 186 

HRDLICKA, DR. ALE, acknowledgments to.. 19,37 

INTERVAL-FORMATION in various song groups . 7-8 
INTERVALS 
average- 
in Chippewa songs 8 

in songs connected with gifts 49 

average number of semitones in 26 

in downward and upward progression ... 25 

in melody-formation, feeling for 7-8 

of the fifth song No. 86. 

of the fourth 

in songs concerning animals. .Nos. *3, 

*21, 23, 28, 64, 82, 85, 95, 96, 

97, 103, 104, 147, 180, *196. 

in songs of motion. .Nos. *6, *9, *10, 22, 

32, 34, 39, *63, *86, *91, 105, 106, 109, 

*109,110,111, I21,*132, 162, 170,174. 

INTONATIONS, FAULTY 

correction of songs Nos. 54, 

129, 133, 146, 164. 

on interval of a second, .songs Nos. 54, 55, 
61,64,100,145,166. 

JACKSON, W. H., cited as an authority 61 

KAGA'GIWAYAN', Chippewa chief, reference 

to 294 

KEATING, WILLIAM H., cited as an authority. 59 

67996 Bull. 5313 22 



] ' t - c 



KEY 

meaning of term 

tabular analysis " 26^27 

KEYNOTE, determination of ........ '.'. ... '.'. 3.4 

KI'MIWON, reference to 

KI'MIWONANA'KWAD, reference to! ..' 

KINGBIRD, reference to 77 _ 78 

KI'OSE'WINI'NI, on moccasin game 211 

KI'TCio'DjA'NiMWEWEGi'jlG, medicine pole 

249-250 

KWAKIUTL MUSIC, work on g 

LAC DU FLAMBEAU CHIPPEWA 

Ceremony of Restoring the Mourners .... 153 

on origin of drum 144 

references to ^ 143 

LAC DU FLAMBEAU RESERVATION, Wis. 

description 184 

folk-tales 304 

songs of 

analysis 242-247 

begging dance songs 228-233 

dream songs 198-215 

interval-formation 7 _g 

love songs 216-228 

moccasin game songs 239-241 

song for entertainment of children ... 241 

songs concerning gift of pony 237-239 

southern dance songs 234-237 

war songs 185-198 

symbols of songs never sung 247-250 

See also Lac du Flambeau Chippewa. 
LA FLESCHE, FRANCIS, cited as an authority 

on Omaha music 9 

LAHOUSSE, reference to 10 

LA POINTE AGENCY, Wis., reference to 184 

LAST NOTE OF SONG, relation to- 
compass of song 20 

keynote 19 

LEECH LAKE RESERVATION, dog feast on. . 173-180 

LITTLE CARP, death of. 113 

LITTLE CORN, reference to 113 

LITTLE CROW, references to 123, 127 

LITTLE EAGLE, reference to 91 

LITTLE Six, reference to 127 

LOVE SONGS 

accidentals in 6 

description 16, 17,41-13 

Lac du Flambeau Reservation 216-228, 

244-247 

resemblances to other song groups 53-54 

rhythmic units 325-327 

Waba'clng village 280-282, 288-290 

White Earth Reservation 299-301 

words of 2 

MA'DJIGI'JIG 

on Chippewa war charm 77 

on training of young warriors 84-86 

reference to 60 

MAIN'GANS 

on herb bi'jlkiwuck'. 63-64, 65 

reference to 60 

MANDA'M!NES, reference to 1 13 

MANIDO' 

ca'wuno'ga taught by 129 

connection with origin of drum 144 

explanation of term 143 



338 



INDEX 



MANIDO' Continued. 

gambling taught by 207 

in connection with Dram-presentation 

Ceremony 166 

in form of thunderbirds 198 

Mi'NlTOWlc'B AND of Chippewa, reference to . 222 

MAPLE SUGAR, reference to . . 231-232 

MARSDEN, WILLIAM, on Sumatran music 7 
MEANINGLESS SYLLABLES, use of. . . 13 

MEASURE-LENGTHS, determined by accents. . 15 
MEC'KAWIGA'BAU 

on Drum-presentation Ceremony 146 

references to 148, 173, 179, 184 

MEDICINE 

manido' animal as 143 

principal kinds 63-67 

songs connected with 15, 35 

songs Nos. 6, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 32,36,141,142,143. 

use in warfare 91, 98, 99, 102-103, 107, 112 

MEDICINE-MEN, treatment of sick by 263-264 

MEDICINE POLES, description of 247-250 

ME'DWEYA'stN 

dram presented by 146 

medicine poles connected with 249 

MEE, MRS. CHARLES, acknowledgment to. . . 300 
MEJA'KIGI'JIG 

personal reminiscences of 83-84 

reference to 60 

MELODIC RESEMBLANCES between song groups 50-58 

MEMEN'GWA, reference to 179 

MENOMINEE, references to 142, 143 

See also Drum-presentation Ceremony. 
METRIC UNIT ' 

in songs of controlled excitement 12 

songs Nos. 30, 51, 52, 103, 161. 

of drum, tabular analysis 33 

of voice, tabular analysis 30-31, 33 

MlDE' 

description 142 

manido' connected with 143 

MlDE 'SONGS 

description 16, 34-36 

ejaculations in 103 

meaningless syllables 13 

reference to 10 

reference to water 17 

resemblances to other song groups 51-52 

rests in 15 

rhythmic units 309-314 

sadness and sickness elements in 17 

use of rattle in 15 

Waba'cmg village 278-280, 288-290 

White Earth Reservation 297-299 

words of 2 

MlDE'wiGi'jlG, reference to 185 

MlDE'wfwlN 

ceremonies 184 

conditions at Waba'cmg 251 

status of 34 

Mi'GlslNS', reference to 91 

MINOR THIRD 

average interval in Chippewa songs 8 

descending, in moccasin game songs 44 

frequency of 6-7 

in dream songs 39 

43 



MINOR THIRD Continued. Page 

prominence in songs of major tonality. . . 
songs Nos. 140, 141, 151, 161, 163. 
MINOR THIRD AND FOURTH, only tones in 
songs Nos. 11, *157, 171. 

MINOR TRIAD AND MINOR SEVENTH, in songs 

Nos. 133, 147, 151, 152, 153, 154, 163. 
MISSISSIPPI BAND of Chippewa, references to . . 89, 91 

MOCCASIN GAME, description of 207, 210-213 

MOCCASIN GAME SONGS 

description 17, 44-45 

Lac du Flambeau Reservation 239-241 

proportion minor in tonality 17 

resemblances to other song groups 54-55 

rhythmic units 327-328 

Waba'cmg village 282-284, 288-290 

White Earth Reservation 299 

MO'KADJIWENS', reference to 73 

MOONEY, JAMES, acknowledgment to 37 

MOTION, characteristic of certain songs 100 

MOTIVE OF SONG, connection with form of 

song 34 

MURRAY ISLAND, songs of 5,20 

MYERS, DR. C. S. 

on rhythm of voice and drum 13 

on songs of Murray Islanders 5, 20 

on words of primitive songs 2 

NA'GANAC', references to 165, 167 

NAMF/BINES', death of 113 

NA'OGADE', Winnebago chief, reference to ... 294 
NARCOTIC STIMULANTS, influence on musical 

composition 37 

NA'WAJI'BIGO'KWE 

on certain medicinal herb 65-66 

on Chippewa belief in spirits 143 

on origin of ca'wuno'ga. .' 129 

reference to 60 

NlSKl'GWtN 

on incident of warpath 112 

references to 60,78-79 

No'DlN, reference to , 75 

OCTAVE 

complete except seventh and fourth, 

songs so classified 5-6 

diatonic, occurrence of 5 

ODJA'NTMWEWE'GIJlGONS'. . iS C White 

Feather. 

ODjlB'WE 

account of 59-60, 62, 112, 121, 123 

incidents of warpath narrated by 116, 124 

on Battle of Shakopee 79-80 

on children's games of war 137, 139 

on making of peace 126, 127 

on war customs 98,108,110,118 

songs in honor of 121, 122 

war songs of 7-8 

OGlMA'wODjrwEB', reference to 109 

O JIBWAY, derivation of name 59 

OLDYS, HENRY, on the kingbird 77-78 

OMAHA MUSIC, work on 9 

OMlsKWA'WEGi'JlGO'KWE, reference to 110 

OVERTONES, meaning of term 4 

PEACE PACT, songs of the 126-130 

PERIODS, song in four songs Nos. 1, 

8,12,13,30,39,40,81,105. 



INDEX 



339 



Page 

PHONOGRAPHIC RECORDING, accuracy in 8 

PHRASES, order of changed in repetition of 

songs songs Nos. 90,105. 

PIPE 

in connection with peace pact 127, 128 

in "drum religion" 143 

in songs Nos. *6, 11, *20, 45, 50, 171 , 172, 173. 

use by war leader ' 94 

use in Drum-presentation Ceremony . . . 146, 

147, 166, 168-169 

PIPE DANCE, description of 293-294 

PIPE DANCE SONGS 

description 48 

resemblances to other song groups 56 

rhythmic units 329 

White Earth Reservation 293-296 

PLATE GAME, description of 206, 207 

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN, TREATY OF 61 

PRIMITIVE MUSIC 

interval of minor third in 7 

rhythms of 13 

PROGRESSIONS 

downward and upward 24-25 

upward 

none in song No. 6. 

of an octave, in songs Nos. 9, 31, 53, 

125, *170, *174. 
one in song No. *109. 
two in songs Nos. *6, *38, 172. 

RAMSEY, Gov. ALEXANDER, cited as an 

authority 59 

RATTLE 

as an accompaniment 15 

reference to 34 

use on warpath 94 

RED LAKE RESERVATION, stories from 304 

RESTORING THE MOURNERS, description of 

ceremony 149, 153-162 

RESTS, occurrence of 15 

songs Nos. *3, *6, *7, *69, *78, *83, 86, 

*129, *137, *148, *152, *164, 171. 
RHYTHM 

of drum 10,29,41 

.of first measure 9,28 

more uniform than melody 1-2 

RHYTHMIC RESEMBLANCES between song 

groups - - 50-58 

RHYTHMIC UNIT 

as basis for rhythm of song in separated 

phrases or with change of accent . . 

songs Nos. 90, 94, 96, 103, 108, 109, 115, 123. 

continuous except at close of song, .songs 

Nos. 4,5,19,33,34. 

definition ---- 10>31 

in groups of Chippewa songs- 
begging dance songs 329 

dream songs 314-317 

love songs 325-327 

Mlde' songs 309-314 

moccasin game songs 327-328 

pipe dance songs 

songs connected with gifts 329-330 

songs for entertainment of children . . 330 

tabular analysis 

unclassified songs 330-332 



Page 
RHYTHMIC UNIT Continued. 

in groups of Chippewa aongs Continued . 

war songs 31S-325 

woman's dance songs 328 

manner of use io_i i 

occurrence in Chippewa song.* 11 

same in Sioux songs Nos. 73, 77. 
three units hi song No. 157. 
two units in songs Nos. 17, 47, 73, 74, 121, 
128. 

RICHET, CH., reference to 10 

ROCK Sioux. See Assiniboin. 
ROGER. See Earth and Roger. 
ROSE, DR. J. N., on certain medicinal herbs. . 64 

" SALT TREATY," reference to 291 

SCALE 

diatonic minor, larking fourth and 

seventh songs Nos. 83, 

125,*178,*184. 
five- toned 

extent of use 4-5 

fifth songs Nos. 51,52. 

first song No. 116. 

fourth songs Nos. 3,6,8, 16, 

18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 26, 31, 40, 41, 42, 
45, 47, 63, 66, 68, 80, 81, 86, 87, 98, 
101, 117, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 
135, 140, 142, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 
151, 152, 154, 159, 162, 163, 165, 166. 

least frequent in love songs 43 

second 44 

songs Nos. 1, 17, 24, 30, 34, 44, 82, 

89,92,97,108,109,122,164. 
SCALP DANCE. Sec Victory dance. 
SCALPING 

customs connected with 62 

in connection with women 110 

SCALPS 

in victory dance 118,121 

treatment of 126 

&CHOOLCRAFT, H. R., cited as to plate game. . 207 

SECOND OF THE SCALE, occurrence of 5 

SEMITONES, average number in each interval . 26 

SEVENTH OF THE SCALE, occurrence of 5 

SHAKOPEE, BATTLE OF 61.76-77,79-80 

SHELL, emblem of Mlde'wlwln 

SIGNS used in transcription of songs xix-xx, 14 

SINGERS, names of 

Sioux- 
authors of "drum religion" 142,143,144 

custom with regard to children. . . 
dog feast received from. . . 
lack of horses among... 

vibrato used by 

warfare with Chippewa 60-61,70-71,72-73 

See also Assiniboin, Dakota, Warfare. 

SlOUX SONGS 

containing same rhythmic unit 

songs Nos. 73,77. 

division of a count songs Nos. 54, 62 . 

two rhythmic units . . . .songs Nos. 73,74. 
SIXTH- 

lowered a semitone 

songsNos.7,8, 19,22,41, 101, 156, 160. 
occurrence of 5 6 



340 



INDEX 



Page 

SKY, songs connected with the 16 

songs Nos. 7, 25, *46, *64, *83, *97, *115, 
*116, *117, 140, 145, 148, *148, 152, *162, 
*193, *194. 

SONG GROUPS, resemblances between 50-58 

SONGS, list of xi-xix 

SOUTHERN DANCE SONGS, Lac du Flambeau 

Reservation 234-237 

See also Ca'wuno'ga. 

SPEARS, MRS. JULIA WARREN, sketch of. . . 299-300 
SPECK, FRANK G., as authority on Creek and 

Yuchi music -' 

STONE, WITMER, AND WILLIAM GRAM, cited 

as an authority 63 

STRUCTURE OF SONGS, tabular analysis 24 

SUDANESE MUSIC, work on '0 

SUN DANCE, reference to 205 

SUPERNATURAL POWER 

as an element in MIde' songs 17, 35 

in connection with Chippewa songs.. 15-16,37 

SYNCOPATIONS 

songs Nos. 47, 88, *123, *147, *152. 

TEMPO 

change of 29 

of drum in relation to voice songs 

Nos. *5, 100-101, 103-104, 121-122, 168. 
THIRD OF THE SCALE 

absent from songs Nos. 28, *45, *49, 53, *60, 
*91, 112, 113, 121, 178, 180. 

occurrence of . '. 5 

THUNDERBIRDS, references to 198, 248 

TIME. See Tempo. 
TONALITY- 
maj cr- 
in various groups of songs 35 

minor third prominent songs 

Nos. 140,141,151,161,163. 

meaning of term 3 

minor 

beginning with a major third., songs 
Nos. 1,9, 34, 83, 94, 120. 

in woman's dance songs 46 

semitone between 7 and 8 songs 

Nos. 36, *79, 100, 119. 

songs containing large proportion of 

major thirds . . songs Nos. 29, 83, 99. 

whole tone between 7 and 8. . . songs 

Nos. 9, *19, 50, 85, 100, 

119, 124, *126, *150. 

tabular analysis 18 

TONE MATERIAL, tabular analysis of 21-23 

TONIC, more prominent in middle than at end 

of song songs 

Nos. 135, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142. 165. 
TORRANCE, REV. G. W., on songs of Austra- 
lian aborigines 7 

UNCLASSIFIED SONGS, group of 50 

VIBRATO, use of 13 

VICTORY DANCE 

description 121 

drum-rhythm 41 

scalps in " m i 18 

VOCABLES, use of 13 



VOICE- p a ge 

independent of drum 12-13 

metric unit 30-31 , 33 

woman's, register of '. . 103 

WAB A'CA, Sioux chief, reference to 294 

WABA'CING VILLAGE, Red Lake Reservation- 
conditions at 251-252 

songs of 

dance songs 284-290 

dream songs 252-278, 288-290 

interval-formation in 7-8 

. love songs 280-282, 288-290 

MIde' songs 278-280, 288-290 

moccasin game songs 282-284, 288-290 

WA'BACSNS', reference to 127 

WA'BEJIC', reference to 127 

WAR CHARM, description of 77-78, 107 

WAR DECORATIONS, description of 62-63 

WAR DRUM, description of 62 

WARFARE between Chippewa and Sioux- 
account of 79-80 

incidents of 85-86, 113, 123, 124, 131, 132, 133 

care of wounded 106-107 

children's games of war 137-141 

dream songs used in 252-253 

on the warpath 94-117 

organization of war party 87-94 

peace pacts 126-130 

return of victorious war party 118-126 

WARREN, RICHARD, reference to 300 

WARREN, WILLIAM W. 

cited as an authority 59, 108 

reference to 299 

WARRIORS, training of 84-86 

WAR SONGS 

close relationships of . 34 

connected with organization of war party . 87-94 

description 17, 40-41 

expressing derision songs Nos. 14, 38. 

Lac du Flambeau Reservation. . 185-198, 244-247 

reference to 10 

resemblances to other song groups 53 

rhythmic units 318-325 

songs concerning women 130-134 

songs of the warpath 94-117 

songs on return of victorious war party . 118-126 
White Earth Reservation, analysis of. . 134-137 

words of 2 

WASI'KWADE', Chippewa chief, reference to. . 294 

WATER, songs connected with 16, 17 

songs Nos. 9, *27, *28, *29, *30, *31, *32, 
*33, 43, *54, 101. 

WAVERING TONE, use of 13 

WEAD, CHARLES KASSON 

acknowledgment to 19 

work by cited 42 

WEASEL, reference to 63 

WHITE EARTH RESERVATION 

analysis of songs 306-308 

love songs. 299-301 

MIde' songs 297-299 

miscellaneous songs 291-293 

moccasin game song 299 

pipe dance songs 293-296 

songs for entertainment of children 302-305 



INDEX 



341 



WHITE FEATHER Page 

in Ceremony of Restoring the Mourners. . 151- 

155, 157 
in Drum-presentation Ceremony 1(15-100 

WILLPOWER songs Nos. S3, 114. 

WIND, songs connected with the 10 

songs Nos. 19, *112, *113, 149. 

WlS'KlNO 

drum presented to 145 

in Drum-presentation Ceremony 106, 107, 

108,170,171 

Menominee received by 105-108 

on "drum religion" 143 

WOMAN'S DANCE, description 38, 284 

WOMAN'S DANCE SONGS 

description 45-40 

resemblances to other song groups 55 

rhythmic units 328 



WOMEN Page 

members of drum party 147 

part in warfare 93, 1 10, 113, US, 12X, 131 

songscornposed or sung by., songs Nos. 31, 
39,40,112,127,151,177,178. 

style of dress 223-224 

war songs concerning 130-134 

WORDS INCORPORATED into ( 'hippewa 70, 

186,190,230 

WORDS OF SONGS changed to "fit" music. . . 90, 109, 
111, 113, 131. 1XS 

Y uc i n M u sic , wor k on . . . 9 



ZOLLNER, HKINRICH, as authority on Sudan- 
ese music 9 

ZON'GAXOM'IG, reference to 12 




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